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The Road to Revolution

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The Road to Revolution Do Now What do you think is going to be the biggest reason the colonies will revolt against England and why? Impact of Enlightenment Spread of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Road to Revolution


1
The Road to Revolution
  • Do Now
  • What do you think is going to be the biggest
    reason the colonies will revolt against England
    and why?

2
Why did the American Revolution begin?
3
Impact of Enlightenment
  • Spread of Republicanism
  • Voltaire- civil liberties, freedom of religion
  • Montesquieu- 3 branches- executive, legislature,
    judicial
  • Locke- natural rights of man
  • Smith- capitalism, free trade, market economy
  • Hobbes- social contract, submit to sovereign
    authority. Leviathan
  • Rosseau-social contract, liberal republicanism

4
Englands Policies towards the Colonies
  • Original policy
  • Salutory Neglect
  • As long as colonies provided raw materials and
    engaged in trade, they were generally left alone
  • Some taxes, but not much!
  • Post 1763
  • Mercantilism
  • Forced trade imbalance where Englands exports to
    the colonies are much more than the import value
    of products from the colonies.

5
Homework
  • Make a chart showing the positives and negatives
    in the mercantile relationship between the mother
    country and the colony.
  • There are actually and for each. Obviously
    more for mother and for colony but think of
    as many as you can.

6
Mother Country (England) Colony (U.S.)
  • Positive trade balance
  • Raw Materials
  • land
  • tax base/ population
  • worldwide respect
  • paying/skilled jobs
  • Protection
  • Automatic trading partner
  • Some rights/ freedoms
  • Jobs
  • technology

P o S I T I V E s
  • Spreads out military
  • Possible revolts
  • Cost of defending territory
  • Tension with other countries
  • Depleted resources
  • Less freedoms/rights
  • Low paying jobs
  • Forced to buy English products

N E G A T I V E s
7
Early English Acts
  • Navigation Acts 1650-1673
  • Series of laws designed to force the colonies to
    trade only with England
  • Molasses Act 1733
  • Hard to enforce, led to smuggling, England eased
    up until 1763!!

8
Effects of French and Indian War
  • England
  • Almost total control of N. America
  • 1763- turning point of English policy!!!!
  • Who was at fault for the war???
  • Who pays for it???
  • England in severe debt!!! 60 of their national
    budget was to pay off the war loan interest!!!
  • Switch from Salutory Neglect to mercantilism

9
Proclamation of 1763
  • Prevented colonists from moving west of
    Appalachian Mts.
  • Why we pissed??
  • Why England did it?
  • Avoid conflict between colonists and natives
  • buffer
  • War costs

10
Taxing time!!!
  • Sugar Act 1764
  • Taxed French molasses and sugar products
  • Actually reduced the English molasses tax in
    1/2!!!!
  • Stamp Act 1765
  • All printed items
  • Townshend Acts 1767
  • Series of acts taxing imports (glass/lead/tea/etc.
    )
  • Tea Act 1773
  • Tax on American tea, but not British!!
  • Do we have a right to complain about these
    taxes?????
  • Reality check!!!!
  • Colonists paid 1/20th the amount of taxes as the
    average English citizen!!!
  • Tea tax 1 year extra if you drank a gallon of
    tea every day!!
  • Sugar and tea are indirect taxes!!!!
  • Basically all the taxes were repealed within a
    year!!

11
Do Now-
  • How can the colonists protest the taxes to try
    and get them repealed or reduced?
  • Give at least 3 ways.

12
Reactions!!!!
  • Stamp Act Congress 1765
  • James Otis no taxation without representation
  • 14 grievances to England (Declaration of Rights
    and Grievances)
  • Unified???
  • Stamp act repealed a year later, but England made
    Declaratory Act 1766
  • England has the right to make laws on its
    colonists!!!
  • Boycotts
  • Riots
  • Hanging in Effigy
  • Tar and Feathering
  • Boston Tea Party 1773

13
Sons of Liberty
  • Formed after Stamp Act
  • Samuel Adams
  • 1st to want complete independence
  • The brains and the muscle of the group
  • Basically the founder of the Revolution, it was
    his full time job!
  • Committee of Correspondence
  • John Hancock
  • The man and frontman
  • Liberty Tree/Pole

14
Gaspee Affair
  • Ship ran aground
  • Rhode Island Sons of Liberty boarded, looted, and
    burned the ship
  • Trial for treason?

15
Boston Massacre
  • 5 people dead
  • Crispus Attacks
  • How did the British government react to the
    Massacre?????
  • They put 9 soldiers on trial!!!
  • 2 found guilty of manslaughter
  • And we still complained!!

16
Intolerable Acts-1774
  • Quartering Act
  • Troops sleep in peoples homes
  • Boston Port Act
  • Closes the harbor
  • Massachusetts Government Act
  • Ends all colonial charters
  • Administration of Justice Act
  • Troops tried in London
  • Quebec Act
  • Rights for French Canadians living in Quebec
    region

17
1st Continental Congress-1774
  • Met to discuss Intolerable Acts
  • 12/13 colonies (no Georgia)
  • Declaration of Resolves
  • calls for a boycott with all British trade
  • If England doesnt agree, they will meet again
  • King George "The die is now cast, the colonies
    must either submit or triumph."

18
Common Sense- Thomas Paine
  • Pamphlet urging colonists to revolt
  • Why name it Common Sense???
  • Written anonymously- Why???
  • Paine a British citizen
  • 500,000 copies sold 1st year
  • Total population of colonies was 2.5 million!!
  • Homework 5 Read Common Sense and answer the
    question
  • 1. Give 5 reasons the colonists should revolt.
  • 2. Which is the most logical argument and why?

19
2nd Continental Congress
  • May 1775
  • How to deal with English military threat
  • Reconciliation? War? Independence?
  • Lexington and Concord
  • British went to get back weapons (Concord) and
    arrest Adams and Hancock (Lexington)
  • shot heard round the world
  • Who won???
  • Basically an undeclared state of war existed
  • Benedict Arnold and Ethan Allen seize Lake
    Champlain and Lake George
  • http//www.schooltube.com/video/eec8702db88e04d474
    53/School20House20Rock20-20Shot20Heard20'Rou
    nd20the20World20(America20Rock)
  • Olive Branch Petition
  • loyal subjects
  • King George says state of rebellion exists
  • http//www.learner.org/workshops/primarysources/re
    volution/docs/olive.html
  • Declaration of Independence 1776

20
Ralph Waldo Emerson-Concord Hymn
  • By the rude bridge that arched the flood,Their
    flag to Aprils breeze unfurled,Here once the
    embattled farmers stood,And fired the shot heard
    round the world.The foe long since in silence
    sleptAlike the conqueror silent sleepsAnd
    Time the ruined bridge has sweptDown the dark
    stream which seaward creeps.On this green bank,
    by this soft stream,We set to-day a votive
    stoneThat memory may their deed redeem,When,
    like our sires, our sons are gone.Spirit, that
    made those heroes dare,To die, and leave their
    children free,Bid Time and Nature gently
    spareThe shaft we raise to them and thee.

21
Declaration of Independence
  • Thomas Jefferson chosen to write it
  • Good writer From Va. . Youngest
  • Basically, a very good essay!!- What do you think
    it will say???
  • Preamble (Intro)- Topic Sentence
  • 1st body- Enlightenment Philosophy on purpose of
    government
  • 2nd body
  • What England has done wrong as to why the
    colonists must leave
  • Conclusion
  • Were gone!!!! Bye-Bye!!!!

22
Preamble
  • When in the Course of human events it becomes
    necessary for one people to dissolve the
    political bands which have connected them with
    another and to assume among the powers of the
    earth, the separate and equal station to which
    the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle
    them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind
    requires that they should declare the causes
    which impel them to the separation.

23
Enlightenment Philosophy
  • We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all
    men are created equal, that they are endowed by
    their Creator with certain unalienable Rights,
    that among these are Life, Liberty and the
    pursuit of Happiness. That to secure these
    rights, Governments are instituted among Men,
    deriving their just powers from the consent of
    the governed, That whenever any Form of
    Government becomes destructive of these ends, it
    is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish
    it, and to institute new Government, laying its
    foundation on such principles and organizing its
    powers in such form, as to them shall seem most
    likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.

24
Bitch List!!
  • You should be able to figure them out!!!!!
  • Taxes w/out consent
  • Quartering act
  • Suspending local govt etc. etc.

25
Conclusion
  • We, therefore, the Representatives of the united
    States of America, in General Congress,
    Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the
    world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in
    the Name, and by Authority of the good People of
    these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare,
    That these united Colonies are, and of Right
    ought to be Free and Independent States, that
    they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the
    British Crown, and that all political connection
    between them and the State of Great Britain, is
    and ought to be totally dissolved and that as
    Free and Independent States, they have full Power
    to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances,
    establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and
    Things which Independent States may of right do.
    And for the support of this Declaration, with a
    firm reliance on the protection of Divine
    Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our
    Lives, our Fortunes, and our sacred Honor.

26
U.S. Birth???
  • Is July 4th, 1776 our birth as a nation????
  • http//www.schooltube.com/video/5e7be343a2d04142bc
    56/Schoolhouse20Rock-20Fireworks

27
The Bostonians in Distress
  • Is this cartoon sympathetic or mocking the
    colonists?
  • How does the cartoonists depict the colonists?
  • What aspects of the picture suggest that the men
    in the cage do not deserve respect?

28
An Attempt to Land a Bishop in America
  • How is this cartoon a reaction to the Quebec Act?
  • What does this show about the relationship
    between religion and the revolution?

29
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