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Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future Richard T. Wright

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Title: Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future Richard T. Wright


1
Environmental Science Toward a Sustainable
Future Richard T. Wright
Chapter 20
  • The Atmosphere Climate, Climate Change, and
    Ozone Depletion PPT by Clark E. Adams

2
El Niño What Happened?
April
May
  • Jet streams shifted from normal course
  • Cause unknown

June
3
The El Niño Effects Fig. 20-1
  • Landslides on the California coast
  • Mildest hurricane season in many years
  • Rain five times normal in an East Africa drought
    region
  • Record crop harvests in India, Australia, and
    Argentina

4
La Niña What Happened?
  • Easterly trade winds reestablished with greater
    intensity
  • Upwelling of colder water from ocean depths
  • Jet streams are weakened
  • Global patterns in moisture and evaporation
    return to normal

5
Atmospheric Structure
6
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7
Weather Solar Energy Balance
Most solar energy absorbed by atmosphere,
oceans, and land
8
Weather Convection Cell
9
Tornadoes
  • Cold low-pressure air mass collides with a warm
    high-pressure air mass

http//www.photolib.noaa.gov/nssl/nssl0065.htm
10
Fujita Scale Measures the Intensity of Tornadoes
  • F-0 4072 mph, chimney damage, tree branches
    broken
  • F-1 73112 mph, mobile homes pushed off
    foundations or overturned
  • F-2 113157 mph, considerable damage, mobile
    homes demolished, trees uprooted

11
Fujita Scale Measures the Intensity of Tornadoes
  • F-3 158205 mph, roofs and walls torn down,
    trains overturned, cars thrown
  • F-4 207260 mph, well-constructed walls leveled
  • F-5 261318 mph, homes lifted off foundation and
    carried considerable distances, autos thrown as
    far as 100 meters

12
Climates in the Past
13
Ocean and Atmosphere
  • Covers 75 of the Earths surface
  • Major source of water to hydrologic cycle
  • Major source of heat to atmosphere
  • Stores and conveys heat

14
The Ocean Conveyor System
15
The Earth as a Greenhouse
16
Factors Affecting Global Temperatures
  • Cloud cover cooling
  • Changes in Suns intensity cooling or warming
  • Volcanic activity cooling
  • Sulfate aerosols cooling

17
Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations
18
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19
Global Surface Temperatures
20
Global Carbon Cycle
21
Impacts of Global Warming
  • Melting of polar ice caps
  • Flooding of coastal areas
  • Massive migrations of people inland

22
Evidences of Climatic Change
  • 17 of the hottest years on record have occurred
    since 1980 (Fig. 20-5)
  • Wide-scale recession of glaciers
  • Sea level rising

Predicted mean global temperature change by 2100
is between 1.5 and 4.5oC
23
Responses to Climate Change
  • Response 1 mitigation reduce CO2 emissions
  • Response 2 adaptation accepting and learning
    to live with the consequences of climate change

24
Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCC)
  • Relied on voluntary approach to reduce CO2
    emissions
  • Developing countries continue toward developed
    nation status using fossil fuels

25
Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCC)
  • To achieve a 7 reduction by 2010 requires a 25
    reduction of present use
  • By 2010 CO2 emissions will have increased by 30

26
Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCC)
  • Bottom line need 60 reduction (144 ppm) in CO2
    emission worldwide NOW to stabilize greenhouse
    gas concentrations at todays levels

27
Depletion of Ozone Layer
  • Radiation and importance of the shield
  • Formation and breakdown of the shield
  • Coming to grips with ozone depletion

28
Good Ozone!
Bad Ozone!
29
Electromagnetic Spectrum
30
Formation of the Ozone Shield
31
Breakdown of Ozone Shield
32
(No Transcript)
33
Montreal Protocol
  • 1987 scale back CFC production by 50 by 2000

34
Coming to Grips with Ozone Depletion Montreal
Protocol
  • 1990 amendment to completely phase out
    ozone-destroying chemicals by 2000
  • 1992 amendment to completely phase out
    ozone-destroying chemicals by 1996

Why the rush?
35
Ozone Hole 11 million sq.mi.
36
The Clean Air Act of 1990 Title IV
  • Restricts production, use, emissions, and
    disposal of ozone-depleting chemicals
  • Regulates the servicing of refrigeration and
    air-conditioning units

Protecting Stratospheric Ozone
37
Greenhouse Gases Ozone
Where
Type of Light
Chemicals
Whats the big deal?
Major Law
How do we fix it?
38
End of Chapter 20
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