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Psychology

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Title: Psychology


1
Psychology
  • Scientific study of the behavior of individuals
    and their mental processes
  • Scientific method-(set of steps)
  • Behavior (adjustment to environment)
  • Individual
  • Mental process (human mind)

2
Goals
  • Describe-data, observations, analysis

3
Goals
  • Explain-find patterns, why?
  • Orgasmic inner determinants of an organism
  • Dispositional in human or animal occurrences of
    organismic variables
  • Situational or environmental variables external
    influence

4
Goals
  • Predicting
  • Scientific vs. Causal
  • Scientific-relation of events
  • Casual-condition under change

5
Goals
  • Control
  • starting, stopping, maintaining, strengthening,
    weakening a behavior

6
History of Psychology
  • Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
  • mind controlled by person, not gods
  • Dualism (1600)
  • mindbody separate
  • Descartes-Mind controls body (1596-1650)

7
William Wundt (1879)
  • 1st experimental Psy. Lab
  • Structuralism
  • Study of the structure of mind behavior
  • All human mental experience can be understood as
    a combination of simple elements or events
  • Rejections to structuralism
  • Reductionism-over simplified
  • Elemental-did not look at whole
  • Mentalistic-only verbal human

8
William James (1890)
  • Functionalism
  • -learned habits that enabled organism to adapt,
    function and survive in their environment

9
John Dewey (1920s)
  • Founded the school of functionalism

10
Modern Psychological Approaches
  • Biological
  • Focus on genes, brain, nervous and endocrine
    systems to identify behaviors
  • Psychodynamic
  • Driven by powerful inner forces
  • Unconscious
  • Freud
  • Behaviorist
  • Measurable or observable behavior
  • Humanistic
  • People in inherently good, striving for maximum
    potential
  • Rogers, Maslow
  • Cognitive
  • Stresses human thought
  • Evolutionary
  • Mental abilities adapted over millions of years

11
Psychology
  • Scientific study of the behavior of individuals
    and their mental processes
  • Scientific method-(set of steps)
  • Behavior (adjustment to environment)
  • Individual
  • Mental process (human mind)

12
Scientific Method
  • Hypothesis
  • Test hypothesis
  • Organize and report on Data
  • Conclusion

13
Bias
  • Due to personal motives, expectations

14
Standardization
  • Uniform procedures in treating things in an
    experiment

15
Variable
  • Factor that varies in amount or kind

16
Independent vs. Dependent
  • Free to vary vs. acted upon (changes)

17
Confounding Variable
  • Stimulus other than the variable an experimenter
    explicitly introduces

18
Expectancy Effects
  • Experimenter manipulates the situation creating
    expected result.

19
Placebo effect
20
Control Procedures
  • Double blind
  • Keep both assistants participant unaware
  • Between Subject designs
  • Random assignment

21
Representative Sample
  • Cannot get everyone take small sample that
    represents population

22
Within-subjects design
  • Use subject as their own control

23
A-B-A Design
  • A-baseline
  • B-treatment
  • A-Return to Baseline

24
Correlation Methods
  • Figure which 2 variables, traits, or attributes
    are related
  • correlation coefficient (r)
  • 1.0 to 1.0

25
Reliability
  • Test produces similar scores each time

26
Validity
  • Test measures what it is intended to measure

27
Self Reported Measures
  • Observe and report ones own behavior

28
Behavioral Measures
  • Overt actions reactions that are observed
    recorded not self reported

29
Case Study
  • Intensive study of one or a few

30
Ethics
  • Risk vs. Brains
  • Informed consent
  • Intentional Deception
  • Animals

31
Goals
  • Describe-data, observations, analysis

32
Goals
  • Explain-find patterns, why?
  • Orgasmic inner determinants of an organism
  • Dispositional in human or animal occurrences of
    organismic variables
  • Situational or environmental variables external
    influence

33
Goals
  • Predicting
  • Scientific vs. Causal
  • Scientific-relation of events
  • Casual-condition under change

34
Goals
  • Control
  • starting, stopping, maintaining, strengthening,
    weakening a behavior

35
History of Psychology
  • Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
  • mind controlled by person, not gods
  • Dualism (1600)
  • mindbody separate
  • Descartes-Mind controls body (1596-1650)

36
William Wundt (1879)
  • 1st experimental Psy. Lab
  • Structuralism
  • Study of the structure of mind behavior
  • All human mental experience can be understood as
    a combination of simple elements or events
  • Rejections to structuralism
  • Reductionism-over simplified
  • Elemental-did not look at whole
  • Mentalistic-only verbal human

37
William James (1890)
  • Functionalism
  • -learned habits that enabled organism to adapt,
    function and survive in their environment

38
John Dewey (1920s)
  • Founded the school of functionalism

39
http//youtube.com/watch?vFeFDnS1DjKM
  • History of Psychology

40
Modern Psychological Approaches
  • Biological
  • Focus on genes, brain, nervous and endocrine
    systems to identify behaviors
  • Psychodynamic
  • Driven by powerful inner forces
  • Unconscious
  • Freud
  • Behaviorist
  • Measurable or observable behavior
  • Humanistic
  • People in inherently good, striving for maximum
    potential
  • Rogers, Maslow
  • Cognitive
  • Stresses human thought
  • Evolutionary
  • Mental abilities adapted over millions of years

41
Scientific Method
  • Hypothesis
  • Test hypothesis
  • Organize and report on Data
  • Conclusion

42
Bias
  • Due to personal motives, expectations

43
Standardization
  • Uniform procedures in treating things in an
    experiment

44
Variable
  • Factor that varies in amount or kind

45
Independent vs. Dependent
  • Free to vary vs. acted upon (changes)

46
Confounding Variable
  • Stimulus other than the variable an experimenter
    explicitly introduces

47
Expectancy Effects
  • Experimenter manipulates the situation creating
    expected result.

48
Placebo effect
  • No experimental manipulation

49
Placebo Effect
  • http//youtube.com/watch?vMzjoKhBklYg

50
Control Procedures
  • Double blind
  • Keep both assistants participant unaware
  • Between Subject designs
  • Random assignment

51
Representative Sample
  • Cannot get everyone take small sample that
    represents population

52
Within-subjects design
  • Use subject as their own control

53
A-B-A Design
  • A-baseline
  • B-treatment
  • A-Return to Baseline

54
Correlation Methods
  • Figure which 2 variables, traits, or attributes
    are related
  • correlation coefficient (r)
  • 1.0 to 1.0

55
Reliability
  • Test produces similar scores each time

56
Validity
  • Test measures what it is intended to measure

57
Self Reported Measures
  • Observe and report ones own behavior

58
Behavioral Measures
  • Overt actions reactions that are observed
    recorded not self reported

59
Case Study
  • Intensive study of one or a few

60
Ethics
  • Risk vs. Brains
  • Informed consent
  • Intentional Deception
  • Animals

61
Darwin (1831) Natural Selection
  • Favorable adaptations to features of the
    environment allow some members of a species to
    reproduce more successfully that others
  • Finches Galapagos Islands
  • Survival of the fittest

62
Genotype
  • Genetic structure from parent

63
Phenotype
  • Observable characteristics

64
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid)
  • Contain genes

65
Heredity
  • Passing on traits from parent to offspring

66
Genetics
  • Study of the inheritance of physical
    psychological traits from ancestors

67
Genes
  • Basic units of heredity

68
Human Behavior Genetics
  • Explore the link between inheritance behavior

69
Sociobiology
  • Evolutionary explanation for social behavior
    systems

70
Neuroscience
  • Scientific study of the brain links to activity
    behavior

71
Electroencephalogram (EEG)
  • Record electric brain activity

72
Positron-Emissions Tomography (PET) Scans
  • Given safe radiation that goes to brain to see
    activity in brain

73
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Radio waves magnetic fields to see brain image

74
Functional MRI
  • MRI PET

75
The Nervous System
  • 3 major classes of neurons
  • 1) sensory toward (CNS)
  • 2) motor away (CNS)
  • 3) interneurons bridges between neurons

76
Central Nervous System
  • Composed of neurons
  • Brain spinal cord

77
Peripheral Nervous System
  • Connect CNS to body periphery

78
Somatic Nervous System
  • Regulates skeletal, muscles skin

79
Autonomic Nervous System
  • Controls bodys involuntary motor responses
  • Sympathetic emergency
  • Parasympathetic routine internal operations

80
Nervous system
  • http//youtube.com/watch?vcqvoV4R7T2g

81
The Nervous System
  • Neuron
  • Cell to receive, process and transmit information
    to other cells
  • Dendrites
  • Branched fibers of neurons that receive incoming
    signals
  • Soma
  • Cell body of a neuron
  • Contain nucleus cytoplasm
  • Integrates info.
  • Axon
  • Extended fiber of a neuron, nerve impulses pass
    soma to terminal buttons
  • Terminal Buttons
  • Bulblike structure that stimulate glands, muscles
    or other neurons

82
Nerve
  • http//youtube.com/watch?vXgIaAs_ONG4

83
The Nervous System
  • Glia
  • Cells that hold nerves together
  • Remove dead neurons
  • Stops poisons in blood from reaching brain

84
The Nervous System
  • Excitatory-fire
  • Inhibitory-dont fire

85
The Nervous System
  • Action Potential
  • Nerve impulse released
  • All or None Law
  • Size of potential unaffected by increased
    intensity
  • Refractionary Period
  • Rest period-nerve cannot fire
  • Synapse
  • Gap between one neuronanother
  • Transition
  • Neurotransmitters
  • Chemicals released from one neuron to another
  • 60 diff. chemicals

86
The Brain
  • Electronic stimulations
  • Brocas area
  • Thoughts into speech or sign
  • Lesions
  • Injuries or dead areas of brain

87
The Brain Structures
  • Brain Stem
  • Regulates internal organs
  • Medulla-heart, breathing, blood pressure
  • Pons-Bridge-connects spinal cord with brain
  • Reticular Formation
  • Spinal cord, alerts cerebral cortex
  • Thalamus
  • Channels incoming sensory information to
    appropriate area of cerebral cortex
  • Cerebellum
  • Balance, coordination

88
Brain Structure - Limbic System
  • Regulates emotional behavior, motivationmemory
  • Body temp., blood pressure, blood sugar
  • 3 structures
  • Hippocampus
  • Explicit memories
  • Amygdale
  • Emotionsemotional memory
  • Hypothalamus
  • Motivated behavior (eating, drink, sex)
  • Keeps bodies homeostasis (balance)

89
Hypothalamus
  • http//youtube.com/watch?vPMrPlCDGUwo

90
Brain Structure - Cerebrum
  • Regulates higher cognitive emotional functions
  • Cerebral cortex
  • Outside 1/10 of cerebrum
  • 2 halves cerebral hemispheres
  • Corpus callosum
  • Separated cerebral hemispheres
  • Mapping
  • Central sulcus-vertical
  • Lateral fissures-horizontal

91
Brain Structure
  • http//youtube.com/watch?vg6KpIrKCDwg

92
Cerebrum Cont.
  • Frontal lobe
  • Motor controls cognitive activities
  • Parietal Lobe
  • Sensations (limbs)
  • Touch, pain, temps
  • Occipital lobe
  • Vision (eyes)
  • Temporal lobe
  • Hearing (ears)
  • Motor cortex
  • Voluntary muscle control
  • Approx. 600

93
Brain Structure
  • http//youtube.com/watch?vIeqsxWfUvoo

94
Cerebrum Cont.
  • Somatosensory cortex
  • Temp, touch, pain (lips, tongue, index finger)
  • Auditory cortex
  • Both ears/both lobes
  • Visual cortex
  • Both eyes-retina
  • Association cortex
  • Planning and decision making
  • Wernickes Area
  • Spoken language

95
Hemispheric Lateralication
  • Things happen on different sides of brain,
    communicate through the corpus callosum i.e..
    Left-speech

96
Endocrine System
  • Network of glands that secrete hormones (chemical
    messengers).
  • Growth, mood, sex
  • Pituitary Gland
  • Master Gland
  • Secretes testosterone - estrogen
  • Other glands
  • Thyroid, Pancreas, Ovaries, Testes

97
Endocrine System
  • http//youtube.com/watch?vrS7SM4vzs18

98
Sensation
  • Stimulation of a sensory receptor gives rise to
    neural impulses which give awareness to
    conditions inside or outside the body

99
Psychophysics
  • Study of the relationship between physical
    stimuli and the behavior or mental experiences
    the stimuli evoke
  • Founder Gustav Fechner
  • Absolute threshold
  • Smallest unit or minimal amount of physical
    energy needed to produce a sensory experience.
    Amount of energy related to intensity of
    experience.

100
Psychophysics
  • Psychometric function
  • A graph that shows the of detections at each
    stimulus intensity

101
Psychophysics
  • Sensory Adaptation
  • Diminishing responsiveness of sensory systems to
    prolonged stimulus input. (stinky room)

102
Psychophysics
  • Response bias-favor responding in a particular
    way.
  • Signal detection theory (SDT)
  • Helps combat response bias
  • Initial sensory process
  • Separate decision process

103
Psychophysics
  • Difference thresholds
  • Smallest physical difference between 2 stimuli
    that can still be recognized as a difference
  • Just noticeable difference (JND)
  • Webers law
  • Size of a difference thresholds is proportional
  • Lmm/10mm.1 2mm/20mm.1
  • -I/IK

104
Sensory Physiology
  • Biological mechanisms (eye, mouth, ear) convert
    physical events into neural events.
  • Sensory receptors
  • Specialized cells that convert physical signals
    into cellular signals that are processed by the
    nervous system
  • Transduction
  • Transforming one energy into another sound or
    light- neural impulses

105
Visual System (eye)
  • Pupil opening in iris-light passes through
  • lens focuses light
  • Accommodation-the ciliary muscles changing the
    thickness of lens
  • Retina-layer of photoreceptors at the back of the
    eye-converts light into nerve energy

106
Visual System
  • Photoreceptors
  • Rods-active in dim light, lack color
  • Cones-normal viewing-color
  • Foveo-all cones- best viewing
  • Bipolar cells-combine impulses from receptors
    send to ganglion cells
  • Ganglion cells-integrates into a single fire rate
  • Amacrinehorizontal cells-integrate info across
    retina

107
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108
Visual Systems
  • Primary visual cortex-region in occipital lobe in
    which visual info is processed
  • Optic nerve-axons of ganglion cells that carry
    info from the eye to brain
  • Optic tracts-deliver info to 2 clusters
  • 2 sides of brain w/ same pattern on each side
  • Color-spectrum (wave lengths)
  • Hue-captures the qualitative experience
  • Brightness-intensity
  • Additive color-combining wavelengths
  • Subtractive color
  • Saturation-purityvividness

109
Visual Systems
  • -Colorblindness
  • Sex linked
  • Connected to X

110
Visual Systems
  • Trichromatic Theory (Thomas YoungHermann von
    Helmholte)
  • 3 types of color receptors-blue, red, green

111
Visual Systems
  • Opponent-process theory (Ewald Hering)
  • All color experiences come from 3 systems, red v
    green blue v yellow - black (no color) v white
    (all colors)

112
Visual Systems
  • Receptive field
  • Visual area from which a given ganglion cell
    receives info (selective)

113
Hearing
  • Sine waves-1,100 / second
  • 2 properties
  • Frequency-measured in hertz (HZ)
  • of cycles/time
  • Amplitude-strength-peak/valley
  • Pitch-highness or lowness of sound
  • 20 HZ-20,000 HZ
  • Piano 88 keys, 30 HZ 4,000 HZ
  • Loudness-physical intensity, determined by
    amplitude
  • Large amplitudeloud
  • Smallsoft
  • Decibel levels-measures loudness
  • Timbre-complexity of sound waves
  • Pure sound 1 sound wave

114
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115
Physiology
  • 4 energy transformations
  • 1)airborne sound waves to fluid waves
  • 2)fluid waves to mechanical vibrations
  • 3)vibrations to electrical impulses
  • 4)impulses to auditory cortex

116
Physiology
  • Sound travels
  • 1)external ear-reflects of pinna through outer
    ear canal
  • Hits eardrum (tympanic membrane)
  • 2)Middle Ear-3 small bones
  • Hammer, anvil stirrup (vibrate)
  • 3)inner ear
  • Cochlea primary organ of hearing (fluid filled)
  • Basilar membrane inside cochlea
  • Transform fluid wave to nerve impulses w/
    stimulus of hair cells
  • Auditory nerve
  • Carries nerve impulses from cochlea to brain
  • Auditory cortex
  • In temperal lobe
  • Receives auditory nerve impulses

117
Place Theory (George von Bekesy)
  • Different frequency tones produce maximum
    activation at different locations along basilar
    membrane, w/ the result that pitch can be coded
    by the place that which activation occurs.

118
Frequency Theory
  • Tones produce a rate of vibration in the basilar
    membrane equal to frequency, w/ the result that
    pitch can be coded by frequency of the neural
    response.
  • Volley Principle
  • When peaks in sound waves come too frequently for
    a single neuron to fire at each peak, several
    neurons fire a group at the frequency of the
    stimulus tone

119
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120
Other Senses
  • Smell Olfactory cilia
  • 80 molecules to stimulate
  • 40 nerve endings to smell
  • Olfactory bulb
  • Center for smelling
  • Located just below the frontal lobe of the cortex
  • Pheromones
  • Chemicals secreted to signal sexual receptivity,
    danger, territory food.

121
Other Senses
  • Taste-greatly influenced by smell
  • Tongue
  • Papillae-bumpy surface
  • Four primary nerve endings
  • Tastes-sweet, sour, bitter, salty
  • 5th umani MSG (Mono Sodium Glutamate)
  • Regenerates frequently

122
Other Senses
  • Touch
  • Skin-cutaneous senses (skins senses)
  • Meissner corpuscles
  • rubbing
  • Merkel disks
  • pressure
  • Erogenous zones
  • Skin that is especially sensitive
  • Gives rise to erotic / sexual sensations

123
Touch cont.
  • Vestibular / kinesthetic
  • Helps head position w/ gravity
  • Inner ear/fluidhairs
  • Ex. Motion sickness (reading in car)
  • Kinesthetic
  • Constant sensory feedback about what the body is
    doing during motor activity.

124
Pain
  • Bodys response to stimulation from noxious
    stimuli, threaten or cause tissue damage
  • 2 types of pain
  • Nociceptive negative feeling ex. touch hot
    stove
  • Neuropathic-over use, abnormal functioning ex
    (injury disease) Phantom Limb Phenomenon

125
Perception
  • The set of processes that organize information in
    the sensory image and interpret that information
    as having been produced by objects or events in
    the external world
  • Role is to make sense of sensations
  • What is perceived
  • The overall process of apprehending objects and
    events in the environment

126
Perception
  • 3 stages
  • Sensation-conversion of physical energy in to
    neural code
  • Perceptual organization-internal perception of an
    object is formed and a percept of the external
    stimulus is developed. Working representation of
    the perceivers external environment
    ex(vision-seize, shape, movement, distance)
  • Identification/recognition-assigns meaning to
    percepts (ex. Circles become coins, balls clocks
    etc.)

127
Stimuli
  • Retinal image 2 dimensional
  • Distal
  • Physical objects in the world
  • Proximal
  • Optical image on the retina
  • Ambiguity
  • Perceptual object that may have more than one
    interpretation
  • Illusions
  • Perceptual systems actually deceive you into
    experiencing a stimulus pattern in a manner that
    is a demonstratably incorrect

128
Abiguity
129
Abiguity
130
Abiguity
131
Illusion
132
Illusion
133
Illusion
134
Study of Perception
  • Helmoltz (1866)-nurture
  • Using prior knowledge
  • Unconscious inferences
  • Perception that occurs outside of conscious
    awareness
  • Analytic stage-break physical world down
  • Synthetic stage-integrate and synthesize

135
Study of Perception
  • Gestalt-Koffka(1935)/Kohler (1947)/ Wertheimer
    (1923)
  • Viewed as organized, structured wholes
  • Whole is more than the sum of its parts

136
Gestalt principals
137
Study of Perception
  • Theory of Ecological options GibsonGibson
    (19661979)
  • Focused on the properties of external stimuli
  • Perceiver as an explorer of the environment

138
Attentional Processes
  • Attention-state of focused awareness on a subset
    of the available perceptual information

139
Attentional Processes
  • Goal directed selection
  • Choices you make about objects to which youd
    like to attend

140
Attentional Processes
  • Stimulus-driven capture
  • Features of stimulus-objects in the environment,
    capture your attention

141
Attentional Processes
  • Filter Theory (Broadbent 1958)
  • Mind has limited capacity to take in info. the
    selection occurs early on in the process before
    the inputs meaning is accessed
  • Dichotic listening
  • Different auditory stimulus is simultaneously
    presented in each ear

142
Attentional Processes
  • Preattentive Processes
  • Processing of sensory information that precedes
    attention to specific objects
  • Allows guided search

143
Organizational Processes
  • Divides stimuli into figures
  • Figures-object like regions of the visual field
    that are distinguished from background
  • Ground-backdrop or background areas of the visual
    field against which figures stick out

144
Organizational Processes
  • Illusory contours
  • Contours perceived in a figure when no contours
    are present

145
Organizational Processes
  • Closure-makes you see incomplete figures as
    complete, balanced, symmetrical

146
Organizational Processes
  • Law of Proximity
  • Law of grouping states the nearest or most
    proximal, elements are grouped together

147
Organizational Processes
  • Law of similarity
  • Law of grouping states similar elements are
    grouped together

148
Organizational Processes
  • Law of common fate
  • Law of grouping states elements moving in same
    direction at the same rate are grouped together

149
Integration
  • Fixation-glance at something becomes fixed in
    mind
  • Spatialtemporal integration
  • Fixed locations in different moments for seeing
    what is around you

150
Motion
  • Changing of size
  • Induced motion
  • An illusion in which a stationary point of light
    with in a moving reference frame is seen as
    moving the reference frame is seen as stationary

151
Motion (Phi phenomenon)
  • Apparent motion-movement illusion in which one or
    more stationary lights going on and off in
    succession are perceived as a single moving light

152
Depth Perception
  • Depth-distance from an object

153
Depth Perception
  • Depth cues
  • Binocular
  • 2 eyes
  • Retinal disparity-displacement between the
    horizontal positions of corresponding images in
    the two eyes
  • Binocular disparity
  • Taking 2 different retinal images, compares then
    for horizontal displacement of corresponding parts

154
Depth Perception
  • Depth cues
  • Convergence
  • Degree to which eyes turn inward to fixate on an
    object

155
Depth Perception
  • Relative motion parallax
  • Depth, relative distances of object from a viewer
    determine the amount direction of their
    relative motion in the retinal image

156
Depth Perception
  • Pictorial cues
  • Depth perception using one eye
  • Interposition or occlusion
  • Blocking out an object (one is in front of
    another)
  • Shadows ex. Person inside window
  • Size/distance relation
  • Closest projects largest size
  • Railroad example

157
Ponzo Illusion
158
Depth Perception
  • Perceptual constancy
  • The ability to retain an unchanged percept of an
    object despite various retinal images ex. Person
    moving round-close, back etc.

159
Depth Perception
  • Size constancy
  • The ability to perceive the true size of an
    object despite variations in the size of the
    retinal image
  • Prior knowledge

160
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161
Depth Perception
  • Shape constancy
  • Ability to perceive the true shape of an object
    despite variation of size of retinal image

162
Depth Perception
  • Orientation constancy
  • Ability to perceive the actual orientation of
    objects in the real world despite their varying
    orientation in the retinal image
  • Whit help from inner ear

163
Depth Perception
  • Lightness constancy
  • The tendency to perceive the whiteness, grayness
    or blackness of objects as constant across
    changing levels of illumination

164
Bottom-up
  • Less to more abstract

165
Top-Down
  • Information passed down from experience
  • Abstract to concrete

166
Content Consciousness
  • State of awareness of internal events and of the
    external environment
  • Perceptions, feelings, thoughts, images, desires,
    etc.

167
Content Consciousness
  • Levels
  • 1.basic-innerouter world ex. hunger, cars
  • 2. Reflection of what you are aware of
  • 3. Top level-awareness of yourself as a
    conscious, reflective individual
  • Self awareness
  • Personal history, identity

168
Content Consciousness
  • Nonconscious processes
  • Bodily activates that rarely, if ever, impinge on
    consciousness i.e.. Blood pressure, heart, eyes

169
Content Consciousness
  • Preconscious memories
  • Memories accessible to conscious only after
    something calls your attention to them-your memory

170
Content Consciousness
  • Studying the unconscious
  • Think aloud protocols
  • Report made by experimental participants of their
    mental processes strategies while working on
    task
  • Experience-sampling model
  • Participants are asked to record
    feelingsthinking whenever signaled

171
Functions of Consciousness
  • Survival (James)
  • Making sense of environment
  • Restrictive function-lessens stimulus
  • Selective storage-categorizes
  • Executive control-stopremember back, use old
    experiences
  • Culture plays role
  • Consensus validation-culturepersonal views come
    together

172
Functions of Consciousness
  • Conscious often affected by unconscious
  • (SLIP) spoonerisms of Laboratory-Induced
    Predisposition
  • I.e.. Color of snow, what do cows drink

173
Sleep/Dreams
  • Circadian rhythms
  • Consistent pattern of cyclical body activities,
    usually lasting 24-25 hours
  • Internal biological clock
  • 24.18-hour cycle
  • Ex. Disruption-jet lag

174
Sleep/Dreams
  • Sleep cycle
  • Electroencephalogram (EEG)
  • Rapid eye movement (REM)-dreaming
  • Non rapid eye movement (NREM)-less dreams

175
Sleep/Dreams
  • Tracking sleep
  • Going to bed 14 cycles per second (CPS)
  • Relaxing in bed 8-12 CPS
  • Stage 13-7 CPS-sleep
  • Stage 212-16 CPS-sleep spindles
  • Mini bursts of electrical activity
  • Stage 341-2 CPS-deep sleep
  • Breathing/heart rate decrease
  • REM sleep-dreams

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Sleep/Dreams
  • Stages 1-4 about 90 min.
  • REM sleep 10 min
  • 100 min sleep cycle 4-6 1 night
  • Each cycle deep sleep decreases as REM sleep
    increases
  • Last cycle up to 1 hr REM
  • Sleepabout REM 75 NREM 25
  • Decrease in sleep w/ age

177
Sleep Issues
  • Conservation
  • Saving energy for daily task ex. When dark no
    need to hunt

178
Sleep Issues
  • Restoration
  • Replenish neurotransmitters neuromodulators

179
Sleep Issues
  • REM sleep
  • Might connect nervesmuscle pathways
  • Maintain mood and emotions
  • Balance brain

180
Sleep Disorders
  • Insomnia
  • Dissatisfied w/ sleep
  • Cannot fall asleep, light sleep, wake up early
  • Subjectivity of person

181
Sleep Disorders
  • Narcolepsy
  • Sleep during day time
  • Hit REM sleep instantly
  • Genetic

182
Sleep Disorders
  • Apnea
  • Stops breathing while sleeping
  • Daytime Sleepiness
  • Excessive sleepiness during daytime activity
  • 30 of HS students sleep 1x/day

183
Freud
  • Latent content-hidden meaning of a dream
  • Manifest content-surface content of a dream,
    might mask true meaning
  • Dream work-process which dreamer turns latent
    content into manifest content
  • Dream analysis-is to reverse process for dream
    work

184
Freud
  • Dreams-unconscious wishes
  • Idiosyncratic-individual dreams
  • Universal-dreams common to all

185
Non-Western
  • Many cultures more into dream analysis, sharing,
    importance

186
Lucid Dreaming
  • Ability to control ones dreams
  • Learned skill

187
Hypnosis
  • Hypnos-Greek god of sleep
  • Altered state of awareness
  • Deep relation, susceptibility to suggestion
  • Changes in perception, memory motivation self
    control

188
Hypnosis
  • Hypnotizability
  • Degree to which the individual is responsive to
    standardized hypnotic suggestions
  • Hypnotic analgesia
  • Ability to reduce pain
  • Auto hypnosis
  • Self induced

189
Meditation
  • Form of consciousness change designed to enhance
    self knowledge and well being by achieving a deep
    state of tranquility

190
Hallucinations
  • Vivid perceptions that occur in the absence of
    objective stimulation

191
Religious Ecstasy
  • Meditation, prayer, fasting, and spiritual
    communication

192
Drugs
  • Psychoactive
  • Affect mental processes and behavior by
    temporarily changing conscious awareness of
    reality
  • Alter brain function

193
Drugs
  • Tolerance
  • Greater amount required to achieve same effect

194
Drugs
  • Physiological dependence
  • Body becomes adjusted to and dependent on
    substance

195
Drugs
  • Addiction
  • Body must have, suffers pain/withdrawal

196
Drugs
  • Psychological dependence
  • Need or craving for drug

197
Learning
  • Conditional
  • The way in which events, stimuli and behavior
    become associated with one and other. Ex.
    Classical operant

198
Learning
  • Def-process that results in a relatively
    consistent change in behavior and is based on
    experience Ex. Improvement in performance,
    understanding, appreciation

199
Learning
  • Learning performance distinction
  • The difference between what has been learned and
    what is expressed or performed in overt behavior

200
Behaviorism
  • John Watson (1878-1958)-Psychology from the
    standpoint of a behaviorist
  • Observable behavior
  • Prediction and control of behavior
  • Baby Albert

201
Watson
  • http//youtube.com/watch?vKxKfpKQzow8

202
Behaviorism
  • Skinner (1904-1990) Walden Two, Beyond Freedom
    Dignity
  • Radical behaviorism
  • Environmental stimuli caused behavior

203
Behaviorism
  • Area of psychology that focuses on the
    environmental determinants of learning behavior

204
Classical Conditioning
  • Type of learning in which a behavior comes to be
    elicited by a stimulus that is acquired
  • Its power through an association w/ a
    biologically significant stimulus

205
Classical Conditioning
  • Founder Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)
  • Dog experiment
  • Reflex-unlearned response elicited by specific
    stimuli that have biological relevance for an
    organism

206
Classical Conditioning
  • How the experiment worked
  • Unconditional stimulus (UCS)
  • Stimulus that elicits an unconditioned response
    Ex. Dog food
  • Unconditional response (CS)
  • Response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus w/
    out prior training Ex. Dog salivates

207
Classical Conditioning
  • Neutral stimulus
  • Stimulus that has no previous meaning Ex. Bell or
    light
  • Conditioned stimulus
  • Previous neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a
    condition response Ex. Bell elicits salvation
  • Conditioned Response
  • A response elicited by some previous neutral
    stimulus that results from pairing the neutral
    stimulus w/ an unconditional stimulus

208
Classical Conditioning
  • Timing ( being contiguous)
  • CSUCS must be paired closely for conditioning to
    work

209
Classical Conditioning
  • Extinction
  • The weakening of conditioned association in the
    absence of a reinforcer or unconditioned stimuli

210
Classical Conditioning
  • Spontaneous recovery
  • After a rest period or time out, w/out further
    exposure to the UCS there is a sudden
    reappearance of the CR when CS is presented

211
Classical Conditioning
  • Stimulus generalization
  • Automatic extension of responding to stimuli that
    have never been paired w/original UCS
  • Stimulus discrimination
  • Respond differently to stimuli that are distinct
    from the CS on some dimension

212
Acquisition
  • Robert Resorta (1966- )
  • Proved need for condition procedure to be
    contiguous

213
Acquisition
  • Leon Kamin (1969)
  • CS must be informative
  • Blocking
  • Organism doesnt learn a new stimulus that
    signals an UCS because the new stimulus is
    presented simultaneously w/ a stimulus that is
    already effective as a signal

214
Acquisition
  • Drug use and conditioning
  • Place of use important
  • Shepard Siegel (1982)

215
Acquisition
  • Pychoneuroimmunology
  • Investigates interactions between psychological
    processes, such as response to stress the
    functions of the immune system

216
Operant Conditioning
  • Edward Thorndike (1898)
  • Puzzle boxes
  • Stimulus-response (S-R) connection
  • Cats claw at button opens door in puzzle box
    (freedom)
  • Law of effect
  • Law of learning that states the power of a
    stimulus to evoke a response is strengthened when
    the response is followed by a rewardweakened
    when it is not followed by a reward

217
Operant Conditioning
  • B.F Skinner
  • Operant (affecting environment)
  • Behavior emitted by an organism that can be
    characterized in terms of the observable effects
    it has on the environment
  • Reinforcement contingency
  • Consistent relationship between a response and
    the changes in the environment that it produces

218
Operant Conditioning
  • BF Skinner
  • Operant conditioning
  • Learning in which the probability of a response
    is changed by its consequences

219
Skinner
  • http//youtube.com/watch?vmm5FGrQEyBY

220
Operant Conditioning
  • Reinforcer
  • Stimulus that, when made contingent upon a
    response, increases the probability of that
    response
  • Positive reinforcement
  • Behavior is followed by the presentation of an
    appetitve stimulus, increasing the probability of
    that behavior

221
Operant Conditioning
  • Negative reinforcement
  • Behavior is followed by the removal of an
    aversive stimulus, increasing the probability of
    that behavior

222
Operant Conditioning
  • Operant extinction
  • Behavior no longer produces predictable
    consequences, returns to pre conditioned level
  • Punisher
  • Any stimulus that, when made contingent upon a
    response, decreases the probability of that
    response

223
Operant Conditioning
  • Positive punishment
  • Behavior is followed by the presentation of an
    aversive stimulus, decreasing probability of a
    behavior Ex. spanking
  • Negative punishment
  • A behavior is followed by the removal of an
    appetitive stimulus, decreasing the probability
    of that behavior Ex. grounding

224
Operant Conditioning
  • Discriminative stimuli Ex. Red light, green light
  • Stimuli that acts as predictors of reinforcement,
    signaling when particular behaviors will result
    in positive reinforcement

225
Operant Conditioning
  • Three-term contingency
  • The means by which organisms learn that, in the
    presence of some stimuli but not others, their
    behavior is likely to have a particular effect on
    the environment

226
Operant Conditioning
  • Primary reinforces
  • Food, water-biological needs
  • Conditioned enforcers (secondary)
  • Like in classical, formerly neutral stimuli have
    become reinforces

227
Operant Conditioning
  • Premack Principle (1965)
  • A more probable activity can be used to reinforce
    a less probable one. EX. Kyla clean room/watch
    video

228
Schedules of Reinforcement
  • Patterns of delivery and with holding
    reinforcement
  • Partial reinforcement
  • Response acquired under intermittent
    reinforcement are more difficult to extinguish
    than those acquired with continuous reinforcement

229
Schedules of Reinforcement
  • Fixed-ratio-reinforcer is delivered for the 1st
    response made after fixed number of responses Ex.
    Contract grading
  • Variable-ratio-reinforcer is delivered for the
    1st response made after variable number of
    responses whose average is predetermined Ex. Slot
    machine

230
Schedules of Reinforcement
  • Fixed interval-reinforcer is delivered for the
    1st response made after fixed period of time ex.
    Pay check
  • Variable interval- reinforcer is delivered for
    the 1st response made after a variable period f
    time whose average is predetermined. Ex. Pop
    quizzes

231
Schedules of Reinforcement
  • Shaping by successive approximations
  • Reinforce any response that successively
    approximates and ultimately matches desired
    response

232
Biology Learning
  • Biological constraints
  • limitations on learning imposed by species
    genetic endowment ex. Sensory, behavior,
    cognitive
  • Instinctual drift
  • The tendency for learned behavior to drift toward
    instinctual behavior ex. Raccoons, rubbing hands
  • Pias rooting

233
Biology Learning
  • Taste-aversion learning
  • John Garcia
  • Biological constraint on learning in which an
    organism learns in one trial to avoid food whose
    ingestion is followed by illness
  • Up to 12 hrs., one trial, permanent

234
Cognitive Influences on Learning
  • Animal cognition
  • The cognitive capabilities of a nonhuman animals
  • Researchers trace the development of cognitive
    capabilities across species the continuity of
    capabilities from nonhuman to human animals
  • Clever Hans (horse)

235
Cognitive Influences on Learning
  • Cognitive map
  • Mental representation of physical space
  • Animals use spatial memory to recognize
    identify features of the environment
  • Animals use spatial memory to find important goal
    objectives in their environment
  • Animals use spatial memory to plan their route
    through environment

236
Cognitive Influences on Learning
  • Observational learning
  • Process of learning new response s by watching
    the behavior of another
  • Acquire large pattern, less trial error

237
Cognitive Influences on Learning
  • Observational learning
  • Bandura
  • Adults punch BoBo, children watching do the same

238
Bandura
  • http//youtube.com/watch?vBTB-I-L3YIE

239
Cognitive Influences on Learning
  • Observational learning
  • Most influenced when
  • It is seen as having reinforcing consequences
  • The models perceived positive liked and respected
  • Perceived similarities between features traits
    and traits of the model and observer
  • Observer is rewarded for paying attention to
    model
  • Models behavior is visible and salient
  • Is within observers range of competence

240
Memory
  • The capacity to store and retrieve information
  • Ebbinghaus 1885
  • German study on memory with nonsense syllables
  • Ebbinhauss forgetting curve

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Memory
  • Implicit
  • Availability of info through memory processes
    with out the extension of any conscious effort to
    encode or recover information
  • Explicit
  • Continuous effort to recover information through
    memory processes

243
Memory
  • Declarative
  • memory for information such as facts and events
  • Procedural
  • Memory for how things get done, the way
    perceptual, cognitive and motor skills are
    acquired, retained and used

244
Memory
  • Encoding
  • The process by which a mental representation is
    formed in memory
  • Storage
  • Retention of encoded material overtime
  • Retrieval
  • The recovery of stored information from memory

245
Sensory Memory
  • Each sensory memory preserves accurate
    representations of the physical features of
    sensory stimuli for a few seconds or less
  • Ionic Memory
  • Sensory memory in visual domain

246
Sensory Memory
  • Echoic Memory
  • Sensory memory that allow auditory information to
    be stored for brief durations
  • 5-10 seconds

247
Short Term Memory STM
  • Memory process associated with preservation of
    recent experiences and with retrieval of
    information for long-term memory
  • Limited capacity, 7 bits/chunks (Miller 1956)

248
Sensory Memory
  • Stores for short amount of time with out
    rehearsal working memory
  • Used to accomplish tasks such as reasoning and
    language comprehension
  • Phonological loop-holds and manipulates speech
    based issues
  • Visio spatial sketch pad-holds and manipulates
    visual spatial issues
  • Central executive-controls attention and
    coordinates info from phonological loop and
    Visio-spatial sketch pad
  • Working memory span 2.5 to 4 words

249
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STM Strategies
  • Maintenance rehearsal
  • Repeating in head
  • Chunking
  • Process of taking single items of information and
    recording them on the basis of similarity or some
    other organizing principle
  • Retrieval form (STM)
  • Very swift (Sternberg 1966)

251
Long Term Memory LTM
  • Preservation of information for retrieval at any
    later time
  • Encoding specificity
  • Subsequent retrieval of info is enhanced if cues
    received at the time of recall are consistent
    with those present at the time of encoding ex.
    Doing homework

252
Long Term Memory LTM
  • Serial position effect
  • Memory retrieval in which the recall of beginning
    and end items on a list is often better than
    recall of items appearing in the middle
  • Primary effect-start of list
  • Regency effect-end of list

253
Long Term Memory LTM
  • Contextual distinctiveness
  • Serial position effects can be altered by the
    context and the distinctiveness of the experience
    being recalled

254
Long Term Memory LTM
  • Recall
  • Method of retrieval in which an individual is
    required to reproduce the into previously
    presented
  • Recognition
  • Method of retrieval in which an individual is
    required to identify stimulus as having been
    experienced before

255
Long Term Memory LTM
  • Retrieval cues
  • Internally or externally generated stimuli
    available to help with retrieval of a memory

256
Long Term Memory LTM
  • Endel Tulving (1972)
  • Episodic Memory
  • LT memories from autobiographical events and
    the context in which they
  • occurred
  • Semantic Memories
  • generic categorical memories, such as the
    meaning of words and concepts

257
Long Term Memory LTM
  • Interference
  • A memory phenomenon that occurs when retrieval
    cues do not point effectively to one specific
    memory
  • Proactive-forward acting
  • Retroactive-backward acting

258
Long Term Memory LTM
  • Levels-of-Processing Theory
  • Deeper the level at which information was
    processed, the more likely it is to be retained

259
Long Term Memory LTM
  • Transfer-appropriate processing
  • Memory is best when the type of processing
    carried out at encoding matches the process
    carried out at retrieval
  • Priming
  • In assessment of implicit memory the advantage
    conferred by prior exposure to a word or situation

260
Improving Memory
  • Elaborative rehearsal
  • While memorizing you enrich the material
  • Mnemonics
  • Use familiar information during encoding of new
    information to enhance subsequent access to the
    info in memory
  • Metamemory
  • Implicit or explicit knowledge about memory
    abilities and effective memory strategies
    cognition about memory

261
Improving Memory
  • Cue familiarity hypothesis
  • People base their feelings of knowing on their
    familiarity of retrieval cues
  • Feelings of knowing
  • Subjective sensations that you do have info
    stored in memory that is accurate

262
Improving Memory
  • Accessibility hypothesis
  • People base their judgment on the accessibility
    or availability of partial info from memory
  • Concepts
  • Mental representations of kinds or categories of
    items or ideas
  • Prototype
  • The most representative example of a category

263
Improving Memory
  • Basic level
  • Level of categorization that can be retrieved
    from memory most quickly and used most
    efficiently
  • Schemes
  • General conceptual frameworks or clusters of
    knowledge, regarding objects, people, and
    situations
  • Knowledge packages that encode generalizations
    about structure of the environment

264
Improving Memory
  • Reconstructive memory
  • Putting information together based on general
    types of stored knowledge in the absence of a
    specific memory representation
  • Bartlett (1932)
  • Leveling simplifying
  • Sharpening- highlighting overemphasizing
  • Assimilating- changing details to better fit the
    tellers background
  • Eyewitness memory
  • Elizabeth Loft (1979, 1992)
  • Distorted by post event info

265
Biological Aspects of Memory
  • Engram
  • The physical memory trace for information in the
    brain
  • Karl Lashlery (1929, 1950)
  • Widely distributed

266
Biological
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