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26 The Social Movements Of The 1970

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Title: 26 The Social Movements Of The 1970


1
26 The Social Movements Of The 1970s
2
Vocabulary
  • SCLC Southern Christian Leadership Conference
  • SNCC Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee
  • Sit ins
  • Freedom rides
  • NOW National Organization of Women
  • Anti-Vietnam War Movement
  • Cesar Chavez United Farm Workers Movement
  • Rachel Carsons Silent Spring
  • Earth Day
  • EPA Environment Protection Agency
  • WQA Water Quality Act
  • Rise of the Conservative Movement
  • Candidacy of Barry Goldwater (1964)
  • Election of Richard M. Nixon (1968)

3
SCLC SNCC
Founding 1957 MLK, Ella Baker and other Civil Rights Ministers, formed after Montgomery Bus Boycott which led the SC in 1956 to rule in favor of a lower court decision that segregated seats are unconstitutional 1960 Ella Baker organized college students AA college students with 800 received from SCLC
Goal Carry on nonviolent crusades Speed up mandates by Brown vs. Board of Education
Original Task Marches, protests, demonstrations throughout South using churches as base Sit-in at segregated lunch counters registering AA to vote in hope that they could influence Congress
Later tactics Registering AA to vote so they could influence Congress Freedom rides on interstate buses to determine if southern states would enforce laws against segregation in public transportation
Original Membership Average AA adults and white adults AA and white college students whites at first but later all AA
Later Membership Same as original AA only
Original Philosophy Nonviolence nonviolence
Later Philosophy Same as original Militancy and violence Black Power and AA Pride
4
SNCC Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
  • 1960 black college students from N.C. AT
    University refused to leave a Woolworth's lunch
    counter in Greensboro, North Carolina.
  • Sparked other students to participate
  • SNCC (pronounced "snick") created at Shaw
    University in Raleigh by Ella Baker, to
    coordinate national protest group

5
SNCC Student Non-Violent
Coordinating Committee
  • SNCC Sit-Ins, Freedom Rides, and other protests
    gave young blacks a larger role in the civil
    rights movement
  • Black Panther Party (Black Power)- goal of Black
    Power was to empower and create a strong racial
    identity for African-Americans some used
    violence and militancy

6
Sit-Ins- a form of demonstration in which the
protesters sit down in segregated businesses and
refuse to leave until they are servedby the end
of 1960 SNCC had desegregated 48 lunch counters
in 11 states
7
  • Freedom Rides
  • first Freedom Ride May 4, 1961.
  • Led by James Farmer, 13 riders 7 black, 6 white
  • left Washington DC on Greyhound and Trailways
    buses.
  • PLAN ride ? VA, the Carolinas, GA, AL, MS, end
    in New Orleans, Louisiana.
  • 2 riders were from SNCC.
  • Many were in their 40s and 50s.

8
FREEDOM RIDERS
  • Civil Rights activists called Freedom Riders rode
    in interstate buses into the segregated southern
    United States to test the United States Court
    decision Boynton v. Virginia, (1960) which
    declared integration in all interstate travel
    facilities
  • The first Freedom Ride left Washington, DC on May
    4, 1961, and was scheduled to arrive in New
    Orleans on May 17.

9
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
  • Found in 1957
  • Purpose to carry on NONVIOLENT crusades against
    the evils of second-class citizenship
  • 1st director of SCLC was Ella Baker, the
    granddaughter of slaves.
  • In April 1960, Baker helped students at Shaw
    University, an African-American unviersity in
    Raleigh, to organize SNCC

10
SCLC
  • Tactics marches, protests, demonstrations,
    register African Americans to vote
  • Non-violence

11
Vietnam War 1959-1975
  • most vocal antiwar movement in US history
  • gained national prominence in 1965
  • Anti-draft movement on college campuses very
    strong but movement attracted all classes of
    people
  • Used similar tactics as Civil Rights Movement
  • Sit-ins, marches, demonstrations
  • RADICALS burn flags draft cards, go to prison,
    flee to Canada

12
Doves ? strongly opposed the war Hawks ?
supported U.S. involvement
13
National Organization for Women
  • Founded in 1966 to promote equal rights and
    opportunities for women
  • Largest Feminist Organization
  • GOALSEQUALITY IN EMPLOYMENT
  • POLITICAL SOCIAL EQUALITY
  • PASSAGE OF Equal Rights Amendment
  • ORIGINS in civil rights and anti-war movements
    because women felt sidelined by men who led SNCC
    Anti-War movements
  • Betty Friedan Feminine Mystique sparked the
    modern womens movement

14
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15
Legal Social Gains For Women
  • Civil Rights Act 1964 Women gained
  • strength? PROHIBITED DISCRIMINATION
  • NOW efforts prompted Equal Employment Opportunity
    Commission (EEOC) to declare sex-segregated job
    ads illegal and declared that they could not
    refuse to hire women for male jobs.
  • SET BACK
  • ERA Equal Rights Amendment- which would
    guarantee that both men and women would enjoy the
    same rights and protections under the law, failed
    to become law due to opposition

16
United Farm Workers 1962 Cesar Chavez
  • UFWOC
  • Mexican American farmer CA
  • Nonviolence
  • 1965 nationwide boycott of California grapes
    sent union workers around country
  • 17 million Americans supported the 5 year boycott
  • Boycott forced grape growers to negotiate
    contract with UFW in 1970
  • Higher wages better working conditions for
    Mexican American farmers in CA

17
Rachel Carson SILENT SPRING
  • Published September 1962 sold 500,000 copies in 6
    months
  • widely credited with helping launch the
    ENVIRONMENTAL MOVEMENT
  • Book uncontrolled pesticide use kills animals,
    birds and humans.
  • Title was meant to evoke a spring season in which
    no bird songs could be heard, because they had
    all died from pesticides.
  • Led to Water Quality Act 1965
  • 1st EARTH DAY celebrated 1970 10,000 schools and
    2,000 colleges organized awareness events
  • 1970 Nixon created Environmental Protection
    Agency EPA set limits on pollution, research,
    clean up polluted sites

18
RISE OF THE CONSERVATIVE MOVEMENT
  • BARRY GOLDWATER
  • Republican Partys only nominee for President in
    1964
  • Referred to as Mr. Conservative
  • Views redefined the Conservative Movement
    Government should not try to fix social
    economic problems such as poverty,
    discrimination,
  • or lack of opportunity
  • He suggested selling the TVA, making SS
    voluntary,
  • and getting more involved in Vietnam

19
CONSERVATIVE MOVEMENT 1968 Election of RICHARD
NIXON
  • 37th President of US 19691974
  • Replaced Great Society with NEW FEDERALISM
  • New Federalism would take away some federal
    government power such as social welfare and give
    them to state and local governments.
  • WATERGATE scandal
  • Opposition to Nixon was
  • Bi-partisan
  • ONLY President to
  • RESIGN from office
  • After resignation, Americans
  • cynical about government

20
SUPREME COURT DECISIONS
  • 1973 Roe v. Wade addressed the right of women
    to have an abortion under certain circumstances.
    By expanding the constitutional right of privacy
    to include abortion, the Court extended civil
    liberties protection to women on the issue of
    choice.
  • 1978 Regents of University of California v Bakke-
    Yes to race, No to quotas Court barred the use
    of quota systems in college admissions but
    expanded Americans civil rights by giving
    constitutional protection to affirmative action
    programs that give equal access to minorities

21
SUPREME COURT CASES
  • 1973 Roe v Wade Women were granted the right to
    have an abortion.
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