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TISSUES

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TISSUES Tissues - cells working together to perform a common function Histology - Study of tissues 4 BASIC TYPES Epithelial - covers & lines surfaces, forms glands ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: TISSUES


1
TISSUES
  • Tissues - cells working together to perform a
    common function
  • Histology - Study of tissues

2
4 BASIC TYPES
  • Epithelial - covers lines surfaces, forms
    glands
  • Connective - connects tissues, provides
    support, stores energy reserves
  • Muscle - Contracts for movement, generates heat
  • Neural - Carries information from one part of
    body to another in the form of electrical
    impulses

3
Epithelial Tissue - layer of cells that forms a
barrier
  • Functions
  • provides physical protection
  • controls permeability
  • provides sensations
  • produces secretions
  • Characteristics
  • consists mainly of cells
  • consists of single layer or multiple layers
  • always has a free surface exposed to the
    environment
  • avascular
  • mitotic rate can be very high

4
Intercellular Connections
  • Tight Junction - formed by fusion of cell
    membranes
  • Desmosome - thin proteoglycan layer between
    opposing cell membranes
  • Gap Junction - binding of membrane proteins

5
CLASSIFICATION Subdivided according to shape
arrangement of cells in each type
  • Arrangements
  • Simple - single layer of same shape
  • Stratified - many layers of same shape
  • Transitional - several layers of differing shapes
  • Shapes
  • Squamous - flat
  • Cuboidal - cubed
  • Columnar - higher than wide

http//trc.ucdavis.edu/biosci10v/bis10v/media/ch20
/epithelial_structure.html
6
SIMPLE SQUAMOUS(most delicate)
  • Locations
  • Alveoli in lungs
  • blood lymphatic vessels
  • Functions
  • Reduce friction
  • Diffusion of gases
  • Controls permeability

7
STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS(tough)
  • Locations
  • Surface of skin
  • Lining of mouth, throat, esophagus, rectum,
    vagina
  • Functions
  • Protection against abrasion, pathogens, and
    chemicals

8
SIMPLE CUBOIDAL
  • Locations -
  • glands, ducts, kidney tubules, thyroid gland
  • Functions -
  • protection, secretion, and/or absorption

9
STRATIFIED CUBOIDAL(RARE)
  • Locations -
  • lining of some ducts like sweat glands
  • Functions -
  • Protection, secretion, absorption

10
TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIUM(STRETCHY)
  • Locations -
  • Urinary bladder, ureters
  • Functions -
  • Permits expansion recoil after stretching

11
SIMPLE COLUMNAR
  • Locations-
  • Lining of stomach, intestine, gallbladder,
    uterine tubes, collecting ducts of kidneys
  • Functions -
  • Protection, secretion, absorption

12
PSEUDOSTRATIFIED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM
  • Locations -
  • lining of nasal cavity, bronchi, trachea
  • Functions -
  • protection, secretion
  • Nuclei are located at varying distances from
    surface

13
STRATIFIED COLUMNARRelatively Rare
  • Locations -
  • pharynx, epiglottis, anus, mammary ducts, urethra
  • Functions -
  • Protection

14
Glandular epithelium
  • Cells that make up glands are specialized to
    produce and secrete substances
  • Types of secretions from cells
  • 1. endocrine
  • Glands that secrete their products into tissues
    or blood
  • Ex Pituitary and sex glands
  • 2. exocrine
  • Merocrine release products by exocytosis
  • Ex salivary glands/ pancreas
  • Apocrine Lose small portions of glandular bodies
    during secretion
  • ex mammary glands fat droplets/sweat glands
  • Holocrine entire cell disintegrates
  • Ex sebaceous glands of skin (fatty mixture
    called sebum)
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