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Colonial America Review


Colonial America Review Politics, Economics, and Society * Tell me which Colonies are for Religious Dissenters: Mass Bay Colony, Plymouth, Conn, RI, Penn, Maryland ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Colonial America Review

Colonial America Review
  • Politics, Economics, and Society

English Exploration
  • Causes Economic necessity- mercantilism
  • Military power- must counter growing empire of
    Spain, France and Portugal
  • Effects British gain a foothold in New World at
    Jamestown, eventually along Atlantic seaboard

(No Transcript)
Big Picture of English Exploration
  • Early exploration was sanctioned by the King in
    hopes of gaining an empire to match Englands
    growing power on the seas, as well as gaining
    wealth similar to the Spanish expeditions of the
  • Soon becomes a haven for religious dissenters,
    poor, landless men (enclosure), wealthy merchants
    looking for more wealth and debtors

Political Evolution of Colonial Era
  • Early Colonial Set-up
  • House of Burgesses-1619
  • Mayflower Compact-1620
  • Foundations of direct democracy
  • New England Town Meetings
  • Fundamental Orders of Connecticut-1638
  • First Written Constitution
  • Dominion of New England
  • Attempts at more control
  • Shift to Royal Colonies as England wants more
  • Salutary Neglect after Glorious Revolution

Southern Colonies
  • Virginia
  • 1607, Virginia Company of London, Gold!!
  • Maryland
  • 1634, Lord Baltimore, Haven for Catholics
  • Carolinas
  • 1663, Proprietors from Barbados, new cash crops
    for England
  • Georgia
  • 1732 James Olgethrope, buffer zone and haven for
    British debtors

New England
  • Massachusetts
  • 1620, Puritans (Separatists and Puritans)
  • Rhode Island
  • 1636, Roger Williams, separation of church and
  • Connecticut
  • 1636, Thomas Hooker, better farm land
  • New Hampshire
  • 1679, John Wheelwright, split from Mass, wants
    separation of church and state

  • New York
  • 1664, Duke of York, gift from king (brother)
  • New Jersey
  • 1664, Gift from king to two friends
  • Pennsylvania
  • 1681, William Penn, Gift from King
  • Delaware
  • 1682, Granted to Penn Swedes and Dutch granted
    own representative government in 1702 from Penn

Comparison of Evolution of Politics of Colonies
  • New England
  • Church Membership and voting
  • Royal Colonies after fall of Dominion
  • Conn and RI remain charter governments
  • Middle
  • Proprietary set-up- Penn and Delaware stay
  • New Jersey, New York shift to Royal
  • Chesapeake
  • Shift to Royal Colony-1624
  • Maryland retains Proprietary status
  • Southern
  • Proprietary set-up, shift to Royal 1700s

Royal Colony Set-Up
  • King
  • Royal Governor
  • (Appointment by King, oversaw trade, final
    approval on laws, dismiss colonial assembly)
  • Colonial Council Colonial Assembly
  • (Appointed by Gov, (Elected by
  • Highest Court in Colony, Authority to
  • Advisors to Governor) paid
    Governors salary)

Big picture of Politics in Colonies
  • Roots of self-government firmly established in
    initial set-up of government
  • Colonies were able to form their own political
    identity as royal colonies were guaranteed the
    right to elective assemblies and English law was
    little enforced in colonies

Comparison of Economic Systems in Colonies
  • New England lumbering, fishing, ship-building,
    subsistence farming
  • Middle Trade centers (NYC, Phili), breadbasket
    (wheat farming)
  • Chesapeake Tobacco plantations
  • Southern Rice, Indigo plantations

Evolution of Economic Systems
  • Economic control grows with Navigation Acts of
  • Not evenly enforced
  • if not royal colony, could not force compliance

  • Colonies are there to support the Mother Country
    (favorable balance of trade)
  • Navigation Acts
  • Products finished in England, enumerated goods
    must be sold only to England
  • Triangular Trade
  • Does not allow colonial manufacturing to develop
    in full
  • Lack of skilled workmen, capital, inland
  • Does produce furniture, beaver hats

Evolution of Economic Systems of Colonies
  • Indentured Servitude/Slavery-young single men
    come to New World for economic opportunity
  • Slavery moved to in Chesapeake with slowing of
    European Indentured Servants
  • Tobacco is labor intensive
  • Slavery present in Southern colonies from the
    beginning- Carolinas linked to Caribbean
  • Always not enough labor for the amount of land to
  • Effect slave system is embedded in culture of
    the Chesapeake and Southern colonies

Slavery Comparison
  • Slavery in New England/Middle
  • Shift from indentured servant to slave
  • Educated to work in stores or on docks
  • Religion leads to better treatment (no slaves for
  • Slavery in Chesapeake
  • Shift from indentured servant to slaves
  • 1 of every 8 people is a slave
  • Work plantations
  • Slavery in Southern
  • Imported to colonies as slaves
  • Slaves outnumber whites
  • Work plantations

Big Picture of Economic Systems in Colonies
  • The Geography of regions influence the economic
  • Mercantilism and Navigation Acts
  • Hinder growth of American industries
  • Triangle trade

Society in the Colonies
  • Religion/tradition is the major factor that
    determines social roles
  • Women-subservient to the husband
  • Slave- subservient to the master
  • Father/Husband- protector of women and children
  • Children- subservient to the father
  • Family- large, used to work for the family
  • American self-reliant, individualism, optimism

  • Must be educated in New England to read the Bible
    for salvation
  • Better educated than most of Europe
  • Varies from colony to colony
  • High literacy rates
  • Harvard- est. 1636

Big Picture of Society in Colonies
  • Religion dictates social structure
  • Education is very important, especially in the
    New England colonies
  • Population growth is rapid due to immigration and
    natural increase
  • Unity grows in a sense of being American, but
    does not extend to politics

Evolution of Religion in Colonies
  • NE founded by Puritans
  • Covenant of Works/Predestination effects all
    aspects of life
  • Effects- extremely devout had lasting
    implications on society, politics and economy
  • Least democratic region, voting rights only as a
    church member
  • Caused conformity
  • Gender Roles in society harshly defined

Conformity of Religion
  • Roger Williams separation of church and state,
    King has no right to give away land that belonged
    to natives, freedom of religion
  • Anne Hutchinson Believed in Covenant of Grace,
    not Covenant of Works toted by most Puritan
    ministers, preached in home that one could
    communicate directly with God, makes church as an
    institution less important

Evolution of Religion
  • Halfway Covenant
  • Shift in importance with forced Religious
    toleration and voting changes post 1690
  • Glorious Revolution!
  • Salem Witch Trials, Great Awakening in response
    to loss of purpose and devoutness

Religion in Chesapeake
  • Maryland- Act of Toleration-1649
  • Settlement is motivated by wealth
  • Headright System
  • Settlement by singles, little inducement for

  • Persecution in New England
  • William Penn in 1681
  • Follow Quaker laws, but you do not have to be
  • Fair Treatment of Native Americans
  • No slaves

Big Picture of Culture in Colonies
  • Most colonies had a state supported church
  • Tolerance grew over the 1600s as more religious
    groups find the New World a haven for religious
  • Salem Witch Trials- showing the decline in
    Puritan ideals
  • Great Awakening is attempt to regain Puritan
    ideals from founding

Questions for Discussion
  • To what extent had the colonists developed a
    sense of their own identity by the eve of the
  • To what extent had the colonists developed a
    sense of unity as Americans by the eve of the

  • Analyze the extent to which religious freedom
    existed in the British North American Colonies
    prior to 1700.
  • How did the economic, geographic, and social
    factors encourage the growth of slavery as an
    important part of the colonies between 1607-1750.