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The early 20th Century: The Establishment of Modernist Art


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Title: The early 20th Century: The Establishment of Modernist Art

The early 20th Century The Establishment of
Modernist Art
  • First trans-Atlantic radio signal,1901
  • Wright Brothers first flight, 1903
  • Albert Einstine,(1905-1915 Theory of Relativity)
  • RMS Titanic sinks, 1912
  • World War I, 1914-1918
  • Russian Revolution, 1917-1921
  • Mexican Revolution Ends, 1924
  • The Great Depression,1930s
  • Rise of Nazism in Germany,1930s
  • World War II, 1939-1945

Pre WWI Symbolism and Art Nouveau
  • Art Nouveau - French for "The New Art." An art
    movement and style of decoration and architecture
    of the late nineteenth and early twentieth
    centuries, characterized particularly by the
    depiction of leaves and flowers in undulating
    lines, often flowing vines. Gustav Klimt
    (Austrian, 1862-1918), Alphonse Mucha
    (Czechoslovakian, 1860-1939), Henri de
    Toulouse-Lautrec (French, 1861-1901), Aubrey
    Beardsley (English, 1872-1898), Antonio Gaudí
    (Spanish, 1852-1926), and Hector Guimard (French,
    1867-1942) were among the most prominent Artists
    associated with this style. The roots of Art
    Nouveau go back to Romantism , Symbolism, the
    English Arts and Crafts Movement and William
    Morris (English, 1834-1896). Art Nouveau is also
    known as Jugenstil and Yellow Book Style,
    epitomizing what is sometimes called fin de
    siécle style.
  • Pronounced Art noo-voh'

Gustav Klimt, (1862-1918)
  • Gustav Klimt, founder of the school of painting
    known as the Vienna Sezession, embodies the
    high-keyed erotic, psychological, and aesthetic
    preoccupations of turn-of-the-century Vienna's
    dazzling intellectual world.
  • Klimt's style drew upon an enormous range of
    sources classical Greek, Byzantine, Egyptian,
    and Minoan art late-medieval painting and the
    woodcuts of Albrecht Dürer photography and the
    symbolist art of Max Klinger and the work of
    both Franz von Stuck and Fernand Khnopff. In
    synthesizing these diverse sources, Klimt's art
    achieved both individuality and extreme elegance.

Death and Life, painted before 1911 and revised
1915, oil on canvas, Collection of Frau Marietta
Preleuthner, Vienna.
Judith I 1901, Osterreichische Galerie, Vienna
  • A movement in fine arts that emphasized the
    expression of inner experience rather than solely
    realistic portrayal, seeking to depict not
    objective reality but the subjective emotions and
    responses that objects and events arouse in the

Max Beckman (1884-1950). The Night, Oil on
canvas 4 ft 4 3/4 in x 5 ft 1/2 in.
Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen, Dusseldorf,
André Derain (1880-1954)
  • Derain believed that an artist's goal should be
    to make the strongest possible presentation of
    his emotional reaction to a subject by using bold
    color and strong linear patterns. 
  • Derain was in an unofficial organization of
    artists called Fauve.  Fauve artistssaw
    unexpected shapes and colors that suggested new
    ways of communicating emotion.  After about five
    years Derain and other artist had stopped using
    faive.  They started modifing there own violent
    colors and found there ownmore personal styles.

London Bridge, 1906. 26 x 39 Museum of Modern
Henri Matisse(1869-1954)
  • Instinct must be thwarted just as one prunes the
    branches of a tree so that it will grow better.
    -- Henri Matisse

Madame Matisse, "The Green Line" ( La Raie
verte). 1905. Oil on canvas. Statens Museum for
Kunst, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Harmony in Red. 1908. Oil on canvas. The
Hermitage, St. Petersburg, Russia.
Georges Rouault 1871-1958.
  • George Rouault, one of the original group of
    Fauves, is widely considered the most important
    Christian religious artist of the twentieth
    century. Rouault, born during the German
    bombardment of Paris in 1871, regarded World War
    I as an indication of what people could do to
    each other if left on their own the title of one
    of the prints in the Miserére, his great series
    of mixed-media intaglio prints, is taken from
    Lucan's Pharsalia concerning the Roman Civil
    Wars, "Man is a Wolf to Man." In his paintings as
    well as in his prints, Rouault shows us that
    though "We think ourselves Kings," we are more
    accurately seen as circus clowns, each wearing
    our own mask to disguise our true nature ("Are we
    not all convicts?" asks the title of one of The
    Miserere) from ourselves. For Rouault, what saves
    us from ourselves, if anything can, is Christ and
    the Virgin Mary, both depicted throughout many of
    Rouault's works.

The Old King, 1916-1938. 21 x 30. Museum of
Art Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh
Oskar Kokoschka, (1886-1980)
  • Austrian Expressionist Painter.
  • Expressionism - An Art movement dominant in
    Germany from 1905-1925, especially Die Brücke and
    Der Blaue Reiter, which are usually referred to
    as German Expressionism, anticipated by Francisco
    de Goya y Lucientes (Spanish, 1746-1828), Vincent
    van Gogh (Dutch, 1853-1890), Paul Gauguin
    (French, 1848-1903) and others.
  • Expressionists sought to visually portray a
    quality of inner experience, the emotions of the
    artist (expressive qualities) communicated
    through emphasis and distortion, which
    technically can be found in artworks of any

The Tempest (The Bride of the Wind)1914, Oil on
canvas. 5 11 ¼ x 7 3. Kunstmuseum, Basle
Max Beckmann (1884-1950)
  • Departure, Beckmann's first painting in triptych
    form, was begun in May 1932.

Departure, 1932-33. Oil on canvas. triptych,
center panel 84 3/4 X 45 3/8" side panels each
84 3/4 X 39 1/4 The Museum of Modern Art, New
George Grosz(1893-1959)
  • Founder of the Dada art movement in Berlin,
  • Grosz's works of the 1920s were influenced by a
    complicated political and economical situation in
    the post-war Germany and Europe and in one
    sentence can be characterized as political and
    social satire.
  • His last works in America were collages, which
    partly recall his Dada period and partly were
    influenced by Pop Art.

The Pit. 1946. Oil on canvas. 153 x 94.6 cm.
Wichita Art Museum, Wichita, KS, USA.
Wassily Kandinsky (1866-1944)
  • Ranked among the artists whose work changed the
    history of art in the early years of the 20th
    century, the Russian abstract painter Wassily
    Kandinsky is generally regarded as one of the
    originators of abstract painting, or abstract
    expressionism. In both his painting and his
    theoretical writings he influenced modern styles.
    Spending many years of his life in Germany,
    Kandinsky became an instrumental force in the
    development of German expressionism.

Composition VI, 1913, oil on canvas, Hermitage,
St. Petersburg.
Marcel Duchamp 1887-1968Bicycle Wheel
Ready-made1913, France
  • Dada A western Europe artistic and literary
    movement (1916-23) that sought the discovery of
    authentic reality through the abolition of
    traditional culture and aesthetic forms.
  • Between the two World Wars, painting lost some of
    the raw, modern energy it began the century with
    and became dominated by two rather philosophical
    movements, Dada and Surrealism, which arose
    partly as a reaction to the senseless atrocities
    of World War I. But artists were also becoming
    introspective, concerned with their own
    subconscious dreams Sigmund Freud's
    psychoanalytical theories were well known by this
    time, and painters explored their own
    irrationalities and fantasies in search of a new
    artistic freedom.

Man Ray (Emanuel Rabinovitch) 1890-1976 The Gift
(Le Cadeau) 1921, France
Jean Arp 1887-1966, Automatic Drawing 1918 10
5/8 x 8 1/8 in, France
Marcel Duchamp (1887-1968)
  • Using cubist techniques Duchamp tried to show
    movement on canvas, which makes him close to
    Futurists. Doubling, overlaying images fix
    different phases of the movement of a figure on
    canvas. The Nude Descending a Staircase, shown
    at the Salon des Indépendants, aroused sharp
    criticism even among the Cubists, (One called it
    Explosion in a shingle factory) to say nothing
    about the general public. In 1913, the picture
    was the hit of the New York Armory Show it
    scandalized the American public to such a degree
    that it made the artist popular overnight. While
    most of the viewers were outraged with the
    exhibited pictures, especially with the Nude, the
    others were sincerely delighted by the European
    break with academic and traditional art.

Nude Descending a Staircase 1912. Oil on canvas
147.5 x 89 cm. The Philadelphia Museum of Art,
Philadelphia, PA, USA. 
Pablo Picasso(1881-1973)
  • This picture was painted when Pablo was 16 years
    old. He proves that his talents of depicting
    realistic images, Use of light and shadow as well
    as color, were refined at such an early age.

First Communion, 1895-96, oil on canvas, Museo
Picasso, Barcelona.
Pablo Picasso(1881-1973)
Science and Charity. 1897. Oil on canvas. Museo
Picasso, Barcelona, Spain.
  • Everyone wants to understand art. Why dont we
    try to understand the song of a bird? Why do we
    love the night, the flowers, everything around
    us, without trying to understand them? But in the
    case of a painting, people think they have to
    understand. If only they would realize above all
    that an artist works of necessity, that he
    himself is only an insignificant part of the
    world, and that no more importance should be
    attached to him than to plenty of other things
    which please us in the world, though we cant
    explain them people who try to explain pictures
    are usually barking up the wrong tree. Picasso

Portrait of Gertrude Stein. 1906. Oil on canvas.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, USA.
The Old Guitarist. 1903. Oil on panel. Art
Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA. 
Pablo Picasso
  • In the Demoiselles dAvignon I painted a profile
    nose into a frontal view of a face. I just had to
    depict in sideways so that I could give it a
    name, so that I could call it nose. And so they
    started talking about Negro art. Have you ever
    seen a single African sculpture just one- where
    a face mask has a profile nose in it? Picasso.
  • Cubism is no different from any other school of
    painting. The same principles and the same
    elements are common to all. The fact that for a
    long time cubism has not been understood and that
    even today there are people who cannot see
    anything in it, means nothing. I do not read
    English, and an English book is a blank to me.
    This does not mean that the English language does
    not exist, and why should I blame anyone but
    myself if I cannot understand what I know nothing
    about? Picasso.

Les Demoiselles d'Avignon. 1907. Oil on canvas.
The Museum of Modern Arts, New York, NY, USA.
Pablo Picasso
Three Musicians. 1921. Oil on canvas. The Museum
of Modern Arts, New York, NY, USA.
  • Pablo Ruiz y Picasso was a Spanish painter and
    sculptor, generally considered by some to be the
    greatest artist of the 20th century. He was
    unique as an inventor of forms, as an innovator
    of styles and techniques, as a master of various
    media, and as one of the most prolific artists in
    history. He created more than 20,000 works.

Guernica, detail, 1937, oil on canvas, Museo
Nacional Reina Sofía, Madrid
Georges Braque (1882-1963)
  • GEORGES BRAQUE(1882-1963) The French painter,
    graphic artist and designer was initially
    influenced by Fauvism, but his style completely
    changed when he saw the work of Cézanne and
    Picasso. Braque's style is fragmented,
    dislocated. He introduced the method of sticking
    bits and bobs onto the canvas, a style known as
    papier colle. After the First World War (winning
    bravery awards for his service), his style became
    totally divergent from his friend Picasso's
    Braque worked in the same style he had before the
    war, though his angles softened and his colours
    became muted and soft, and his subjects of choice
    were still-life and interiors. He also designed
    sets and costumes, and illustrated books. In
    1961, he had the honour of being the first living
    artist to exhibit at the Louvre in Paris, and was
    given a state funeral two years later.

Still-Life Le Jour, 1929, National Gallery of
Art, Washington D.C.
Piet Mondrian (1872-1944)
  • (1872-1944) Founder of the DeStijl movement in
    1917, Mondrian was one of the most original
    thinkers of early twentieth century art, as he
    pushed for a simplification in art, restricting
    his palette to the plastic essentials of the
    primary colors. Mondrian lived a fastidious
    lifestyle, was obsessively tidy, and elements of
    these personality traits can be seen in his
    pursuit of the abstract, through works such as
    Composition in Black, Red, Grey, Yellow and Blue
    of 1921. Mondrians influence is clear in much
    advertisement art of the 1930s and thereafter,
    and furniture design, decorative and industrial
    design owes much to this Dutch artist.

Composition with Black, Red, Gray, Yellow, and
Blue, 1921, oil on canvas, Museum Ludwig,
Gerogia OKeeffe (1887-1986)
Black Iris III, 1926, oil on canvas, The
Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.
Cow's Skull with Calico Roses, 1932, oil on
canvas, Art Institute of Chicago.
  • Georgia O'Keeffe is best known for her large
    paintings of desert flowers and scenery, in which
    single blossoms or objects such as a cow's skull
    are presented in close-up views. Although
    O'Keeffe handles her subject matter
    representationally, the starkly linear quality,
    the thin, clear coloring, and the boldly
    patterned compositions produce abstract designs.
    A number of her works have an abstracted effect,
    the flower paintings in particularsuch as Black
    Iris (1926, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
    City)in which the details of the flower are so
    enlarged that they become unfamiliar and

  • A 20th-century literary and artistic movement
    that attempts to express the workings of the
    subconscious by fantastic imagery and incongruous
    juxtaposition of subject matter.

Surrealism grew principally out of the earlier
Dada movement.
Rousseau, Henri The Dream 1910. Oil on canvas,
6' 8 1/2" x 9' 9 1/2" The Museum of Modern Art,
Georgio De Chirico (1888-1978)
  • Italian Painter who moved to Germany and France.
  • De Chirico's Metaphysical paintings were hugely
    influential on Surrealist artists, who recognized
    in them the eloquent expression of the
    unconscious and nonsensical to which they
    themselves aspired. "In words and by example,
    Ernst, Tanguy, Magritte, and Dali, among others,
    showed a rare unity in acknowledging de Chirico
    as a forerunner master."

Mystery and Melancholy of a Street. 1914. Oil on
canvas. 88 x 72 cm. Private collection.
Joan Miró (1893-1983)
Personages in the Night Guided by the
Phosphorescent Tracks of Snails, 1940, gouache
turpentine paint on paper, private collection,
  • Fauvism, Cubism, Surrealism, Dadaism Miró was
    influenced by and part of all the movements of
    Modern Art, making him an important figure in
    European art during an investigational age. The
    Spanish painter spent his winters in Paris and
    the summer at the family farm near Barcelona, and
    after the German invasion of France lived mainly
    in Majorca. The energy Miró conveyed through his
    work was an extension of his personality fun,
    frivolous and experimental. He produced widely
    accessible works, exhibiting in Spain and
    America. In a criticism of Picasso, he expressed
    concern for the mania for publicity that was
    gripping the art scene, while Miró maintained
    modesty and devotion to his work despite
    world-wide fame.

Max Ernst (1891-1976)
  • In 1924 André Breton published the First
    Surrealist Manifesto. Max Ernst was among those
    who shared the views and aims of the Surrealists
    and took an active part in founding the new
    movement. Ernst's invention of the frottage
    (pencil rubbings on paper or canvas) technique
    dates to the early 1920s. In this technique Ernst
    fulfilled a series of works, resulting in the
    publication of his famous "Histoire Naturelle".
    Frottage, which realizes the surrealistic
    principle of 'psychological automatism', Ernst
    applied in painting as well, inventing the
    so-called grattage (scrapings), .

Two Children are Threatened by a Nightingale.
1924. Oil on wood with wooden elements. 69.8 x
57.1 x 11.4 cm. The Museum of Modern Arts, New
York, NY
Salvador Dali (1904-1989)
  • (1904-89) A finger in every artistic pie, the
    Spaniard was a painter, sculptor, graphic artist
    and designer. He found his niche in cubism, via
    Cubism, Futurism and Metaphysical painting. Dali
    was also a brilliant self-publicist, and quickly
    became the most famous representative of
    Surrealism after moving to Paris in 1929. The
    eccentric, dream-like works reflected the
    character of the artist perfectly. The anagram of
    his name 'Avida Dollars' seemed fitting, as in
    the late 1930s Dali was completely preoccupied
    with publicity and making money. There are two
    museums in the USA (Cleveland and Florida) and
    one in Spain (Figueras - his birthplace)
    completely devoted to Dali's work, though critics
    meet his output with mixed feelings.

Daddy Longlegs of the Evening-Hope! (1940)
Marc Chagall (1887-1985)
  • The romantic and the allegorical interested
    Chagall. The colors he favored were blues and
    greens, with a magical silvery glisten adding to
    the sparkle of the subjects. Chagall also
    designed costumes and sets for theatre, beautiful
    stained glass designs, and book illustration.
    Chagall's work is difficult to place into a
    category he claimed his work was inspired by his
    early years, disagreeing with critics who wanted
    to place him as a Cubist or Surrealist.

The Birthday, 1915, oil on canvas.
Paul Klee (1879-1940)
  • (1879-1940) Friends with Kandinsky, Macke, Marc,
    Delaunay and others, the Russian-Swiss painter
    (and writer) moved from creating black and white
    paintings to some of the most colourful and
    playful paintings of the early quarter of the
    last century. Klee did revert to a more sombre
    palette later in life, affected by mental stress,
    and produced paintings that have been subjected
    to psychoanalytical criticism. His output of
    about 8,000 works makes Paul Klee a fascinating
    artist, as his works move confidently between
    styles, from acutely abstract to figurative.

Death and Fire, 1940, 18 x 17. Paul
Klee-Stiftung, Bern
Edward Hopper (1882-1967)
  • (1882-1967) Hopper spent almost his entire career
    in New York, but he travelled his native country
    extensively, making long journeys by car. Until
    1923, Hopper was employed as a commercial
    illustrator, but turned to painting full-time and
    enjoyed a rapid rise to recognition as the
    outstanding exponent of American Scene Painting.
    His lonely figures sit in spare interior or
    exterior spaces, timeless and serene in their own
    worlds. Hopper himself disliked talking about his
    work and lived quietly with his artist wife. A
    favorite subject was the female nude in a city

Nighthawks, 1942, oil on canvas, The Art
Institute of Chicago.
  • Sculpture in the early 20th century strove to
    keep up with its two dimensional counterparts in
    that the artist was striving to stretch the
    viewing experience to see beyond the forms and
    shapes into the meanings and emotions of the
    artist during creation.

Umberto Boccioni (1882-1916)
  • In Unique Forms of Continuity in Space, Boccioni
    puts speed and force into sculptural form. The
    figure strides forward. Surpassing the limits of
    the body, its lines ripple outward in curving and
    streamlined flags, as if molded by the wind of
    its passing. Boccioni had developed these shapes
    over two years in paintings, drawings, and
    sculptures, exacting studies of human
    musculature. The result is a three-dimensional
    portrait of a powerful body in action.
  • In the early twentieth century, the new speed and
    force of machinery seemed to pour its power into
    radical social energy. The new technologies and
    the ideas attached to them would later reveal
    threatening aspects, but for Futurist artists
    like Boccioni, they were tremendously
    exhilarating. Innovative as Boccioni was, he fell
    short of his own ambition. In 1912, he had
    attacked the domination of sculpture by "the
    blind and foolish imitation of formulas inherited
    from the past," and particularly by "the
    burdensome weight of Greece." Yet Unique Forms of
    Continuity in Space bears an underlying
    resemblance to a classical work over 2,000 years
    old, the Nike of Samothrace. There, however,
    speed is encoded in the flowing stone draperies
    that wash around, and in the wake of, the figure.
    Here the body itself is reshaped, as if the new
    conditions of modernity were producing a new man.

Unique Forms of Continuity in Space. 1913. Bronze
(cast 1931), 43 7/8 x 34 7/8 x 15 3/4" (111.2 x
88.5 x 40 cm).
Gaston Lachaise (1882-1935)
  • Lachaise, above all other sculptors since the
    Renaissance, is the interpreter of maturity. He
    is concerned with forms which have completed
    their growth, which have achieved their prime
    forms, as he would say, in the glory of their
    fulfillment....It is no wonder that to a nation
    predominantly adolescent Lachaises insistence
    upon the mature is frightening. Lincoln
  • American sculptor of French birth.

Standing Woman (Elevation), 1927Gaston Lachaise
(American, born France, 18821935)Bronze H.
73-7/8, W. 32, D. 17-3/4 in.
Constantin Brancusi
  • Brancusi, Constantin (b Hobitza, Gorj, 19 Feb
    1876 d Paris, 16 March 1957). French sculptor,
    draughtsman, painter and photographer of Romanian
    birth. He was one of the most influential
    20th-century sculptors, but he left a relatively
    small body of work centred on 215 sculptures, of
    which about 50 are thought to have been lost or

Bird In Space, 1927, Bronze, Uniquecast approx
54 high. Museum of Modern Art, New York
Vladimir Tatlin (1885- 1953)
  • Tatlin, Vladimir (Yevgrafovich) (b Kharkiv, 12
    Dec 1885 d Novodevichy, Moscow, 31 May 1953).
    Ukrainian painter, designer, sculptor and
    teacher, active mainly in Russia.

Monument to the Third International, 1919-1920,
Wood, Iron, and Glass.
Women combing their hair?
  • Compare and contrast these two sculptures of the
    same theme and you find that they have radically
    different methods and outcomes to emotion, but
    strikingly similar characteristics with respect
    to abstraction and.

Alexander Archipenko (American, born Russia,
1887-1964), Woman Combing her Hair, 1915, Bronze,
35.6 x 8.6 x 8.3 cm, Tate Modern, London.
Julio Gonzalez (1876-1942) Spanish Artist, Woman
Combing Her Hair. c.1931-33, Iron Ht. 59",
Moderna Museet, Stockholm
Found Object sculpture
  • Compare These sculptures made from everyday
    manufactured objects.
  • What is the purpose?

Pablo Picasso. Bull's Head, 1943. 16 1/8"
high.Handlebars and seat of a bicycle.
Marcel Duchamp, Bicycle Wheel, 1951
Man Ray, The Gift, 1921
Henry MooreEnglish Abstract Sculptor,
  • If a work of sculpture has its own life and form,
    it will be alive and expansive, seeming larger
    than the stone or wood from which it is carved.
    It should always give the impression, whether
    carved or modeled, of having grown organically,
    created by pressure from within.
  • - Henry Moore, 1958, quoted by Edouard Roditi

Reclining Figure 1935-36 Elmwood. (48.3 89 38
cm)Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo
Frank Lloyd Wright (1867-1959)
  • By the time of his death, Frank Lloyd Wright had
    become internationally recognized for his
    innovative building style and contemporary
    designs. He had created 1,141 designs, of which
    532 were completed. His name had become
    synonymous with great design, not only because of
    the form of his designs, but also because of the
    function. In the end, he showed not just what to
    live in, but more importantly he influenced the
    very nature of how we lived.

Fallingwater Edgar Kaufmann House, Bear Run, PA,
Charles Edouard Jeannret-Gris (1887-1965)
  • One of the most famous houses of the modern
    movement in architecture, the Villa Savoye is a
    masterpiece of LeCorbusier's purist design. It is
    perhaps the best example of LeCorbusier's goal to
    create a house which would be a "machine a
    habiter," a machine for living (in). Located in a
    suburb near Paris, the house is as beautiful and
    functional as a machine.
  • The Villa Savoye was the culmination of many
    years of design, and the basis for much of
    LeCorbusier's later architure. Although it looks
    severe in photographs, it is a complex and
    visually stimulating structure. As with his
    church of Notre Dame du Haute, Ronchamp, the
    building looks different from every angle. After
    falling into disrepair after the war, the house
    has been restored and is open to the public. The
    design features of the Villa Savoye include

AKA Le Corbusier
Villa Savoye, Poissy-sur-Seine, 1929-30
Le Corbusier
  • Notre Dame du Haut, Ronchamp, 1950-54

Gerrit Rietveld (1888-1964)
  • The Schröder-Schräder house was built in Utrecht
    in 1923-24 by the Dutch architect Gerrit
    Rietveld. It is a pioneering work of modernism,
    with no historical ornament and a design which
    parallels the art of Cubism and De Stijl (Piet

Schröder-Schräder House, Utrecht