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Reading for the Main Idea and Author

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Chapter 2 Reading for the Main Idea and Author s Purpose – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Reading for the Main Idea and Author


1
Chapter 2
  • Reading for the Main Idea and Authors Purpose

2
Objectives
  • This chapter will help you improve your
    comprehension by showing you how to identify the
  • Main idea in paragraphs
  • Placement of the main idea
  • Implied main ideas
  • Levels of supportmajor and minor supporting
    details
  • Authors purpose and modes of discourse

3
Main Idea in Paragraphs
  • Why the paragraph?
  • Reading entails the paragraphs in many sizes
  • Nonfiction
  • The paragraph is the fundamental unit of written
    thought
  • Reading for pleasure
  • ditto

4
Main Idea and Controlling Idea
  • Is the first sentence of a paragraph always the
    topic sentence?
  • No, this is very misleading
  • To assume that the first sentence is the main
    point may result in inaccurate comprehension

5
Main Idea and Controlling Idea
  • The main idea
  • Consists of two parts
  • Topic
  • General subject
  • Controlling idea
  • A descriptive word or phrase
  • It limits, qualifies, or narrows the topic to
    make the larger subject manageable

6
Main Idea and Controlling Idea
  • Topic Controlling Idea Main Idea
  • Learning is a lifelong endeavor.
  • A lifelong endeavor is learning.
  • The topic and controlling idea do not change.
  • A well-constructed paragraph is restricted on
    which details are used.

7
Main Idea and Controlling Idea
  • Go to pp. 46-47 and do Practice Exercise 1

8
Main Idea and Controlling Idea
  • Practice Exercise 1 answers
  • With the help of the topic being underlined
    once, it is much easier to identify the
    controlling idea, isnt it?
  • for a host of reasons
  • a narcotic that offers
  • There has always beenapparent
  • a land of paradoxes
  • the color of the dust
  • Such a simple inventiondiscovery
  • nocturnal and poisonous and alien
  • Symbolizes to mecity
  • How did you do?

9
Placement of the Main Idea
  • Thank goodness for textbooks! They are easy to
    use when spotting the main idea. Why?
  • Visual aids gt graphic elements
  • As a college reader, you must learn to cope with
    diverse writing styles and techniques, requiring
    you to rewrite some of the rules you may have
    been taught in the past.

10
Placement of the Main Idea
  • The chain of ideas
  • Use the strategy of paraphrasing in order to find
    the main idea.
  • Create your own title for the passage.
  • What is the main idea of the passage on the
    Ohlones from p. 49-50?
  • What did you write?

11
Placement of the Main Idea
  • You could have written
  • Although the Ohlone Indians were Stone-Age
    people with only primitive tools at their
    disposal, they treated deer hunting with
    reverence.

12
Implied Main Ideas
  • When a writer suggests the main idea by providing
    various details, the main idea is implied, or not
    explicitly stated.
  • Now, do Practice Exercise 2, found on pp. 51-52.

13
Implied Main Ideas
  • Practice Exercise 2, pp. 51-52 answers
  • A. a
  • B. b
  • C. d
  • D. (suggested answer) Salt deities, usually
    female, are found in many Native American
    cultures.
  • E. (suggested answer) Keeping several hundred
    animals fed and healthy in a zoo requires
    knowledge, flexibility, and patience.

14
Levels of SupportMajor and Minor Supporting
Details
  • Can you recognize and separate major and minor
    details? It is an important thinking skill.
  • Major statements directly relate to and develop
    the main idea.
  • Minor statements further explain, illustrate, or
    otherwise develop the major statements.

15
Levels of SupportMajor and Minor Supporting
Details
  • Main Idea
  • Major Support
  • Minor Support
  • Major Support
  • Minor Support
  • Major Support
  • Minor Support

This diagram can be recreated into a graphic
organizer. For you, what would you create
graphically?
16
The Authors Purpose and Modes of Disclosure
  • The mode of discourse refers to the kind of
    writing which is done in nonfiction prose.
  • How might you identify discourse?
  • Ask yourself Why is the writer writing and what
    does he want to accomplish?

17
The Authors Purpose and Modes of Disclosure
  • The mode of discourse refers to the kind of
    writing which is done in nonfiction prose.

18
The Authors Purpose and Modes of Disclosure
  • There are four modes
  • Narration gt to personally or indirectly tell
  • Description gt how something looks or feels
  • The writer shows a visual picture of a particular
    scene, not a generalized one based on a composite
    of many such scenes
  • Figures of speech may also be used
  • There usually is not a sentence stating the main
    idea but a dominant impression

19
The Authors Purpose and Modes of Disclosure
  • Exposition gt to inform, explain
  • The most common kind of reading you will
    encounter in your college courses
  • Objective writing with a straightforward purpose
    to inform, to explain, to make clear, to discuss,
    to set forth.
  • It is usually factual, consistent with the
    purpose of informing
  • Subject matter is presented without trying to
    influence our opinions or emotions or to
    criticize or argue

20
The Authors Purpose and Modes of Disclosure
  • Persuasion gtlt argumentation
  • Argumentation refers to writing that is supported
    by logical evidence in defense of a specific
    issue
  • Based on emotion or opinion
  • Persuasion is an attempt to change another
    persons feelings or opinions by using emotional
    or ethical appeals.
  • Controversy
  • May use facts to prove a point

21
The Authors Purpose and Modes of Disclosure
  • Now, do Practice Exercise 4, found on pp. 63-66.
  • Identify the mode of discourse
  • Give the main idea or dominant expression of each
    passage

22
The Authors Purpose and Modes of Disclosure
  • Practice Exercise 4, pp. 63-66 answers.
  • Exposition
  • The fossil record tells the history of life and
    provides evidence of how life forms evolved from
    simple to complex forms.
  • Persuasion
  • To preserve biodiversity and to prevent a future
    catastrophic die-off, we need to decide how best
    to stop the accelerating trend of species become
    extinct.

23
The Authors Purpose and Modes of Disclosure
  • Practice Exercise 4, pp. 63-66 answers.
  • Description
  • Despite evidence of destruction as a result of
    war, the country road, fields, and mountains the
    writer observed were still beautiful.
  • Description and exposition
  • The plants and wildlife in this desert are
    poisonous and otherwise harmful to those who come
    in contact with them.

24
The Authors Purpose and Modes of Disclosure
  • Practice Exercise 4, pp. 63-66 answers.
  • Exposition and persuasion
  • The relationship between blue jeans and youthful
    rebellion against the older generation has been
    strongly evident for the last 50 years.

25
Assignments
  • Now, reread how to do Assignments and follow
    directions for Ch. 2.
  • Submit through the Assignment dropbox as
    directed. Remember to head your .doc with your
    name as shown in the Assignment directions.
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