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Classification:

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CLASSIFICATION: Organizing Life s Diversity HOW CLASSIFICATION BEGAN Organizing items can help you understand them better & find them more easily. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Classification:


1
Classification
  • Organizing Lifes Diversity

2
How Classification Began
  • Organizing items can help you understand them
    better find them more easily.
  • Biologists organize living things into groups
  • Classification the grouping of objects or
    information based on similarities
  • Taxonomy the branch of biology that classifies
    organisms.

3
Why Classify?
  • Three reasons
  • It helps to identify relationships between
    organisms
  • It requires scientists to identify important
    characteristics of organisms
  • It helps to avoid confusion
  • An organism may have misleading or multiple
    common names (ex. Seahorse or mountain
    lion/cougar/ panther/ puma)
  • Only one scientific name (Puma concolor)

4
Aristotle
  • Greek philosopher who developed the first
    biological classification system
  • Classified things as plants or animals
  • He didnt know anything about microscopic
    organisms like bacteria
  • Plants were grouped as herbs, shrubs, or trees
  • Animals were grouped by where they lived or spent
    most of their time - land, air, or water

5
Linnaeus
  • Swedish botanist who developed our current
    classification system
  • Based on physical and structural similarities
  • Groupings revealed relationships between
    organisms
  • Scientists proposed that structural similarities
    reflect evolutionary relationships

6
Double-name System
  • Binomial nomenclature two-word naming system
    developed by Linnaeus
  • 1st word Genus
  • 2nd word species
  • Like a first last name
  • Humans are Homo sapiens.
  • House cats are Felis catus
  • Names are Latin
  • It is no longer used in conversation so it
    doesnt change

7
Biological Classification
  • Scientists try to identify relationships as a
    basis for classification
  • Compare internal external structures,
    geographical distribution, and genetics
  • Makes it easier to understand biological
    diversity
  • Dichotomous keys are used to identify the
    characteristics by which organisms are
    classified.
  • Benefits of taxonomy
  • Offers a framework to study evolutionary
    relationships
  • Useful for identifying dangerous organisms
    (poison oak, holly berries, etc)
  • Economy discovery of new resources for lumber,
    medicines, and energy

8
How Living Things are Classified
  • Taxa/taxon a group of organisms
  • Seven Taxa categorize organisms from most general
    to specific characteristics.
  • Kingdom group of phyla
  • Phylum (in plants - division) a group of
    classes
  • Class group of related orders
  • Order group of related families
  • Family group of genera that share
    characteristics
  • Genus (genera) group of closely related
    species
  • Species Latin name for an individual organism

9
Example
  • lions, tigers, and leopards
  • Kingdom Animalia
  • Phylum Chordata
  • Class Mammalia
  • Order Carnivora
  • Family Felidae
  • Genus Panthera
  • Each are a different species

10
Six Kingdoms of Living Things
  • Kingdom Eubacteria
  • Bacteria
  • Kingdom Archaebacteria
  • Chemosynthetic Bacteria
  • Kingdom Protista
  • Diverse catch-all group
  • Kingdom Fungi
  • decomposers
  • Kingdom Plantae
  • plants
  • Kingdom Animalia
  • animals

11
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