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Classification of Organisms

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Chapter 17 Classification of Organisms Objectives CLE 3210.5.6 Explore the evolutionary basis of modern classification systems. 3210.5.4 Analyze a variety of models ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Classification of Organisms


1
Chapter 17
  • Classification of Organisms

2
Objectives
  • CLE 3210.5.6 Explore the evolutionary basis of
    modern classification systems.
  • ?3210.5.4 Analyze a variety of models, samples,
    or diagrams to demonstrate the genetic
    relatedness of organisms.
  • ?3210.5.5 Use a dichotomous key to identify an
    unknown organism.

3
Biodiversity
  • The variety of organisms considered at all levels
    from populations to ecosystems

4
Taxonomy
  • the science of describing, naming, and
    classifying organisms
  • Aristotle classified organisms as plant or
    animal. He classified animals as land, air, and
    water

5
Carolus Linnaeus
  • Devised a seven-level hierarchical system for
    classifying organisms according to their form and
    structure.
  • From the most general to the most specific. The
    levels are kingdom, phylum, class, order, family,
    genus, and species.

6
Classification Hierarchy of Organisms
7
Binomial Nomenclature
  • Two part naming system
  • each species has a two-part scientific namea
    genus name, such as Homo, and a specific epithet,
    such as sapiens.
  • Writing a scientific name
  • Capitalize the Genus name
  • Italicize or underline both names

8
Phylogenetics
  • Systematics
  • modern approach to taxonomy
  • analyzes the diversity of organisms in the
    context of their natural relationships
  • When classifying organisms, scientists consider
    fossils, homologous features, embryos,
    chromosomes, and the sequences of proteins and DNA

9
A phylogenetic diagram displays how closely
related a subset of taxa are thought to be.
10
Cladistics
  • uses shared, derived characters as the only
    criterion for grouping taxa

11
Revising the Tree of Life
  • The phylogenetic analysis of rRNA nucleotide
    sequences by Carol Woese led to a new tree of
    life consisting of three domains.
  • Bacteria
  • Archaea
  • Eukarya

12
Domain Bacteria
  • aligns with Kingdom Eubacteria, which consists of
    single-celled prokaryotes that are true bacteria

13
Domain Archaea
  • aligns with Kingdom Archaebacteria, which
    consists of single-celled prokaryotes that have
    distinctive cell membranes and cell walls

14
Domain Eukarya
  • includes the Protist kingdoms as well as kingdoms
    Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia.
  • All members of this domain have eukaryotic cells

15
Phylogenetic Diagram of Major Groups of Organisms
16
The three domains
  • Note Protista is no longer one Kingdom, but many

17
Kingdom and Domain Characteristics
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