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CLASSIFICATION

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Title: CLASSIFICATION


1
CLASSIFICATION
2
Why Do We Classify?
  • We classify in order to organize.
  • We classify to recognize relationships among
    organisms.
  • We classify to study the evolutionary history of
    organisms (phylogeny).

3
History of Classification
  • Aristotle was a Greek philosopher and scholar.
  • Divided organisms into 2 groups - plants and
    animals.
  • Divided animals into blood and bloodless.
  • Divided animals into groups based on number of
    legs.
  • Divided animals into 3 groups according to how
    they moved - walking, flying, or swimming (land,
    air, or water)

4
History of Classification
  • Carolus Linnaeus was a Swedish scientist.
  • Classified plants and animals according to
    similarities in form.
  • Divided living things into one of two "kingdoms"
    Plant or Animal
  • Divided each of the kingdoms into smaller groups
    called "genera" (plural of "genus").
  • Divided each genera into smaller groups called
    "species.

5
The Evolution of Our Classification System
  • The Linnaean System is used by scientists all
    over the world, but has been expanded to include
    new and different living things as they are
    discovered. It will continue to grow as human
    knowledge grows.

6
Classification Terminology
  • CLASSIFICATION
  • TAXONOMY
  • ORGANISM
  • BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE
  • EVOLUTION
  • Grouping things based on their similarities.
  • The science of classifying organisms.
  • Any living thing.
  • A two-part scientific name (Genus species).
  • Species change gradually over time.

7
Our Current Classification System
  • The classification system in use today places
    each living thing into a series of specific
    groups based on similarities and differences in
    body structure, color, behavior, etc.

8
Our Current Classification System
  • The largest group into which any living thing can
    be classified is its kingdom.
  • This is followed by its phylum or division, then
    its class, order, family, genus, and finally its
    species.

9
The Kingdoms
  • Most biologists use a classification system based
    on five kingdoms.

10
The Kingdom Debate
  • The number of kingdoms is often under debate,
    depending on how scientists interpret current
    research.
  • For example, some scientists separate the Moneran
    into two kingdoms.

11
Our Hierarchical System
  • Taxonomists divide organisms into a series of
    groups (divisions) that get more and more
    specific.
  • The most general division of life is a kingdom.
  • The most specific division of life is a species.

12
Our Hierarchical System
  • Within each kingdom, there are groups, increasing
    in commonality and evolutionary relationships,
    but decreasing in size (fewer numbers).
  • For example, two organisms in the same order have
    more in common than two organisms in the same
    class.

13
Moneran Kingdom
  • Bacteria are among the oldest living organisms on
    Earth, and are very small.
  • Because the bacteria structure is so minute, it
    can only be seen through a microscope.
  • Bacteria are unicellular prokaryotes.
  • Bacteria is commonly found in the ground, water
    and in other living organisms.
  • Most bacteria are
  • heterotrophs but some
  • bacteria like blue-green
  • algae are autotrophs.

14
Moneran Kingdom
  • While some types of bacteria can cause diseases
    and become harmful to the environment, animals
    and humans, others offer benefits that we likely
    could not live without.

15
Harmful Bacteria
  • Some types of bacteria can attack plants, causing
    diseases like leaf spot and fire blight.

16
Harmful Bacteria
  • In human hosts, certain types of bacteria can
    cause tetanus, pneumonia, syphilis, tuberculosis
    and other illnesses.
  • Humans can be treated with antibiotics, which
    kill bacteria or at least hamper their growth.
  • Antiseptics, sterilization and disinfectants can
    help prevent contamination and risk of infection
    from bacteria.

17
Helpful Bacteria
  • The term friendly bacteria is used to describe
    the types of bacteria that offer some benefit.
  • Not only does bacteria help produce the food we
    eat and keeps the soil fertile, it also helps us
    digest our food.
  • Bacteria in our digestive system help to convert
    milk protein into lactic acid and inhibit the
    growth of potentially harmful bacteria.

18
Archaebacteria vs. Eubacteria
  • Archaebacteria
  • ancient bacteria
  • Found in very harsh conditions such as in the
    volcanic vents or at the bottom of the sea.
  • They survive in the environments such as sea
    vents releasing sulfide-rich gases, hot springs
    or boiling mud around volcanoes.
  • extremophiles
  • All forms of archaebacteria are non-pathogenic.
  • Eubacteria
  • true bacteria
  • Cyanobacteria blue-green algae
  • Most bacteria are in this kingdom.
  • They are the kinds found everywhere and the ones
    people are most familiar with.

19
Archaebacteria vs. Eubacteria
20
Protozoan Kingdom
  • This is sometimes called the odds and ends
    kingdom.
  • A protist is any organism that is not a plant,
    animal or fungus.
  • Mostly unicellular, some are multicellular
    (algae)
  • Can be heterotrophic or autotrophic.
  • Most live in water (though some live in moist
    soil or even the human body).
  • ALL are eukaryotic (have a nucleus).

21
Classification of Protists
  • How they obtain nutrition
  • How they move
  • Animal-like Protists - protozoa - heterotrophs
  • Plantlike Protists - algae autotrophs
  • Fungus-like Protists heterotrophs decomposers

22
Fungi Kingdom
  • Mushrooms
  • Molds
  • Yeasts
  • Mildews

23
Fungi Kingdom
  • Most fungi are multicellular (yeast is
    unicellular).
  • All fungi are eukaryotic heterotrophs.
  • Fungi can be found almost everywhere on land, but
    only a few live in fresh water.

24
The Importance of Fungi
  • Fungi are some of the most important organisms in
    terms of their ecological and economic roles.
  • By breaking down dead organic material, they
    continue the cycle of nutrients through
    ecosystems.
  • Most vascular plants could not grow without the
    fungi that inhabit their roots and supply
    essential nutrients.
  • Other fungi provide numerous drugs (such as
    penicillin and other antibiotics), foods like
    mushrooms, truffles and morels, and the bubbles
    in bread, champagne, and beer.
  • A number of fungi, in particular the yeasts, are
    important "model organisms" for studying problems
    in genetics and molecular biology.

25
Bad Fungi?
  • Fungi also cause a number of plant and animal
    diseases.
  • In humans, ringworm, athlete's foot, and several
    more serious diseases are caused by fungi.
  • Plant diseases caused by fungi include rusts,
    smuts, and leaf, root, and stem rots, and may
    cause severe damage to crops.

26
Plant Kingdom
  • Plants are multicellular eukaryotes.
  • Plants are autotrophs and make their own food
    through the process of photosynthesis.
  • Plants feed almost all of the heterotrophs on
    Earth.

27
Plant Kingdom
28
Animal Kingdom
  • All animals are multicellular eukaryotes.
  • All animals are heterotrophs.
  • Animals have adaptations that allow them to find
    food and digest it.
  • Members of the animal kingdom are found in
    diverse environments on earth.

29
Animal Kingdom
30
Animal Kingdom
31
Invertebrates
32
Vertebrates
33
The Evolution of the Animal Kingdom
34
The Organization of Life . . .
35
. . . ever changing!
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