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The Rebellions of 1837

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The Rebellions of 1837 Family Compact The Chateau Clique Council of Twelve Lower Canadian Rebellion Upper Canadian Rebellion Canadian Democracy is Born! – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Rebellions of 1837


1
The Rebellions of 1837
  • Family Compact
  • The Chateau Clique
  • Council of Twelve
  • Lower Canadian Rebellion
  • Upper Canadian Rebellion

2
Lead up to Rebellion
Papineau
  • Lower Canada lead by Louis-Joseph Papineau
    (aristocratic)
  • Upper Canada lead by William Lyon Mackenzie
    (newspaperman)
  • Reasons were the same a colonial administration
    out of touch with its subjects
  • In Upper Canada political change
  • In Lower Canada political change with language
    and culture

Mackenzie
3
Political Problems
  • The root problem was having elected assemblies
    under the control of appointed councils.
  • Councils and assemblies could not get along.
  • In Lower Canada the elected assembly was mostly
    French Canadian and the council was English
    Canadian.

4
Chateau Clique
  • Château Clique, a nickname given to the small
    group of officials, usually members of the
    anglophone merchant community.
  • The term referred to the governor's residence and
    the location of government offices, Château
    St-Louis.

The Château St-Louis burned down in 1834.
5
Chateau Clique
  • Included James McGill and John Molson , who
    dominated the executive and legislative councils,
    the judiciary and senior bureaucratic positions
    of Lower Canada until the 1830s.

James McGill
McGill University
6
Chateau Clique
  • John Molson, brewer, banker, steamship builder.
  • He also entered the lumber business during the
    building boom of the early 1800s, built a hotel
    and in 1821 established the colony's first
    distillery and financed the Champlain and Saint
    Lawrence Railroad, the first railway in Canada.

7
Rule by Clique
  • The French Canadians were still able to get
    French language as the language of government.
  • The elected assemblies could only use their power
    in a negative manner.
  • They could block the government from making laws
    but could make no law.
  • British immigrants poured into Lower Canada.
  • Two different types of immigrants
  • Poor Irish coming to Canada to improve their
    lives came as human ballast on lumber ships.
  • Middle class Brits looking to make it rich.
  • Canada was settled by extremes of middle class
    and poor.
  • America was settled by middle class.

8
Rule by Clique
  • The Clique aggressively pursued canal building,
    the establishment of banking institutions, and
    the abolition of the Seigneurial System and
    French Civil Law.
  • In the 1820s the Clique opposed efforts by the
    assembly to control public revenues and continued
    their efforts aimed at the assimilation of French
    Canadians.
  • In 1822, the Clique supported a scheme to reunite
    Upper and Lower Canada.
  • In the 1830s, the Clique blocked Louis-Joseph
    Papineau's resolutions demanding Responsible
    Government.

9
Family Compact
  • In Upper Canada the oligarchy was called the
    Family Compact.
  • Comprised of Conservatives, members of the
    Anglican Church, Loyalists and self proclaimed
    defenders of 1812.
  • Most often the families were related in one way
    or another.

Bank of Upper Canada
  • They were centered at York Toronto, linked
    by family patronage and shared political and
    social beliefs to the professional and
    mercantile upper middle class.

10
The Family Compact
  • The group emerged after John Graves Simcoe, Upper
    Canada's first lieutenant-governor, attempted to
    create a local aristocracy by appointing his
    Loyalist friends to government posts and granting
    them land.

John Graves Simcoe
11
The Family Compact
  • The next generation included Sir John Beverley
    Robinson and John Strachan, who were drawn into
    the governing Tory conservative elite.

John Strachan
Sir John Beverley Robinson
12
A Deteriorating Situation
  • In Lower Canada the seigneurial system had failed
    to protect the elites.
  • By 1830 more than ½ of the estates were in
    English hands.
  • It was the Molsons and the McGills that
    controlled the Clique.

13
The Patriotes
The Patriotes was the name given after 1826 to
the Parti Canadien and to the popular movement
that contributed to the Rebellions of 1837-38 in
Lower Canada.
  • Primarily francophone party,
  • Led mainly by members of the liberal professions
    and small-scale merchants,
  • Widely supported by farmers, day-labourers and
    craftsmen.
  • Led by Louis-Joseph Papineau, Jean-Olivier
    Chénier and Wolfred Nelson.

Louis-Joseph Papineau
14
The Patriotes
Besides Papineau, Wolfred Nelson and Jean-Olivier
Chénier were leading figures of the Patriotes.
Dr. Wolfred Nelson
Jean-Olivier Chénier
15
The Patriotes
  • The Patriotes dominated the elected House of
    Assembly in Lower Canada.
  • Their adversaries, the merchant bourgeoisie,
    the aristocracy and the colonial administration,
    controlled the appointed Legislative Council,
    which held most of the power.
  • The Patriotes demanded greater power for assembly
    members, including increased ministerial
    responsibility and eligibility for appointment to
    the council.
  • Their demands, put forth in the name of democracy
    and the right of peoples to self-government,
    marked a liberal, nationalist and anticolonial
    ideology.

16
The Patriotes
  • In 1834, the Patriotes listed their major
    complaints in the "Ninety-Two Resolutions" sent
    to the British government.
  • Britain rejected this call for reform, which
    caused many demonstrations verbal violence soon
    gave way to physical violence.

17
Fights in the Streets
  • Lower Canada crops had failed
  • Immigrants were flooding into the colony
    (English, Irish)
  • Cholera in the cities killing 1000s
  • A violent clash between the Doric Club and the
    patriote organization the Fils de la Liberte on
    November 6, 1837 was a prelude to the Lower
    Canadian Rebellions of 1837.

18
Fights in the Streets
  • Doric Club, founded 1836 in Montréal, a
    paramilitary political association of young
    anglophone Tories.
  • Set up by Adam Thom who later became a secretary
    for Lord Durham.
  • The Doric Club dissolved when many of its members
    were recruited by General Colborne to fight the
    rebels.

19
Rebellion
  • Britain sent an answer to the 92 Resolutions -
    the answer was NO!
  • Lower Canada had waited for 3 years.
  • Papineau spoke against the British rule.
  • Dr. Wolfred Nelson, hero of the War of 1812,
    joined the patriotes.
  • Revolutionary assembly would meet at St.-Denis.

20
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21
Battle of St.-Denis
  • With the Richelieu Valley in revolt the governor
    sent British troops and Canadian militia to
    arrest the leaders.
  • The Patriotes blockaded the streets in St.-Denis
    and waited for the British.
  • In a few short minutes the British were forced to
    retreat.
  • The Patriotes had won the battle.

22
Battles of St.-Charles and St.-Eustache
  • Two days later in November British troops killed
    60 Patriotes and arrested many others.
  • The battle of St.-Charles was over quickly.
  • With the rebellion over in the towns the governor
    turned to Montreal.
  • The Patriotes had invaded the town of Oka and
    stole weapons.
  • At St.-Eustache British troops and Canadian
    militia killed 100 Patriotes and set the town on
    fire.

23
Death of a Dream
  • The rebellion in collapse Dr. Robert Nelson
    (brother of Dr. Wolfred Nelson) went south to
    find Papineau.
  • Papineau refused to fight.
  • Nelson said of Papineau, A man fit only for
    words, but not of action.
  • Nelson gathered troops in America and returned in
    1838.
  • When he returned to the States he was arrested.

24
Lord Seaton
  • In 2 years of battles 27 soldiers and 300 French
    Canadians were killed
  • Lord Satan John Colborne a former
    Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada put down the
    revolt.
  • He had no love of the French Canadians he burned
    estates and arrested thousands.

25
The Family Compact
  • The Family Compact fought for Anglican Religion
    in schools
  • the rebels in Upper Canada wanted public schools
    and a separation of church and state
  • Many moderates fought within the system but
    accomplished little, William Lyon Mackenzie was a
    fiery newspaperman who did more.
  • Mackenzie a penniless son of a widow
  • Mackenzie was opposed to the large land grants
    given to the Anglican Church
  • Mackenzie attacked the Family Compact over every
    matter
  • The Compact harassed Mackenzie.

26
Muckraker
  • Hated by the establishment but loved by the
    people Mackenzie was a real muckraker
  • Mackenzie was first elected to the assembly in
    1828 and kicked out by the rest of the members
  • He was quickly re-elected and just as quickly
    expelled
  • 4 times he was expelled by the ruling Tories

27
Report on Grievances
  • In 1834 William Lyon Mackenzie became the first
    mayor of Toronto Muddy York.
  • All the while denouncing the ruling families of
    Upper Canada.
  • Mackenzie roamed Upper Canada getting a list of
    all the wrongs of the ruling elite.
  • The complaints came in at 500 pages, Upper
    Canadas idea of the 92 resolutions.
  • Mackenzies was the Report on Grievances
  • Demanded everything from responsible government
    to a new and lower postage stamp.

28
Sir Francis Bond Head
  • Along came Sir Francis Bond Head appointed as
    Lieutenant-Governor.
  • A real Brit with the ideas of an upper class
    English gentleman.
  • He did not trust reformers and hated Mackenzie.
  • Reformers in the assembly stopped funds from
    going to the government.
  • Bond Head called an election.

Sir Francis Bond Head
29
A Bought Election
  • Bond Head did not stay out of the election.
  • He campaigned for the Conservatives and used
    bribes to get votes.
  • Only landowners could vote so he gave grants of
    land to supporters.
  • The bribes and scare tactics worked the
    Conservatives won a majority.
  • Mackenzie could do worse
  • changed the name of the newspaper from The
    Colonial Advocate to The Constitution
  • Came up with the Toronto Declaration
  • Inspired by the Lower Canadian Rebellion
    Mackenzie preached rebellion

30
Montgomerys Tavern
  • More than 600 men gathered at Montgomery's Tavern
    on Yonge Street.
  • Bond Head said no reformers would try anything
    while he was in charge.
  • He had sent the garrison to Montreal to put down
    the Lower Canadian Rebellion.

31
Bar Room Brawl
  • Mackenzies men and Sheriff Jarviss men met.
  • Jarvis's men fired and everyone ran.
  • The battle was over.
  • The next day Bond Head took the militia to
    Montgomerys Tavern arrested the rebels and
    torched the tavern.
  • Mackenzie escaped to America.

32
British Values Win Again
  • Mackenzie raised forces and money in America
    landed on Navy Island and declared himself
    president of the Canadian Republic.
  • It was over quickly, more than 1000 rebels
    captured, 20 hanged, and 800 prisoners taken.
  • The Judge that hanged them imprisoned them or
    sent them to Australia was a member of the Family
    Compact.

33
A New Party
  • The British pardoned both Papineau and Mackenzie.
  • Wolfred Nelson could return and all were
    re-elected.
  • Papineau and his reformers would set up the
    parti rouge later they would join with
    English-Canadian reformers and become the Liberal
    Party.
  • Mackenzie dropped from sight.

Mackenzies Grave in Toronto
34
Canadian Democracy is Born!
  • Rebellions of 1837 as a struggle for democracy
    and self rule by elected representatives.
  • The rebellions changed both the Canadas and the
    British Empire.
  • Britain realized that if rebellions could happen
    in the most stable of colonies, they could happen
    anywhere.
  • The Rebellions were American Revolutions in
    miniature, and though at the time they seemed to
    have failed, they cleared the way for
    self-government, and just beyond self-government,
    nationhood.

35
Did You Know?
  • William Lyon Mackenzie King, politician and prime
    minister of Canada during the periods of 1921-26,
    1926-30 and 1935-48 was the grandson of William
    Lyon Mackenzie.

36
Did You Know?
  • Canada sent a battalion of volunteers to fight in
    the Spanish Civil War in 1937.
  • Most call this war the start of World War II,
    because it was a war of democracy against
    fascism.
  • The battalion was called the Mackenzie Papineau
    Battalion
  • or the MAC PAPS

37
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