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Unit 7: Learning about English


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Title: Unit 7: Learning about English

Unit 7 Learning about English
  • Text A The Glorious Messiness of English
  • Text B The Role of English in the 21st Century

Teaching Set-up
  • Text A
  • Pre-reading
  • Warm-up activities
  • Questions and Answers
  • Background information
  • While-reading
  • Interpret the title
  • Text organization
  • Text analysis
  • Language points
  • Post reading
  • drawing a picture
  • Useful expressions
  • Proverbs and Quotations  

Teaching Objectives
  • 1. grasp the main idea (because of its tolerance
    for outside influences, English has become a
    great language) and structure of the text
  • 2. understand some idiomatic English usages
    mentioned in the unit
  • 3. master key language points and structures in
    the text
  • 4. conduct a series of reading, listening
    ,speaking and writing activities related to the
    theme of the unit.
  • 5. master speaking function Expressing Real and
    Unreal Conditions defining things.
  • 6. recognizing listing of details in descriptive

Warm-up activities
  • Pair Discussion
  • Look at the picture below. Answer these questions
    with a partner.
  1. What are differences between English and French
    in borrowing foreign words?

English has a vocabulary of about one million
words while French has only about 75,000 words.
English has borrowed a lot of words from other
languages while French hasn't. And the French
government even tries to ban words from English.
Warm-up activities
  • 2. What can we infer from the invention of a
    French word balladeer?

In borrowing foreign words, English people are
open-minded while French people are conservative.
We know the reason why English has become the
first truly global language.
Warm-up activities
  • How did the word Walkman come into being?
  • The Japanese put two simple English words
    together to name their product.


Warm-up activities
  • Questions and Answers
  • 1. Who is Otto Jespersen?
  • He is a Danish scholar.
  • 2. According to Otto Jespersen, what causes
    English to become what it is?
  • The fact that English people have been for
    centuries great respecters of the liberties of
    each individual and that everybody has been free
    to strike out new paths for himself.
  • 3. What is the English language in the authors
  • English is the tongue of the common man.

Background information
  • American English
  • By the 18th century American English was
    established and developed independently from
    British English. After colonists arrived in the
    US , new words began to be added from Native
    American languages, and from French and Spanish.
    In 1783, soon after Johnson's dictionary was
    published, Noah Webster's The Elementary Spelling
    Book was published in the U.S. At first, it used
    Johnson's spellings, but later editions contained
    many of what have come to be known as American
    spellings, e. g. harbor and favorite.

Background information
  • The Root of English
  • English began as a west Germanic language which
    was brought to England by the Saxons around 400
    A.D. Old English was the spoken and written
    language of England between 400 and 1100 A.D.
    Many words used today come from Old English,
    including man, woman, king, mother, etc. But Old
    English was very different from modern English
    and only a few words can be easily recognized. In
    the 9th and 10th centuries, when Vikings invaded
    England, Old Norse words, e.g. sky, take and get
    and many place names, entered the language.

Background information
  • The Root of English
  • From the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late
    12th century English was replaced as the official
    language by Norman French, though English was
    still used by the lower classes. English from
    about 1300 to 1500 is known as Middle English. It
    was influenced by French and also Latin in
    vocabulary and pronunciation. French brought many
    words connected with government, e.g. sovereign,
    royal, court, legal and government itself. Latin
    was the language of religion and learning and
    gave to English words such as minister, angel,
    master, school and grammar. Literature began
    again to be written in English during this
    period. One of the most famous Middle English
    works is Chaucers The Canterbury Tales.

Background information
  • The Development of Modern English
  • Modern English developed from the Middle
    English dialect of the East Midlands and was
    influenced by the English used in London, where a
    printing press was set up by William Caxton in
    1476. English changed a great deal from this time
    until the end of the 18th century. During the
    Renaissance, many words were introduced from
    Greek and Latin to express new ideas, especially
    in science, medicine and philosophy. They
    included physics, species, architecture,
    encyclopedia and hypothesis. In the 16th century
    several versions of the Bible helped bring
    written English to ordinary people. The
    Elizabethan period is also famous for its drama,
    and Shakespeares plays were seen by many people.

Background information
  • The Development of Modern English
  • The development of printing helped establish
    standards of spelling and grammar, but there
    remained a lot of variation. Samuel Johnsons A
    Dictionary of the English Language (1755) was the
    first authoritative treatment of English. It
    defined about 40,000 words and gave examples of
    their use.
  • By the 18th century American English was
    established and developing independently from
    British English. After colonists arrived in the
    US new words began to be added from Native
    American languages, and from French and Spanish.
    In 1783, soon after Johnsons dictionary was
    published, Noah Websters The Elementary Spelling
    Book was published in the US. At first it used
    Johnsons spellings, but later editions contained
    many of what have come to be known as American
    spellings, e.g. harbor and favorite.

Background information
  • 20th Century English
  • During the 19th and early 20th centuries
    many dictionaries and books about language were
    published. New words are still being added to
    English from other languages, including Chinese
    (feng shui) and Japanese (karaoke). Existing
    words gain new senses, and new expressions spread
    quickly through television and the Internet.
  • English is now an international language and
    is used as a means of communication between
    people from many countries. As a result the
    influences on the English language are wider than
    ever and it is possible that World English will
    move away from using a British or American
    standard and establish its own international

Background information
  • Winston Churchill (1874-1965)
  • As a politician, Winston Churchill is
    remembered as one of Britains greatest
    statesmen. He was the son of the Conservative
    politician Lord Randolph Churchill and his
    American wife Jennie. As a young man he served as
    a soldier in India and Egypt, and as a journalist
    in South Africa, before entering politics.
    Churchill became Prime Minister and Minister of
    Defence in 1940. His radio speeches during World
    War II gave the British people a strong
    determination to win the war, especially at times
    of great crisis.

Background information
  • Winston Churchill (1874-1965)
  • Examples of Churchills phrases still often
    quoted today are I have nothing to offer but
    blood, toil, tears and sweat, and This was
    their finest hour. The Conservative Party led by
    Churchill lost the election of 1945, but he
    became Prime Minister again from 1951 to 1955
    when he retired, aged 80. When he died in Jan
    1965 he was given a state funeral.

Background information
  • Julius Caesar (100-44 BC) Julius Caesar was
    the best-known of all the ancient Roman leaders,
    and the first one to land in Britain with an
  • He did this twice, in 55 and 54 BC, although
    Britain did not become part of the Roman Empire
    until nearly a hundred years later.

Background information
  • Viking
  • Viking was a member of a people from Scandinavia
    who attacked parts of northern and western
    Europe, including Britain and Ireland, in the 8th
    to 11th centuries. In Britain they were also
    known as Norsemen. They settled on the
    Scottish islands and in areas of eastern England,
    and the Danish King Canute ruled England from
    1016. The Vikings were feared as violent and
    cruel, but they were also noted for their skill
    in building ships and as sailors. They had an
    important influence on English culture and the
    English language.

Background information
  • Norman
  • Norman refers to any of the people from
    Normandy in northern France who settled in
    England after their leader William defeated the
    English king at the Battle of Hastings in 1066.

Background information
  • Norman
  • The Normans took control of the country, a
    process known as the Norman Conquest. They used
    many of the existing Anglo-Saxon methods of
    government of the state and the church, but added
    important aspects of their own and made
    government much more effective. The language of
    government became first Latin, and then Norman
    French, and this caused many new words to be
    added to the existing English language.

  • Interpret the title
  • glorious having or deserving great fame, praise,
    and honour
  • a glorious future / a glorious victory / a
    glorious expedition
  • messy 1. being dirty or untidy
  • a messy room
  • Sorry the place is so messy, I haven't had time
    to clear up.
  • 2. a messy situation is complicated and
    unpleasant to deal with
  • He's just been through a particularly messy

Interpret the title
  • glorious a commendatory term
  • messiness a derogatory term
  • What effect can be achieved when one is modified
    by the other?
  • Oxymoron
  • a deliberate combination of two words that seem
    to mean the opposite of each other, such as
    'cruel kindness'

Examples from Shakespeare (translated by Zhu
  • An honorable murderer ?????
  • An honorable villain ?????
  • A damned saint ?????
  • Sweet pangs ?????
  • Sweet knaves ???????
  • Sweet sorrow ?????
  • A living death ???
  • Loving hate, heavy lightness, serious vanity,
    cold fire, sick health,

A Summary of Rhetorical Devices
  • Oxymoron glorious messiness
  • Metaphors core of English, a common parent
    language, another flood of new vocabulary, the
    cultural soil, the first shoots sprang up, grew
    stronger, build fences around their language, the
    special preserve of grammarians,
  • Parallelism in Churchills quote.

Text analysis
  • An expert on English language is supposed to know
    well about rhetorical devices in English. Robert
    MacNeil, the author of Text A, does not
    disappoint us.
  • The title, The Glorious Messiness of English,
    offers a good example of oxymoron. An oxymoron
    puts two contradictory terms together to puzzle
    the reader, luring him/her to pause and explore
    why. Glorious is a commendatory term, while
    messiness is derogatory. Why do they stand next
    to each other? Then, as the reader reads on,
    he/she will find out that the title is actually a
    thesis statement Yes, English is messy, but the
    messiness reflects some commendable qualities of
    English, such as tolerance, the love of freedom,
    and the respect for others rights. At this point
    the reader cannot but admire the authors

Text analysis
  • Robert MacNeil employs many metaphors, such as
    core of English (Para. 4), a common parent
    language (Para. 8), another flood of new
    vocabulary (Para. 14), the special preserve of
    grammarians (Para. 19). In Para. 18 there is an
    instance of sustained metaphor the cultural
    soil, the first shoots sprang up, grew
    stronger, build fences around their language. In
    this case the English language is compared to
    plants, and the various cultures influencing it
    are compared to the soil, while users of English
    are compared to gardeners.
  • We can also find parallelism in the quote from
    Winston Churchill We shall fight on the
    beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds,
    we shall fight in the fields and in the streets,
    we shall fight in the hills. We shall never
  • There is personification in the sentence
    Translations of Greek and Roman classics were
    poured onto the printed page
  • There is metonymy in the sentence The country
    now had three languages French for the nobles,
    Latin for the churches and English for the common
    people. Here churches stand for religious
    institutions and those who are involved in
    religious practices.

While-reading Text Organization
Parts Para. Main ideas
1 1-3
2 4-16
3 17-19
Massive borrowing from other languages is a major
feature of the English language.
Tells about the history of the English language
Several qualities in the English-speaking people
explain the richness of their language.
Question for part I
  • Scan the first three paragraphs to find out the
    definition for glorious messiness
  • Text organization Ex.1 on p.214.
  • Scan the first sentence of each paragraph in Text
    A to find out where the present tense is switched
    to the past tense?
  • And where the present tense is resumed?

Question for part II
  • Some key terms and key stages related to the
    history of the English Language.

the history of the English Language
  • The Indo-European family includes several major
  • 1. Latin and the modern Romance languages
  • 2. The Germanic languages
  • 3. The Indo-Iranian languages, including Hindi
    (an official language in India) and Sanskrit (an
    ancient language of India )
  • 4. The Slavic languages
  • 5. The Baltic languages of Latvian and Lithuanian
    (but not Estonian)
  • 6. The Celtic languages and
  • 7. Greek.

the history of the English Language
  • Of these branches of the Indo-European family,
    two are, for our purposes of studying the
    development of English, of paramount importance,
    the Germanic and the Romance (called that because
    the Romance languages derive from Latin, the
    language of ancient Rome)

the history of the English Language
  • Around the second century BC, this Common
    Germanic language split into three distinct
  • East Germanic was spoken by peoples who migrated
    back to southeastern Europe. No East Germanic
    language is spoken today, and the only written
    East Germanic language that survives is Gothic.
  • North Germanic evolved into the modern
    Scandinavian languages of Swedish, Danish,
    Norwegian, and Icelandic (but not Finnish, which
    is related to Estonian and is not an
    Indo-European language).
  • West Germanic is the ancestor of modern German,
    Dutch, Flemish, Frisian, and English.

the history of the English Language
  • Viking a member of the group of Scandinavian
    people who sailed in ships to attack areas along
    the coasts of northern and western Europe from
    the 8th to 11th centuries
  • Scandinavian people people from North Europe
    consisting of Norway, Swede, Denmark, Finland and
  • Norse the language that was spoken by the people
    of ancient Scandinavia, esp. the ancient
    Norwegian people

the history of the English Language
  • The Norman Conquest the period when the Normans
    (people from Normandy in northern France), led by
    William the Conqueror, took control of England
    after defeating the English king Harold II, at
    the Battle of Hastings in 1066. These events had
    a very great influence on England's history,
    culture, and language, and French became the main
    language of the ruling class.

the history of the English Language
  • The origins of English English began as a west
    Germanic language which was brought to England by
    the Saxons around 400 A.D.
  • Old English (400-1100 AD)
  • The Norman Conquest and Middle English
    (1100-1500) (influenced by French and Latin
    French brought words related to government and
    Latin religion and learning)
  • Modern English (1500-Present) (A Dictionary of
    the English Language 1755 by Samuel Johnson)
  • American English (The Elementary Spelling Books
    by Noah Webster 1783)

the history of the English Language
  • West Germanic invaders from Jutland and southern
    Denmark the Angles (whose name is the source of
    the words England and English), Saxons, and
    Jutes, began populating the British Isles in the
    fifth and sixth centuries AD. They spoke a
    mutually intelligible language, that is called
    Old English.
  • These invaders pushed the original,
    Celtic-speaking inhabitants out of what is now
    England into Scotland, Wales, and Ireland,
    leaving behind a few Celtic words. These Celtic
    languages survive today in Scotland and Ireland
    and in Welsh.
  • About half of the most commonly used words in
    modern English have Old English roots. Words like
    be, water, and strong, for example, derive from
    Old English

  • The most famous example of Middle English is
    Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. Unlike Old English,
    Middle English can be read, albeit with
    difficulty, by modern English-speaking people.

  • Many students having difficulty understanding
    Shakespeare would be surprised to learn that he
    wrote in modern English. Many familiar words and
    phrases were coined or first recorded by
    Shakespeare, some 2,000 words and countless
    catch-phrases are his. Words he bequeathed to the
    language include "critical," "leapfrog,"
    "majestic," "dwindle," and "pedant." 

Language Points
Words and phrases ban product necessity
arouse surrender resemble descend establish i
nfluence alternative enrich independent strict
speaking to a()extent pass (sth.) on to
(sb.) out of control put into practice strike
out be supposed to must (a strong belief)
Words and phrases
  • ban v (-nn-)
  • officially forbid sth/sb (to do sth)
    ???????/????? ? sb (from sth/from doing sth)?
  • The play was banned (by the censor).
  • ????(???)??.
  • He was banned from (attending) the meeting.
  • ????????. ban n? (on sth/sb)? ?? ??
  • Cf. forbid, prohibit
  • forbid vt. ??
  • prohibit vt. ?from?(fml) to forbid by law or
  • Ex. ??????, ?????.
  • She's been banned from driving for six months.

Words and phrases
  • product n.
  • 1) C, U something produced by human or
    mechanical effort or by a natural process goods
    (general term) ??
  • Petrol is the most important product of many
    Middle-East countries.
  • ????????????????
  • gross national product ??????
  • 2) C ? of sth?a direct result a
    consequence?? Todays housing problems are the
    product of years of neglect.

Words and phrases
  • Cf. production, produce, producer, product
  • production n. U???? C(??)??produce n U??
  • producer n???,??(???)???
  • Ex. ????
  • This new theatre is becoming known for its good
    ____________ .
  • The company sells plastic____________ .
  • _____________ of computers has increased double
    in the last few weeks.
  • The firm is Britain's main ____________ of
    electronic equipment.

Words and phrases
  • necessity n
  • 1) C ???? of/for sth.?
  • Food, clothing and shelter are all basic
    necessities of life.
  • A compass is a necessity for climbers.
  • 2)U ? (for/of sth)? ?(for sb.) to do
  • They reached an agreement on the necessity of
    educational reforms.
  • Is there any necessity for another meeting?
  • There's no necessity (for you) to write to your
    mother every single day.
  • Ex. ??????????
  • Water is a necessity of life.

Words and phrases
  • arouse vt.
  • 1) provoke (a particular feeling or attitude)
  • Her strange behavior aroused our suspicions.
  • 2)wake sb from sleep? sb (from sth)?
  • He was aroused from his nap by the doorbell.
  • Cf. arise vi (pt arose, pp arisen) become
    evident appear originate?? ???out of/from sth
  • A new difficulty has arisen.
  • Ex.
  • ?????????????
  • The odd sight aroused our curiosity.
  • ???????????????
  • Accidents arise from carelessness.

Words and phrases
  • surrender
  • vt. vi. ? (oneself) (to sb)?give in yield give
    up?? ??
  • The hijackers finally surrendered (themselves)
    to the police.
  • 2) vt.? sth/sb (to sb)? (fml ?)????
  • We shall never surrender our liberty.
  • They surrendered their guns to the police.
  • Ex. Well never surrender terrorism despite the
    terrorist attacks. (??)
  • Well never surrender to terrorism despite the
    terrorist attacks.

Words and phrases
  • resemble vt. no passive ? sb/sth (in sth)?
    (not used in the continuous tenses) be like or
    similar to (another person or thing) ?(?????)??
  • She resembles her mother in the way she moves her
    hands when she talks.
  • ???????????????
  • Ex. ?????????.
  • She resembles her brother in looks.

Words and phrases
  • descend 1) vi come down (from a source) ? from
    sb? ???,???
  • The title descends to me from my father.
  • 2) (fml) vi. vt. come or go down (sth) ??
  • The balloon descended gradually as the air came
    out. She descended the stairs.
  • Ex.????????????????? ?
  • These ideas descend from those of the ancient
  • descendant n person descended from another ??
  • the descendants of Queen Victoria

Words and phrases
  • establish
  • 1) vt. set (sth) up on a firm or permanent basis
  • This business was established in 1860.
  • establish a close relationship with sb.
  • 2) vt. often passive ? sb/oneself (in sth) (as
    sth)?place sb/oneself in a position, office, etc,
    usu on a permanent basis
  • He established himself as governor of the
  • Cf. establishment n U ?? ??
  • Ex.???????????.
  • This discovery established his reputation.

Words and phrases
  • influence
    vt. influencen 1) U, C(sing.)??(?),??C??????
    ??? (on sb/sth)?
  • the influence of parents on their children
  • have/exert/exercise a (good/bad/ beneficial/
    harmful) influence on sb's character
  • Those so-called friends of hers are a bad
    influence on her.
  • 2) U ? (over sb/sth)? ??? ???
  • His parents no longer have any real influence
    over him
  • Ex. ?????????????
  • This book had a great influence on his life.

Words and phrases
  • alternative
  • n. C one/choice of two or more possibilities
    ???????of n.?,????ton.????????(???the
  • One of the alternatives open to you is to resign.
  • I had no money, so I had no alternative to
    staying no alternative but to stay at home.
  • ??????,???????????????
  • You have the alternative of marrying or remaining
    a bachelor.

Words and phrases
  • Ex. ?????????????
  • What was the alternative to going home?
  • Cf. alternative adj. ????,???
  • alternate adj.???, ???, ??? v.??, ??
  • Ex. ??? A. alternate B. alternative
  • We spent a week of ______ rain and sunshine.
  • The way was blocked, so we had to go by an ______
  • I offered the _____ suggestions of spending the
    vacation in the mountains or by the sea.

Words and phrases
  • enrich vt. ? sb/sth (with sth)?
  • 1) make sb/sth rich or richer ???
  • That once poor coastal village has been enriched
    by the profits from tourism
  • 2)improve the quality, flavour, etc of sth ??
  • Reading enriches the mind. enrichment n U.
  • Ex.
  • ?????????
  • Travel enriches peoples lives.

Words and phrases
  • independent adj ? (of sb/sth)?not controlled
    (by other people or things) ???
  • Barbados(????) was once a British colony, but now
    it's independent.
  • ???????????.
  • He is old enough to be independent of his parents

Words and phrases
  • strictly speaking adv. if one uses words,
    applies rules, etc. in their exact sense
  • Hes not strictly speaking an artist he is more
    of a performer.
  • ????,???????????????????????
  • Strictly speaking she was not qualified for the
    job. But we employed her because of her honesty.
  • to (some, what, such an, a certain, a very real,
    etc) extent to the degree specified ?????
  • To what extent can he be believed?
  • Ex. ???????????.
  • To some/a certain extent you are correct.

Words and phrases
  • pass (sth.) on to (sb.) hand or give (sth.)
    to (sb.)
  • When you have finished reading the novel, please
    pass it on to Laura.
  • (be/get) out of control
  • be/become no longer manageable ????
  • Inflation has got out of control.
  • Cf. (be) in control (of sth) ??
  • Who's in control of the project?
  • bring/get sth/be under control?? ??
  • The fire has been brought under control.
  • Ex. ????????.
  • The children are out of control.

  • put into practice ?????
  • They put into practice in their daily lives the
    teaching they received.
  • Ex. ????????,????????????
  • Having delayed several times, we must put our
    plans into practice.
  • strike out
  • start being independent start doing what one
    wants to do in life.
  • After working for his father for about ten years,
    he decided to strike out on his own (????).

  • be supposed to (line 9-10)
  • 1) to have a duty of responsibility to do sth to
    be intended to to be generally considered to
  • Everybody is supposed to bring a bottle to the
  • This law is supposed to help the poor.
  • I havent seen it myself, but its supposed to be
    a good film.
  • 2) (infml) ??????,????? not allowed to ??,??
  • You are not allowed to smoke in this building.
  • Ex. ????????(?????)?
  • We are supposed to help each other.

Words and phrases
  • must
  • must used to express a strong belief must
  • a) ???????????,??? must ???? ? must be
  • She must dislike such a man. He must be
    having the meeting now.
  • b) ?????????????,??? must have ??????
  • It must have rained last night, for the ground is

Words and phrases
  • Note must ???????cant ?couldnt,??????????
  • Can he be serious? ???????
  • It cant/ couldnt have been true. ????????
  • Ex. ??
  • She mustnt have been to your home. She doesnt
    know your address. (
  • Paul did so well in his speech today that he
    should have practiced it many times this past
  • ( )
  • Judging by the noise that is coming from their
    room, I think that they must have a party. (

  • 1.  drawing a picture
  • 1)   T draws Ss attention to a quotation from
    Ralph Waldo Emerson in the Quotations section
    The English language is the sea which receives
    tributaries from every region under heaven.
  • 2)   Ss try to draw a picture of the development
    of the English language. The body of English is
    the sea, while the major influences are the
    tributaries that flow into it. At each point
    where a river merges into the sea, note down the
    time. Along each river, note down the name of the
    language(s) from which English has borrowed.
    (refer to Text Organization Exercise 2)
  • 3)   Some Ss draw their pictures on the
    blackboard. Then T gives some comments.

drawing a picture
  • 4)   Ss re-read Part II to find out how the
    author organizes the phases of English language
    development into a coherent piece. (By
    transitional devices at paragraph heads. Pay
    special attention to the underlined parts below
  • ---- How did the language of a small
    islandbecome the language of the planet?
  • ---- New words came with the Germanic tribes in
    the 5th century.
  • ---- The next big influence on English was
  • ---- Then into this relatively peaceful land came
    the Vikings
  • ---- Another flood of new vocabulary occurred in
  • ---- Around 1476 William Caxton set up a printing
    press in England
  • ---- As settlers landed in North America)

  • Useful expressions
  • 1. ???   a hit parade
     2. ????   the things that
    really matter to us  3.  ???????????  strictly
  • 4.  ????   make a
    speech  5.??????   for effect
  •  6.?????   a systematic
  • 7.???   descend
  • 8.??  come up
    with  9.????  drift
  • 10.?????   pass on to us

  • Useful expressions
  • 11.??????  enjoy oneself 
  • 12.????  
    rear/raise a child  
  • 13.????  common
  • 14.???   a
    printing press
  • 15.?????   a wealth of
    new thinking
  • 16.??????   the European
  • 17.??   be
    out of control  
  • 18.????  put into
  • 19.????????   a respecter of the
    liberties of each individual 
  • 20.????   strike
    out new paths
  •  21.??????   nourish the
    principles of  
  • 22.??  the
    rights of man
  • 23.????  an
    intellectual elite  

  • Proverbs and Quotations  
  • 1. Speech is silver, silence is gold. ????,????? 
  • 2. Speech is the index/picture of the
    mind. ????? 
  • 3. Speech shows what a man is.????????
  • 4. A foreign language is a weapon in the struggle
    of life.
  •                                        -- Karl
    Marx, German philosopher 
  • ????????????
  •                -- ?????   K. ???
  • 5. Grammar must be learned through language, and
    not  language through grammar.
  •                             -- Johann G. Herdor,
    German philosopher 
  • ??????????,????????????
  •             -- ?????   J.G.  ???
  •  6. Speech is a mirror of soul as a man speaks,
    so is he.
  •                                         --
    Ephraem Syrus,  American writer  
  • ???????????????,?????????????
  •                                -- ????  E.???
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