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Explicit Direct Instruction

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Explicit Direct Instruction Critical Elements ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Explicit Direct Instruction


1
Explicit Direct Instruction
  • Critical Elements

2
Teaching Grade Level Content
  • The higher the grade the greater the disparity
  • Test Scores go up when students are taught grade
    level content.
  • Students perform no higher than the assignments
    given
  • Students cannot learn what they are not taught.

3
Powerful Effects on Student Learning
  • The Taught Curriculum
  • Instructional - typical classroom practice
  • Assessment
  • Formative influence instructional decisions
  • Accountability identify students for
    interventions
  • Staff Development
  • Implementation practice and feedback

4
Effective Teaching
  • Effective research based proven strategies
  • Efficient maximizing learning in the shortest
    amount of time.
  • Provides an emphasis on making sense
  • Relevant Connected to real life applications

5
Cognitive Learning Strategies
  • Rehearsal
  • Simple repetition
  • Cumulative repetition
  • Copying material
  • Note taking
  • Underlining text
  • Guided practice
  • Independent practice

6
Cognitive Learning Strategies
  • Elaboration Strategies
  • Mnemonics
  • Imagery
  • Paraphrasing
  • Predicting
  • Summarizing
  • Creating metaphors, analogies or similes
  • Asking and answering questions

7
Cognitive Learning Strategies
  • Organizational Strategies
  • Clustering
  • Mnemonics
  • Selecting Main Idea
  • Outlining
  • Mapping

8
Cognitive Learning Strategies
  • Pattern Recognition helps learn concepts
  • Generalization
  • Examples
  • Matched non-examples
  • Action Sequence Knowledge
  • Procedural Steps

9
Learning Objectives
  • Situation
  • A measurable student behavior
  • What the student will be able to do as a result
    of instruction
  • Why are objectives important?
  • Instructional purpose is clear
  • Must align to the independent practice

10
Learning Objectives
  • Must be based upon the content standards
  • Content standards are deconstructed
  • Language must be precise
  • To write
  • To list
  • To analyze
  • To solve

11
Checking for Understanding
  • Provides the earliest measure of whether students
    are learning the content.
  • Continuous CFU is the backbone of Effective
    teaching
  • Feedback from CFU allows the teacher to make
    instructional decisions during the lesson.

12
Checking for Understanding
  • Madeline Hunter defined teaching as
  • A conscious stream of decisions before, during
    and after instruction to maximize the probability
    of learning taking place

13
Instructional Questioning
  • Teach
  • Ask the question
  • Pause
  • Pick a student
  • Listen
  • Encourage or Elaborate if necessary

14
Instructional Questioning
  • Individual
  • Group
  • Random non-volunteers
  • White Boards
  • Students must prove their comprehension
  • CFU on what was just taught
  • CFU interspersed continually throughout lessons

15
Instructional Questioning
  • Think time
  • Go Kinetic white boards all students show
    answers at the same time.
  • Popsicle sticks numbering systems, etc.
  • Time to find an answer
  • Paraphrase higher level

16
Feedback Hunter - RLL
  • Timely - specific feedback closely aligned to
    improved student achievement.
  • Correct student errors as soon as they begin
    making them!
  • Needs to be provided throughout lessons as
    needed.
  • During presentations Guided Practice
  • Reactive following independent practice

17
Preview - Review
  • Purpose is to activate prior knowledge
  • All new learning is based upon prior learning
    the brain associates new learning with long term
    memory to make sense of the new content.

18
Preview - Review
  • Preview
  • New material to be presented by activating -
    connecting to prior knowledge or experiences
  • Persuasive trying to convince your mom to let
    you stay up later real life experience

19
Preview - Review
  • Review
  • Material that has been presented previously that
    deals with the lesson reviews content students
    have already been taught. makes explicit
    connections
  • This past week we have been studying about
    settings. The critical elements of a setting
    include.

20
Preview - Review
  • Students prior knowledge activated
  • Pertinent sub skill taught
  • Students are told the connection to the new
    material to be taught.
  • The idea is to make the learning of the new
    content easier for the students by connecting to
    something they already know.
  • CFU

21
Explanation
  • Definitions
  • Examples
  • Non examples
  • Modeling
  • Process

22
Explanation
  • What it is making sense the big idea
    concept the pattern
  • Definition, rules, steps, etc
  • Why it is important
  • Relevance to real life associated with brain
    research
  • How it is done
  • CFU at each point

23
Modeling
  • Teacher as expert
  • Modeling is a powerful method of instruction
  • Teacher provides inner thoughts
  • This is how I do it first I .
  • Strategic solutions
  • Modeling is important because students are seeing
    and hearing how experts solve problems
    strategies, methods of remembering, how decisions
    are made

24
Modeling
  • CFU
  • What was I thinking when
  • How did I remember.
  • How did I decide

25
Demonstration
  • Big Idea
  • Physical demonstration or showing how to do
    something.
  • Not practical for every lesson
  • Why Important
  • Accommodates visual and kinesthetic learners
  • Visual 46
  • Auditory 19
  • Kinesthetic 35

26
Demonstration
  • How it is done
  • Teacher explains what, why or how while using a
    physical object.
  • For maximum benefit students also have objects

27
Guided Practice
  • Works problems with the students at the same time
  • Works every type of problem that the students
    will be asked to do independently
  • Provides many examples and non-examples

28
Guided Practice
  • Important
  • Students are directly supervised by the teacher
    who can correct misunderstanding quickly and
    efficiently.
  • The best way is to begin working through problems
    slowly for example a three step problem
  • CFU after each step

29
Guided Practice
  • Purpose
  • Provide practice rehearsal for learning to
    occur
  • Provide immediate feedback ensure correct
    thinking
  • Determine if additional teaching is needed
  • Ensure student comprehension prior to assigning
    independent practice

30
Closure
  • Prime instructional time
  • Students show what they have learned
  • Closure is not a summary by the teacher
  • Closure is a final checking for understanding
  • Did the students master the objective?
  • Is more guided practice needed?
  • Is more teaching needed altered instructional
    strategy?

31
Independent Practice
  • Massed practice for efficient learning
  • Short intense practice sessions produce more
    learning than fewer but longer sessions.
  • Distributed Practice
  • Multiple practice sessions spread out over a
    period of time
  • Increases probability that the learning is stored
    in long term memory
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