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Classification of Living Things

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Title: Classification of Living Things Author: Bryan Neuswanger Last modified by: JoeJohnston Created Date: 5/1/2009 1:50:10 AM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Classification of Living Things


1
Classification of Living Things
2
Classification
  • Biology

3
Taxonomy
  • Scientists classify organisms and assign each
    organism a universally accepted name

4
Why Should We Classify Organisms?
  • To organize similar organisms
  • So all scientists are discussing the same
    organisms (species)
  • Species ? population of organisms that share
    similar characteristics and can breed with one
    another and produce fertile offspring
  • Identified 1.5 million species so far
  • Estimate 2-100 million have yet to be discovered

5
What tools can we use to show similarities in
organisms?
  • Cladistic analysis ? identifies and considers
    only those characteristics of organisms that are
    evolutionary innovations new characteristics
    that arise as lineages evolve over time
  • Cladogram diagram that shows evolutionary
    relationships among a group of organisms

6
Modern Evolutionary Classification
Darwins ideas about descent gave rise to the
study of phylogeny evolutionary relationships
among organisms Evolutionary Classification
Grouping of organisms based on evolutionary
history
7
Traditional Classification Versus Cladogram
Appendages
Conical Shells
Crustaceans
Gastropod
Crab
Crab
Barnacle
Barnacle
Limpet
Limpet
Molted exoskeleton
Segmentation
Tiny free-swimming larva
CLASSIFICATION BASED ON VISIBLE SIMILARITIES
CLADOGRAM
8
  • Genes of many organisms show important
    similarities at a molecular level. Similarities
    in DNA can be used to help determine
    classification and evolutionary relationships

9
Carolus Linnaeus
  • Swedish botanist that developed a two-word naming
    system called BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE
  • Gives the Genus and species name, written in
    italics or underlined
  • Language is usually Latin
  • Example
  • House cat Felis domesticus
  • Dog Canis familaris
  • Human Homo sapien

10
Linnaeuss System of Classification(8 Levels/
Taxa)
  • Domain (most inclusive, less in common)
  • Kingdom
  • Phylum
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species (less inclusive, more in common)
  • Each level is called a TAXON taxa (plural)

11
Figure 18-5 Classification of Ursus arctos


Coral snake
Abert squirrel
Giant panda
Red fox
Black bear
Grizzly bear
Sea star
KINGDOM Animalia
PHYLUM Chordata
CLASS Mammalia
ORDER Carnivora
FAMILY Ursidae
GENUS Ursus
SPECIES Ursus arctos
12
Domains
  • Currently, all organisms are grouped into 1 of 3
    domains which reflect evolutionary relationships
  • 1) Bacteria
  • 2) Archaea
  • 3) Eukarya

EUKARYA
ARCHAEA
Kingdoms
BACTERIA
Eubacteria Archaebacteria Protista Plantae Fungi A
nimalia
LUCA last universal common ancestor
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