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class 3: 09/12/11


class 3: 09/12/11 building research skills – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: class 3: 09/12/11

  • class 3 09/12/11
  • building research skills

  • research
  • Objectivity cannot be equated with mental
    blankness rather, objectivity resides in
    recognizing your preferences and then subjecting
    them to especially harsh scrutinyand also in a
    willingness to revise or abandon your theories
    when the tests fail (as they usually do).
  • (Stephen Jay Gould, 1998, p.

developing good eyes
  • Harry Wolcott tells the story of Nathaniel
    Shaler who, in the late 1800's at age18, began a
    tutorial in the lab of Louis Agassiz, the eminent
    biologist-naturalist of his time in US.
  • Shaler was directed to sit at a small
    table with a rusty tin pan on it. Agassiz placed
    before him a small fish, directing him only to
    "study it" without damaging the specimen and to
    confine his attention to the specimen itself,
    rather than consulting printed sources or
    conversing with other individuals in the

  • After about an hour, Shaler . . . had
    completed his examination and was ready to
    proceed to a more challenging task. . . . To his
    mounting distress, however, Shaler realized that
    Agassiz . . . had no immediate intention of
    returning to question him. Not that day, not the
    next, not for a week. And so Shaler committed
    himself anew to the task of observationand in
    due course felt he had learned a hundred times
    more than in his cursory initial inspection. . . .

  • On the seventh day...Agassiz approached and
    inquired, "Well?" His question unleashed an
    hour-long explication, while Agassiz sat on the
    edge of the table and puffed a cigar. Suddenly,
    he interrupted with the statement, "That is not
    right," and walked abruptly away.
  • Fortunately, Shaler interpreted Agassiz's
    behavior as a test of whether he could do hard,
    continuous work without constant direction. He
    returned to his observation task afresh,
    discarding his original set of notes and working
    up detailed new ones

  • for some ten hours a day for another week.
    And at the end of that time . . . he had results
    that astonished himself and apparently satisfied
    Agassiz, for although there were no words of
    praise, Agassiz subsequently placed before him a
    new and more complicated task and told him to see
    what he could make of it. That task took two
    months. (1981, pp. 248-249)
  • So. . . what did you observe on your
    5-minute-a-day exercise?

the 3 levels of seeing
  • All there is to thinking doing research, he
    said, is seeing something noticeable which makes
    you see something you werent noticing which
    makes you see something that isnt even visible.
    (Norman Maclean, 1976, p. 92)

  1. the immediately visible
  2. that which is visible but noticeable only to the
    careful observer
  3. the invisible or the unobservable

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  • white college-student leaders.
  • red Chinese little or no English.
  • blue Korean little or no English.
  • dark green Indonesian little or no English
  • red with yellow faces Hong Kong Cantonese,
  • purple singleton Chinese-American English
  • bright green, to the left Congolese Lingala,
  • to their right, orange Sri Lankan Sinhalese,
  • brown Philippino Filipino, English
  • purple Kenyan Swahili, English
  • light blue European-American English
  • tan African-American English
  • gray Peruvian Spanish, English.
  • exceptions purple (Congo) at either end
  • brown (Philippines)
    toward either end.

ALL researchers must attend to
  • precision and accuracy
  • precision exactness of description
  • accuracy extent to which we are describing what
    we say we are describing
  • bias and efficiency
  • bias systematic error in description
  • efficiency maximizing the information gathered

  • the observation n problem
  • how many observations do I need
  • risk
  • will my research put someone at-risk
  • resources and constraints
  • how much time, money etc. do I have
  • what is possible, or not
  • including relevant factors and excluding
    irrelevant factors
  • am I observing the right things

  • framing research questions
  • There is no such thing as a logical method of
    having new ideas . . . . Discovery contains an
    irrational element, or a creative intuition.
    (Karl Popper)

Krathwohl ch 6 the literature review
  • functions (p. 107)
  • define and refine question (problem)
  • what is known, who knows it, and how well its
  • relates question (problem) to network of theory
    and explanations
  • finds methods and designs, problems, refinements

  • getting started
  • existing reviews (RER, RRE)
  • handbooks
  • organization (AERA, DEC, OEH, ASA, AAA, etc.)
  • key articles references
  • researchers familiar with the area
  • ERIC
  • Google Scholar
  • See Krathwohl figure 6.1

  • terms
  • controlled vocabulary
  • keyword indexing
  • citation indexing
  • original and secondary sources
  • copy Table 6.1 and keep
  • copy Tips for Writing Lit Review (pp. 127-128)
    and keep

  • from Krathwohl
  • Many researchers, especially those who use
    qualitative or inductive methods, expect their
    problem focus to emerge as they do their study.
    Therefore, to consult the literature too early
    will burden them with other peoples perceptions
    rather than allowing them to form their own. (p.
  • inductive proceeding from particular facts to a
    general conclusion

  • Vogt
  • aggregate data
  • applied research
  • case study
  • control for
  • dummy variable (first paragraph)
  • ecological fallacy
  • emic, etic
  • endogenous, exogenous
  • experiment (first third paragraph)
  • gamblers fallacy

ethicsSieber Ch 3
  • general ethical principles
  • beneficence
  • respect
  • justice

  • six norms
  • valid design
  • competence of researcher
  • identification of consequences
  • selection of subjects
  • voluntary informed consent
  • compensation for injury

  • Academic misconduct includes, but is not limited
  • Fabrication or falsification of data, including
    intentionally misleading, selective, or
    deliberately false reporting of credentials or
    other academically related information.
    Unacknowledged appropriation of the work of
    others, including plagiarism, the abuse of
    confidentiality with respect to unpublished
    materials, or misappropriation of physical
  • Evasion of or intentional failure after notice by
    the University or federal, state, or another
    appropriate agency to comply with research
    regulations or requirements, including but not
    limited to those applying to human subjects,
    laboratory animals, new drugs, radioactive
    materials, genetically altered organisms, and to
    safety and
  • Other conduct which seriously deviates from
    accepted ethical standards in scholarship.

  • writing
  • direct indirect quotations
  • lt40 words
  • Price (1982) wrote, Interventionists make
    efforts to teach and typically do expect mastery,
    whereas anti-interventionists avoid teaching what
    they perceive as difficult, because they fear
    that children will be harmed by unreasonable
    expectations for mastery (p. 282).
  • Price (1982) wrote that interventionists make
    efforts to teach and typically do expect mastery,
    whereas anti-interventionists avoid teaching what
    they perceive as difficult, because they fear
    that children will be harmed by unreasonable
    expectations for mastery (p. 282).

  • gt40 words
  • Ayers (1993) observed,
  • We experience our own culture from the deepest
    levels toward the surface, and so our own culture
    can be largely invisible to us. . . . When we
    look at another culture, however, we tend to see
    the surface first, and we may fail to probe
    toward the deeper well-springs of meaning. This,
    too, can cut us off, and make culture and other
    people invisible. (p. 79)
  • Culture, then, is most challenging to see,
    whether our own or anothers. . . .

  • grad life
  • Wildavsky the organization of time
  • honor the sabbath have an inviolable day off
  • do not do for yourself what others can do for you
  • spend money to buy time
  • play when you play but work when you work
  • learn to fill up the small fragments of time

  • organize the flow of your work avoid waiting to
  • avoid downtime plan ahead
  • keep yourself supplied with work
  • control your schedule get small things done
    ahead of time
  • have a rule to have rules
  • if you cant think of what to do with something,
    throw it away

  • defend your work time, but dont be a workaholic
  • keep conversations with students businesslike
  • keep things short
  • be careful about taking on new obligations
  • efficient use of time makes it easier to let go

  • rules
  • keep list short
  • keep doable
  • once made, let people know about them
  • be specific
  • exercise every day not a good rule
  • CRCE mon, wed, fri 630-730 a good rule
  • I will read ahead not a good rule
  • I will finish all readings a day ahead a good

more top tips
  • read College of Education Graduate Handbook (your
    advisor may be a little out of date) (on College
    of Ed website
  • get to know the grad programs secretary in your
    department and treat her well
  • develop friendships with grad students in other
    departments and colleges

  • find a special place somewhere on campus where
    you can work uninterrupted (hint it probably
    wont be your office)
  • point every paper you write toward your
  • take advantage of being a studentgo to games
    (except for football and mens basketball, all
    are free with ID) not mens hockey, which is a
    club sport, but has a student price Go-Illini
    (50) card gets whole family into all womens
    basketball and volleyball games (all other sports

  • work out regularlyget exercise
  • maintain a life and passion outside of grad
    school, e.g., read novels, listen to music,
    dance, skate, play music, join a club
  • do graduate schooldont let graduate school do

  • good resources
  • Chronicle of Higher Education
  • academes job ads
  • available on line
  • Tomorrows Professor
  • https//

best quick ( semi-quick) getaways
  • Krannert Art Museum (2 minutes)
  • Carle Park (Urbana Iowa St. 3 blks east of
    Lincoln15 minute walk)
  • Hessel Park (Champaign Kirby St. 4 blks west of
    Neil25 minute walk)
  • Meadowbrook Park (Urbana Windsor east of
    Raceshort bike ride)

  • free (or cheap) stuff this week
  • Go-Illini cards 50
  • W European Movie Night Millions (Irish), Lucy
    Ellis Lounge, 1080 FLB, 6pm, free
  • Th Krannert Uncorked, Ken Smith Trio (jazz),
    5pm, free
  • Th Global Lens Film Series The Tenants (Os
    Inquilinos), University YMCA, 530pm, free
  • F Illini X-country Lincoln south of Florida,
    515pm, free
  • F Volleyball, vs. Cincinnati, Huff, 7pm
  • S Volleyball, vs. Louisville, Huff, 7pm