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Classification of Living Things

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Title: Classification Author: Danielle Chase Last modified by: Kristen Smith Created Date: 7/12/2009 9:54:44 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show (4:3) – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Classification of Living Things


1
Classification of Living Things
http//analyzer.depaul.edu/astrobiology/kingdoms.j
pg
2
Taxonomy
  • Branch of biology that names and groups organisms
    according to their characteristics and
    evolutionary history.
  • Does it have Legs? Feathers? Scales?
  • What did it look like before? What can you
  • compare it to?

3
History
  • The first person to group or classify organisms
    was the Greek teacher philosopher ARISTOTLE.

(300 B.C.)
4
Aristotles System
PLANTS
  • ANIMALS

Based on size of stem
Based on where they lived
5
Problems?
  • Not all organisms fit into Aristotles 2 groups
    (plants or animals)

Ex What about? Bacteria
Fungi
6
Problems?
  • 2. Common names can be misleading

Ex A jelly fish isnt a fish, but a seahorse is!
Sea cucumber sounds like a plant but its an
animal!
7
Problems?
  • 3. Common names vary from place to place.

Ex puma, catamount, mountain lion, cougar are
all names for same animal
8
Problems?
  • 4. Same organisms have different names in
    different countries.

Chipmunk Streifenhornchen (German) Tamia
(Italian) Ardilla listada (Spanish)
9
SOLUTION?
  • Some early scientists devised scientific names
    using long descriptions in LATIN.
  • Example Red Oak
  • Quercus foliis obtuse-sinuatis setaceo-mucronatis
  • oak with leaves with deep blunt lobes bearing
    hair-like bristles

10
Problems
  • Names too hard and long to remember!
  • Names dont show relationships between different
    animals!

11
Carolus Linnaeus To The Rescue!
  • Devised a new classification system based on
    MORPHOLOGY
  • (Organisms form and structure)

(1707-1778)
12
Linnaeuss System
  • Grouped in a HIERARCHY of 7 different levels
  • Each organism has a two part LATIN SCIENTIFIC
    NAME

13
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
Kids Prefer Cookies Over Fried Green Spinach
14
Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus
Species
Animalia
Chordata
Mammalia
Carnivora
Felidae
Panthera
leo
15
BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE(2 name naming system)
  • 1st name GENUS NAME
  • Always capitalized
  • 2nd name SPECIES IDENTIFIER
  • Always lower case
  • Both names are UNDERLINED or written in ITALICS

16
Binomial Nomenclature
  • Vampire batDesmodus rotundus
  • Eastern chipmunk
  • Tamias striatus

17
Binomial Nomenclature
  • Humans

Homo sapiens or Homo sapiens
18
SPECIES
  • Species are groups of actually or potentially
    interbreeding populations, which are
    reproductively isolated from other such groups.
  • Reproductively isolated group

Ernst Mayr
19
DIFFERENT SPECIES
20
So What Do We Use Now?
  • MODERN TAXONOMY
  • Still use Linnaeuss system but we have added
    more KINGDOMS
  • Remember Linnaeus only had 2, plant and animal

21
The Kingdoms
  • Archaebacteria
  • Eubacteria
  • Protist
  • Fungi
  • Plantae
  • Animalia

22
The Phyla Were Studying
  • Porifera (sponges)
  • Cnidaria (jellyfish and corals)
  • Nemotode (roundworms)
  • Platyhelminthes (flatworms)
  • Molluska (clams, squid, octopi)
  • Annelids (earthworms)
  • Arthropods (crabs, insects, spiders)
  • Echinoderms (starfish, urchin)
  • Chordates (vertebrates)

23
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24
MODERN TAXONOMY
25
Modern Taxonomy
26
MODERN TAXONOMY
  • Organizes living things in the context of
    evolution

27
MODERN TAXONOMY
  • Scientists use different kinds of info to
    classify organisms
  • Fossil record
  • Morphology
  • Embryology
  • Chromosomes
  • Macromolecules (DNA proteins)

28
FOSSIL RECORD
  • We can trace some changes over time through the
    fossil record.
  • Evolutionary history PHYLOGENY

29
MORPHOLOGY
Shape and Function
30
MORPHOLOGY
  • HOMOLOGOUS characteristics
  • same embryological origin (may have similar
    structure and function)
  • EX Bat wing human arm
  • Homologous characteristics suggest a recent
    common ancestor

31
MORPHOLOGY
  • ANALOGOUS characteristics
  • may have similar structure function but
    different embryological origin
  • EX Bird wing butterfly wing
  • ANALOGOUS characteristics evolved separately.
  • Organisms NOT CLOSELY RELATED

32
ANALOGOUS STRUCTURES
  • Bird wing and butterfly wing have evolved with
    similar function BUT different structure inside.
  • Insects and birds NOT closely related!

33
EMBRYOLOGY
  • Animals whose embryos develop in a similar
    pattern may be related

34
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35
CHROMOSOMES
  • Similar karyotypes suggest closer relationships.

36
46 individual chromosomes
48 individual chromosomes
4 individual chromosomes
37
MACROMOLECULES
  • Compare molecules like
  • PROTEINS (amino acids)
  • DNA
  • Organisms with similar sequences are probably
    more closely related.

38
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39
Terminology
  • Classification
  • Assigning organisms to different categories based
    on their relationship
  • Taxonomy
  • The science of naming organisms
  • Systematics
  • Determining evolutionary relationships of
    organisms
  • Phylogeny
  • Evolutionary history
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