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Scientific Ethics and Integrity

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Relativity applies to physics, not ethics. - Albert Einstein To discuss and understand the different dimensions of scientific ethics. What are some of the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Scientific Ethics and Integrity


1
Scientific Ethics and Integrity
  • Relativity applies to physics, not ethics.
  • - Albert Einstein

2
Goals
  • To discuss and understand the different
    dimensions of scientific ethics.
  • What are some of the ethical issues facing
    scientists? Policy makers?
  • When is self-regulation by the scientific
    community of its conduct impossible or
    undesirable?

3
Questions About Ethics
  • Where is the focus of scientific and
    technological ethics?
  • Why is ethics important?
  • Who decides what is ethical/not ethical?
  • Ethics is knowing the difference between what
    you have a right to do and what is the right
    thing to do.
  • - Former Supreme Court Justice Potter
    Stewart

4
What is ethics?
  • Ethics
  • 1 ...the discipline dealing with what is good
    and bad and with moral duty and obligation
  • 2 a a set of moral principles and values b a
    theory or system of moral values c the
    principles of conduct governing an individual or
    a group.
  • (Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary.
    Springfield, Mass. G. C. Merriam Company. 1975)

5
Influences on Ethics
  • Family
  • Religion
  • Schools
  • Employers
  • Moral Leaders
  • Philosophers

6
Ethical Models
  • Teleology
  • Consequence ethics
  • Determination of rightness or wrongness based on
    consequences
  • Will the action produce more good than bad?
  • Altruism
  • Utilitarianism
  • Egoism
  • Deontology
  • Duty ethics
  • Certain actions are inherently or intrinsically
    right or wrong regardless of consequences
  • Ex. Telling lies are intrinsically wrong.
  • Personal Ethics
  • Instinct
  • Conscience
  • Emotion
  • Intuition
  • Religion

7
(No Transcript)
8
Making Ethical Decisions
  • Ethical issues can generally be clarified when
    the following are considered
  • Facts of the situation.
  • Who is affected? What are their interests?
  • Key concepts, criteria and principles (ex. What
    is life?).
  • Ethical Theories and Arguments

9
Ethical Issues in Scientific Research
  • Conflicts of Interest and Scientific Misconduct
  • Fabrication
  • Changing Data Lying
  • Falsification
  • Making Up Data Cheating
  • Plagiarism
  • Using words/ideas without proper citations
    Copying

10
Ethics in Science and Technology
  • Medicine
  • Gene Therapy
  • Cloning
  • Stem Cell Research
  • Military
  • WMD
  • Nuclear Testing
  • Human Experimentation
  • Economics
  • Pollution for Profit

11
Classifications of Ethics
  • Violation of Established World Orders (Natural or
    Social Order of Things)
  • Ex. Genetic Engineering, In Vitro Fertilization
  • Violations of Supposedly Exception less Moral
    Principles
  • Ex. Human life must always be preserved (Dr.
    Kavorkian), Action that destroy innocent
    civilians (War), Human must not be treated as a
    mean to an end (harvesting fetal tissue)
  • Distribution of Science or Technology Related
    Benefits
  • Ex. Medical benefits diagnostic, surgery,
    therapeutic

12
Classifications of Ethics
  • Infliction of Harm or Exposure to Significant
    Risks of Harm without Prior Consent
  • Ex. Animal testing, maintenance of
    carcinogen-containing workplaces,
    cross-border/multi-generational pollution
  • Science or Technology-Engendered Positive
    Rights
  • Ex. Human life preservation, death with dignity,
    genetic testing

13
Other Issues
  • Aggregation
  • Small transgressions aggregate to cause
    significant problems
  • Ex. Pollution of individual car vs. hundreds of
    millions of cars
  • Practitioner Problems
  • Professional Ethics
  • Who is making the ethical decisions?

14
Other Issues
  • Distribution Justice
  • Should a project be given approval if there is a
    risk to anyone within impact area?
  • Ex. Construction of hydroelectric dam
  • Whistle Blowing
  • Poor design, testing, false results, faulty
    development, etc.
  • Ex. O-rings in Challenger http//articles.latimes.
    com/2011/jan/22/nation/la-na-challenger-anniversar
    y-20110123
  • Consideration of Long-Term effects
  • Ex. Nuclear waste, Obsolescence
  •  

15
Challenges in Ethics and Modern Science
  • Developments in science requires revisions in
    traditional ethical thinking and decision making.
  • How do you believe this will change?
  • Science cannot stop while ethics catches up
    and nobody should expect scientists to do all the
    thinking for the country.
  • -Elvin Stackman

16
Articles/Scenarios
  • Discuss
  • Ethics in Science Dissecting the Dilemmas, UAB
    Magazine
  • Ethics Group Discussion/Debate
  • Newborn Screening
  • Moral Dilemma
  • Chemical A or Chemical B?
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