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What are the 6 Kingdoms of Organisms?

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What are the 6 Kingdoms of Organisms? What is a cladogram? What are the 5 ways we can determine evolutionary relationships? Archeabacteria, Eubacteria, Protists ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: What are the 6 Kingdoms of Organisms?


1
Take 5
  • What are the 6 Kingdoms of Organisms?
  • What is a cladogram?
  • What are the 5 ways we can determine evolutionary
    relationships?

Archeabacteria, Eubacteria, Protists, Fungi,
Plants, Animals
Branching diagram that models the phylogeny of a
species
Structure Breeding Behavior Geographical
Distribution Chromosomes Biochemistry
2
Take 5
  • Who divided life into 2 categories?
  • What are the rules for binomial nomenclature?

3
Chapter 17
  • Organizing Lifes Diversity

4
Section 17.2
  • The Six Kingdoms

5
I. How are evolutionary relationships determined?
  • Structural Similarities
  • Species are closely _______________ and have
    _________ from a common ancestor.

related
evolved
6
I. How are evolutionary relationships determined?
  • Breeding Behavior
  • Sometimes _____________ behavior provides
    important clues to _________________ among
    species.
  • EX Very similar frogs w/ different mating
    behavior
  • Geographical Distribution
  • ____________ helps to determine their
    relationships with other species. (Galopagos
    Finches)

breeding
relationships
Location
7
I. How are evolutionary relationships determined?
Raccoon!!
  • Chromosome Comparison
  • Both the ___________ and structure of chromosomes
    provides _____________ of relationships among
    species
  • Biochemistry
  • Closely related species have similar ___________
    sequences, and therefore similar proteins.

number
structure
DNA
Bear!!
8
II. Phylogenic Classification Models
ancestor
  • Species that share a common _____________ also
    share an evolutionary ______________.
  • Phylogeny the evolutionary history of a
    _____________.
  • Cladistics
  • One biological system of _______________ that is
    based on phylogeny is cladistics.
  • Scientists assume that as groups of organisms
    ____________ and evolve from a common ancestral
    group, they retain some unique inherited
    characteristics that taxonomists call derived
    ______________.

history
species
classification
diverge
traits
9
  • A phylogeny represents the evolutionary
    relationships among a set of organisms or groups
    of organisms, called taxa (singular taxon).

C
A
B
10
Leopard
American badger
European otter
Coyote
Gray Wolf
11
  • The tips of the tree represent groups of
    descendent taxa (often species) and the nodes on
    the tree represent the common ancestors of those
    descendents.

C
A
B
node
represents
common ancestor
12
  • Two descendents that split from the same node are
    called sister groups.

C
A
B
13
In the tree below, species A B are sister
groups they are each other's closest relatives.
14
A clade is a group of organisms that includes an
ancestor and all descendents of that ancestor.
You can think of a clade as a branch on the tree
of life. Some examples of clades are shown on the
tree below.
15
These 3 trees depict the same relationships!
C
B
A
B
A
C
B
C
A
16
Cladogram
17
Species phylogeny
From the Tree of the Life Website,University of
Arizona
Orangutan
Human
Gorilla
Chimpanzee
Other people's ppt files
18
II. Phylogenic Classification Models
  • Another type of model
  • Fan-like model diagram incorporates
    ___________ information and the knowledge gained
    form anatomical, embryological, ___________, and
    cladistic studies.

fossil
genetic
19
(No Transcript)
20
III. The Six Kingdoms of Organisms
extreme
  • Archaebacteria live in ____________ environment,
    prokaryotes _______________
  • EX _______________________________________

unicellular
methanogens, halophiles, thermophiles
21
III. The Six Kingdoms of Organisms
  • Eubacteria prokaryotes, very strong cell
    _________, some cause disease but most are
    harmless and actually helpful
  • EX ____________________________________________

walls
Streptococci,
22
III. The Six Kingdoms of Organisms
  • Protists eukaryotic organisms that ____________
    complex organ systems and lives in moist
    environment, diverse group (unicellular/multicellu
    lar)
  • EX _____________________________________________
    ____

lack
Paramecium, slime mold, giant kelp, Amoeba
23
III. The Six Kingdoms of Organisms
heterotrophs
  • Fungi Decomposer, _____________ unicellular or
    multicelluar eukaryotes that absorbs nutrients
    from organic materials.
  • EX ____________________________________________

Mushrooms (parasol)
24
III. The Six Kingdoms of Organisms
multicellular
  • Plants _____________, oxygen producers,
    photosynthetic eukaryotes. Cells contain a cell
    ____________ and chloroplasts.
  • EX ____________________________________
  • Animals multicellular __________________
    heterotrophs
  • EX ____________________________________

wall
Trees, shrubs, herbs
consumers
Dogs, cats, humans, monkeys
25
HW Pg 453 Mini-Lab
  • Due Monday 1/10/11
  • Read procedure
  • Draw the cladogram and fill in the blanks
  • Answer analysis questions 1-4.
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