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Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future Richard T. Wright

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... Loss of 70% of grain crops in U.S. Overgrazing Mismanagement of animal manure Most widespread source of water pollution ... effects of hunger and ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future Richard T. Wright


1
Environmental Science Toward a Sustainable
Future Richard T. Wright
Chapter 9
  • The Production and Distribution of Food
  • PPT by Clark E. Adams

2
The Production and Distribution of Food
  • Crops and animals major patterns of food
    production
  • New patterns genetically modified foods
  • Food distribution and trade
  • Hunger, malnutrition, and famine

3
Thomas Malthus 1798
4
Thomas Malthus
  • Did not consider changes in agricultural
    technology and science
  • Did not consider dramatic decreases in fertility
    rates in some countries
  • Was right, but ahead of his time

5
Crops and Animals Major Patterns of Food
Production
  • The development of modern industrialized
    agriculture
  • The green revolution
  • Subsistence agriculture and the developing world
  • Animal farming and its consequences
  • Prospects for increasing food production

6
U.S. Crop Yields
7
Major Patterns of Food Production Past 40 Years
and Next 40 Years?
  • Bringing additional land into cultivation
  • Increasing use of fertilizers
  • Increasing use of chemical pesticides
  • Increasing use of irrigation

8
Major Patterns of Food Production Past 40 Years
and Next 40 Years?
  • Substituting new genetic varieties
  • Rotating crops
  • Growing many different kinds of crops
  • Recycling animal wastes
  • Grain over animal production

9
The Green Revolution
  • Temporarily closed the gap between food
    production and need in some countries
  • Heavy reliance on irrigation and fertilizers
  • Negative impact on small farmers and culturally
    specific crops

10
Subsistence Farming More or Less?
  • Labor intensive
  • Technologically based
  • Use of marginal lands
  • Clearing of tropical rain forests
  • Environmental degradation

11
Animal Farming and Its Consequences
  • Loss of 70 of grain crops in U.S.
  • Overgrazing
  • Mismanagement of animal manure
  • Most widespread source of water pollution
  • Source of 3 of greenhouse gases
  • Sustainable on rural farms and with pastoral
    herding

12
(No Transcript)
13
Global Population and Grain and Meat Consumption
Fig. 9-9 here
14
(No Transcript)
15
Prospects for Increasing Food Production
  • Over last 30 years, food production has surpassed
    population growth
  • World food consumption to increase 50 by 2020
  • Agricultural sustainability is highly dependent
    on soil and water conservation
  • Global climate changes

16
40 Increase in Food Production Needed over Next
Two Decades
  • Eat lower on the food chain, less meat
  • Convert cash crops to food
  • Eat less
  • Increase crop yields
  • Double Green Revolution!

17
40 Increase in Food Production Needed over Next
Two Decades
  • Convert animal farms to grain farms
  • Develop alternative foods
  • Convert pet food to human food
  • The promise of biotechnology

18
New Patterns Genetically Modified Food
  • The promise
  • The problems
  • Policies

19
Biotech Crops in the United States
Fig. 9-10 here
20
The Promise Transgenic Crops
  • Crossbreeds of genetically different plants
  • Incorporation of desired traits into crop lines
    and animals
  • Cloning of domestic animals

21
The Objectives of Genomics
  • Disease resistance
  • Drought tolerance
  • Improved nutritional value
  • Incorporate human vaccines

22
The Problems with Genomics
  • Environmental concerns
  • Not considered safe by all consumers
  • Not affordable in all countries
  • Major player in the future of agriculture
  • Might keep food production in pace with
    population growth

23
Environmental Problems
  • Pest resistance to genetically engineered toxin
  • Broad spectrum impact on nontarget species
  • Super weeds

24
Food Safety
  • Proteins cause allergic responses
  • Antibiotic resistance to human pathogens
  • Plant produces new toxic substances

25
Other Problems with Genomics
  • Access to new technologies
  • profit driven
  • affordability in developing countries
  • terminator technology seed sterility
  • Consumer acceptance

26
Food Distribution and Trade
  • Patterns in food trade
  • Food security

27
Patterns in Food Trade
  • Major changes in net importers and exporters of
    grain over the last six decades (Table 9-3)
  • North America is the worlds bread basket or
    meat market
  • Direct relationship between import levels and
    population growth

28
Patterns of Global Trade in Grain
Table 9-3 here
29
Food Security (see Fig. 9-13)
  • Assured access for every person to enough
    nutritious food to sustain an active and healthy
    life
  • Family personal and family food security
  • Country self-sufficiency in food and nutrition
  • Global sustainable food and nutrition for all
    countries

30
Hunger, Malnutrition, and Famine
  • Nutrition vs. hunger
  • Extent and consequences of hunger
  • Root cause of hunger
  • Famine
  • Food aid

31
Nutrition vs. Hunger
  • Hunger lack of basic food for energy and meeting
    nutritional needs
  • Malnutrition lack of essential nutrients (amino
    acids, vitamins, and minerals)
  • Undernourishment lack of adequate food energy
    (Calories)
  • One-quarter of U.S. population is obese

32
The Food Guide Pyramid
33
On the Other Hand
  • 100 million children in southern Asia are
    underweight because of lack of food
  • 11 million children lt5 years old die each year in
    developing countries half due to hunger and
    malnutrition

34
Root Cause of Hunger
  • The root cause of hunger is poverty
  • 20 of the people on Earth suffer from the
    effects of hunger and malnutrition
  • Children are most at risk
  • It is more likely that a pet cat will be fed than
    an undernourished child

35
Causes of Famine and Hunger Hotspots
  • Civil Wars
  • Drought (FEWS)
  • Government Incompetence

36
Food Aid
Give a man a fish you have fed him for
today.Teach a man to fish and you have fed him
for lifetime." --Old Chinese Saying
37
Food Aid
Fig. 9-19 here
38
Food Aid True or False
  • Alleviates chronic hunger
  • Helps local agriculture
  • Disrupts local economy
  • Contributes to ecological deterioration
  • Postpones the day of reckoning

39
Food Aid and Carrying Capacity
N
Time
40
End of Chapter 9
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