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The High Middle Ages: Growth of Europe


The High Middle Ages: Growth of Europe SS.A.2.4.7; SS.B.1.4.1; SS.A.2.4.11; SS.B.1.4.4 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The High Middle Ages: Growth of Europe

The High Middle Ages Growth of Europe
  • SS.A.2.4.7 SS.B.1.4.1 SS.A.2.4.11 SS.B.1.4.4

England The Norman Invasion
  • AD 400 Anglos and Saxons invade England
  • 800s King Alfred the Great unites Anglo-Saxon
    kingdoms Anglo-Saxons rule England
  • October 14, 1066 Battle of Hastings
  • William of Normandy leads mounted army of Normans
    against the foot-soldiers of King Harold
  • All knights get land for swearing loyalty to
    William, as sole ruler of England
  • Official language of the Kings court is French,
    eventually Anglo-Saxon and French cultures mix
  • William conducts first census since Romans

King Henry II of England
  • 1154-1189 Henry II expands monarchys power
  • Courts of Justice closed, replaced by Kings
  • Local codes of law replaced by English common law
  • Catholic Church challenges kings power to put
    clergy on trial, when Henry tries to punish
    Archbishop Thomas à Becket of Canterbury
  • Instead, Henry has the archbishop killed, but
    when people get angry with him, he gives church
    its way

The Magna Carta
  • Many rich noblemen did not like the growing power
    of the king/monarchy
  • 1200s Noblemen rise up and rebel against king
  • King John forced to put seal on a document of
    rights called The Magna Carta (Great Charter)
  • Limited the power of the monarch
  • A feudal document recognizing the mutual
    obligations of lords and vassals
  • Magna Carta allows for Englands first Parliament
    to form under reign of Edward I

France Rise of the Capetians
  • 843 Carolingian Empire divided, W. Frankish
    kingdom becomes early French kingdom
  • 987 Last Carolingian king dies, replaced by Hugh
    Capet, starting Capetian Dynasty in France
  • Early on Capetian kings had little power,
    controlling only the lands around Paris (a.k.a.
  • 1182-1223 King Philip II Augustus defeat English
    armies and take control of territories of
    Normandy, Maine, Anjou, and Aquitaine, expanding
    the power and wealth of the French crown

  • 1223-1314 kings Louis IX and Philip IV expand
    French power and wealth even more
  • By 1300, France was the largest, most powerful
    European monarchical state
  • 1302 Philip IV established Frances first
    parliament by holding regular meetings with the
    three estates
  • First Estate the clergy
  • Second Estate the nobility
  • Third Estate peasants and townspeople

The Holy Roman Empire
  • 900s Saxon dukes became kings of Eastern
    Frankish Kingdom, renamed Germany
  • In return for protecting the pope, King Otto I of
    Germany is crowned Emperor of the Romans in 962
    (first since Charlemagne)
  • As new Roman emperors, German kings attempted
    to rule both Germany and Italy
  • Kings wanted to make money off of Italy
  • Italy must be at center of a holy or Roman

Holy Roman Struggles In Italy
  • With Jerusalem under Arab control, Rome becomes
    center of Christianity to W. Europeans
  • Frederick I considers his empire holy and
    thinks Rome must be included to legitimize empire
  • Italy is only part of Europe with good trade
  • Pope opposes Fredericks campaign in Italy
  • Northern Italian cities, used to their freedom,
    join the pope and defeat HRE in 1176
  • Frederick II won many battles, also defeated

Empire In Decline
  • While emperors fought in Italy, powerful lords
    left behind to rule Germany
  • With defeat in Italy, many lords think emperor
    weak, and create their own smaller kingdoms
  • German H.R. Emperors left with no real power
  • Germany and Italy never create powerful,
    centralized monarchy unlike England France
  • Italy Germany consist of small, independent
    states until 1800s

Central Eastern Europe
  • Slavic people started as single group in C.E.
  • Split into western, eastern, and southern Slavs
  • Western Slavs establish Polish and Bohemian
    (Czech) kingdoms, converted to Western
    Christianity by German monks in tenth century
  • Hungary also converted by Germans
  • Eastern and southern Slavs convert to Eastern
    Orthodox Christianity by Byzantine missionaries
    Cyril and Methodius
  • Croats, southern Slavs, accept the Roman church

  • Slavs also settle in area of modern Ukraine and
  • Late 700s Swedish Vikings come, dominate
  • Locals call their new rulers Rus
  • Viking leader Oleg, settles in city of Kiev
  • Establishes Principality of Kiev, a Rus state
  • Eventually, Kiev rules over lands b/w Baltic and
    Black seas, and the Danube and Volga rivers
  • Vikings eventually assimilate into Slavic culture
  • Rus convert to Orthodox Christianity

End of the Russian State
  • 1200s Mongols conquer Russia, requiring Rus
    princes to pay them tribute
  • One prince, Alexander Nevsky, emerges as most
  • 1242 Nevsky defeats invading German army
  • The Khan, mongol leader, rewards Nevsky with
    title of grand-prince
  • Nevskys descendants eventually come to rule