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Chapter Menu

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Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Thermal Energy, Temperature, and Heat Lesson 2 Thermal Energy Transfers Lesson 3 Using Thermal Energy Chapter Wrap-Up – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter Menu


1
Chapter Menu
Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Thermal Energy,
Temperature, and Heat Lesson 2 Thermal Energy
Transfers Lesson 3 Using Thermal
Energy Chapter Wrap-Up
2
Chapter Introduction
Do you agree or disagree?
  • 1. Temperature is the same as thermal energy.
  • Heat is the movement of thermal energy from a
    hotter object to a cooler object.
  • It takes a large amount of energy to
    significantly change the temperature of an object
    with a low specific heat.
  • The thermal energy of an object can never
    be increased or decreased.

3
Lesson 1 Reading Guide - KC
Thermal Energy, Temperature, and Heat
  • How are temperature and kinetic energy related?
  • How do heat and thermal energy differ?

4
Lesson 1 Reading Guide - Vocab
Thermal Energy, Temperature, and Heat - in
your own words come up with a definition for each
of the words below
  • thermal energy
  • temperature
  • heat

5
Lesson 1-1
Kinetic and Potential Energy
  • Potential energy is stored energy due to the
    interaction between two objects.
  • The potential energy plus the kinetic energy of
    an object is the mechanical energy of the object.

6
Lesson 1-2
What is thermal energy?
  • Every solid, liquid, and gas is made up of
    trillions of tiny particles that are constantly
    moving.
  • Because particles are in motion, they have
    kinetic energy.
  • The faster particles move, the more kinetic
    energy they have.

7
Lesson 1-2
What is thermal energy? (cont.)
  • The greater the average distance between
    particles, the greater the potential energy of
    the particles.
  • Thermal energy is the sum of the kinetic energy
    and the potential energy of the particles that
    make up a material.

8
Lesson 1-2
  • The potential energy of the soccer ball depends
    on the distance between the ball and Earth. The
    potential energy of the particles of matter
    depends on their distance from one another.

9
Lesson 1-2
What is thermal energy? (cont.)
  • Mechanical energy describes the energy of one
    object.
  • Thermal energy describes the energy of the
    particles that make up a solid, liquid, or gas.

10
Lesson 1-3
What is temperature?
  • Scientists define temperature in terms of
    kinetic energy.
  • Temperature represents the average kinetic energy
    of the particles that make up a material.

11
Lesson 1-3
What is temperature? (cont.)
  • The greater the average kinetic energy of
    particles, the greater the temperature.
  • The particles in warmer air move at a greater
    average speed than the particles in colder air.

12
Lesson 1-3
What is temperature? (cont.)
  • Temperature and thermal energy are related, but
    they are not the same.
  • The particles that make up liquid and solid water
    have different potential energies and, therefore,
    different thermal energies.

13
Lesson 1-3
What is temperature? (cont.)
  • Thermometers are used to measure temperature.
  • Common temperature scales are Celsius (C),
    Kelvin (K), and Fahrenheit (F).

14
Lesson 1-4
What is heat?
  • The movement of thermal energy from a warmer
    object to a cooler object is called heat.
  • All objects have thermal energy however, you
    heat something when thermal energy transfers from
    one object to another.
  • The rate at which heating occurs depends on the
    difference in temperatures between the objects.

15
Lesson 1 - VS
  • The greater the distance between two particles
    or two objects, the greater the potential
    energy.
  • Heat is the movement of thermal energy from a
    warmer object to a cooler object.

16
Lesson 1 - VS
  • When thermal energy moves between a material and
    its environment, the materials temperature
    changes.

17
Lesson 1 LR1
Because particles are in motion, what type of
energy do they have?
A. thermal energy B. potential energy
C. mechanical energy D. kinetic energy
18
Lesson 1 LR2
Particles that make up liquid and solid water
have different potential energies, and therefore
also have which of the following?
A. different thermal energies B. different
temperatures C. different kinetic energies D. the
same thermal energy
19
Lesson 1 LR3
Which term refers to the average kinetic energy
of the particles that make up a material?
A. heat B. temperature C. potential
energy D. thermal energy
20
Lesson 1 - Now
Do you agree or disagree?
  • 1. Temperature is the same as thermal energy.
  • 2. Heat is the movement of thermal energy from a
    hotter object to a cooler object.

21
Lesson 2 Reading Guide - KC
Thermal Energy Transfers
  • What is the effect of having a small specific
    heat?
  • What happens to a material when it is heated?
  • In what ways can thermal energy be transferred?

22
Lesson 2 Reading Guide - Vocab
Thermal Energy Transfers
  • thermal expansion
  • thermal contraction
  • convection
  • convection current
  • radiation
  • conduction
  • thermal conductor
  • thermal insulator
  • specific heat

23
Lesson 2-1
How is thermal energy transferred?
  • Thermal energy is transferred in three ways.
  • by radiation
  • by conduction
  • by convection

24
Lesson 2-2
Radiation
  • The transfer of thermal energy from one material
    to another by electromagnetic waves is called
    radiation.
  • Radiation is the only way thermal energy can
    travel from the Sun to Earth, because space is a
    vacuum.
  • Radiation also transfers thermal energy through
    solids, liquids, and gases.

25
Lesson 2-3
Conduction
  • When particles with different kinetic energies
    collide, the particles with higher kinetic energy
    transfer energy to particles with lower kinetic
    energy.
  • The transfer of thermal energy between materials
    by the collisions of particles is called
    conduction.
  • Conduction continues until the thermal energy of
    all particles in contact is equal.

26
Lesson 2-3
Conduction (cont.)
  • The hot air transfers thermal energy to, or
    heats, the cool lemonade by conduction.
  • Eventually the kinetic thermal energy and
    temperature of the air and the lemonade will be
    equal.

27
Lesson 2-3
Conduction (cont.)
  • A thermal conductor is a material through which
    thermal energy flows easily.
  • A thermal insulator is a material through which
    thermal energy does not flow easily.

28
Lesson 2-3
Conduction (cont.)
  • The amount of thermal energy required to increase
    the temperature of 1 kg of a material by 1C is
    called specific heat.
  • Waters high specific heat helps prevent your
    body from overheating.
  • Changing the temperature of a material with a low
    specific heat is easier than to change the
    temperature of a material with a high specific
    heat.


29
Lesson 2-3
  • In a hot car, the temperature of thermal
    conductors, such as the safety-belt buckles,
    increases more quickly than the temperature of
    thermal insulators, such as the seat material.

30
Units of heat and thermal energy
  • The metric unit for measuring heat is the joule.
  • This is the same joule used to measure all forms
    of energy, not just heat.

31
Heat and thermal energy
  • Thermal energy is often measured in calories.
  • One calorie is the amount of energy it takes to
    raise the temperature of one milliliter of water
    by one degree Celsius.

32
Specific Heat
  • The specific heat is a property of a substance
    that tells us how much heat is needed to raise
    the temperature of one kilogram of a material by
    one degree Celsius.

Knowing the specific heat of a material tells you
how quickly the temperature will change as it
gains or loses energy.
33
Why is specific heat different for different
materials?
  • Temperature measures the average kinetic energy
    per particle.
  • Energy that is divided between fewer particles
    means more energy per particle, and therefore
    more temperature change.
  • In general, materials made up of heavy atoms or
    molecules have low specific heat compared with
    materials made up of lighter ones.

34
(No Transcript)
35
Lesson 2-3
Conduction (cont.)
What does it mean if a material has a low
specific heat?
36
The heat equation
37
Solving Problems
  • How much heat is needed to raise the temperature
    of a 250-liter hot tub from 20C to 40C?

38
Solving Problems
  • Looking for
  • amount of heat in joules
  • Given
  • V 250 L, 1 L of water 1 kg
  • Temp changes from 20C to 40C
  • Table specific heat water 4, 184 J/kgC
  • Relationships
  • E mCp(T2 T1)
  • Solution
  • E (250L 1kg/L) 4,184 J/kgC (40C - 20C)
    20,920,000 J

Sig. fig./Sci. not. 20,920,000 J 2.1 x 107 J
39
Lesson 2-4
Thermal Expansion and Contraction
  • Thermal contraction is a decrease in a materials
    volume when its temperature decreases.
  • Thermal expansion is an increase in a materials
    volume when its temperature increases.
  • Thermal expansion and contraction are most
    noticeable in gases, less noticeable in liquids,
    and the least noticeable in solids.

40
Lesson 2-4
Thermal Expansion and Contraction (cont.)
What happens to the volume of a gas when it is
heated?
41
Lesson 2-5
Convection
  • Convection is the transfer of thermal energy by
    the movement of particles from one part of a
    material to another.
  • Convection only occurs in fluids.

convection from Greek convectionem, means the
act of carrying
42
Lesson 2-5
  • This cycle of cooler water sinking and forcing
    warmer water upward is an example of convection.

43
Lesson 2-5
Convection (cont.)
What are the three processes that transfer
thermal energy?
44
Lesson 2-5
Convection (cont.)
  • The movement of fluids in a cycle because of
    convection is a convection current.
  • Convection currents circulate the water in
    Earths oceans and other bodies of water.

45
Lesson 2-5
Convection Currents in Earths Atmosphere
46
Lesson 2 - VS
  • When a material has a low specific heat,
    transferring a small amount of energy to the
    material increases its temperature significantly.

47
Lesson 2 - VS
  • Thermal energy can be transferred through
    radiation, conduction, or convection.

48
Lesson 2 - VS
  • When a material is heated, the thermal energy of
    the material increases and the material expands.

49
Lesson 2 LR1
Which term refers to a material through which
thermal energy flows easily?
A. convection current B. specific heat C. thermal
conductor D. thermal insulator
50
Lesson 2 LR2
Which describes an increase in a materials
volume when its temperature increases?
A. conduction B. thermal expansion C. thermal
conductor D. thermal contraction
51
Lesson 2 LR3
What term describes the transfer of thermal
energy by the movement of particles from one part
of a material to another?
A. convection B. conduction C. thermal
contraction D. thermal expansion
52
Lesson 2 - Now
Do you agree or disagree?
3. It takes a large amount of energy to
significantly change the temperature of an object
with a low specific heat. 4. The thermal energy
of an object can never be increased or decreased.
53
Lesson 3 Reading Guide - KC
Using Thermal Energy
  • How does a thermostat work?
  • How does a refrigerator keep food cold?
  • What are the energy transformations in a car
    engine?

54
Lesson 3 Reading Guide - Vocab
Using Thermal Energy
  • heating appliance
  • thermostat
  • refrigerator
  • heat engine

55
Chapter Introduction
Do you agree or disagree?
  • 5. Car engines create energy.
  • 6. Refrigerators cool food by moving thermal
    energy from inside the refrigerator to the
    outside.

56
Lesson 3-1
Thermal Energy Transformations
  • Thermostats transform thermal energy into
    mechanical energy that switch heaters on and off.
  • Even though many devices transform energy from
    one form to another or transfer energy from one
    place to another, the total amount of energy does
    not change.

57
Lesson 3-2
Heating Appliances
  • A device that converts electric energy into
    thermal energy is a heating appliance.
  • Curling irons, coffeemakers, and clothes irons
    are some examples of heating appliances.

58
Lesson 3-3
Thermostats
  • A thermostat is a device that regulates the
    temperature of a system.

thermostat from Greek therme, meaning heat and
statos, meaning a standing
59
Lesson 3-3
Thermostats (cont.)
  • Most thermostats contain a bimetallic coil made
    of two types of metal joined together and bent
    into a coil.
  • The metal on the inside of the coil expands and
    contracts more than the metal on the outside of
    the coil.
  • When a room warms or cools, the thermal energy
    causes the bimetallic coil to uncurl slightly or
    tighten, which turns the furnace off or on.

60
Lesson 3-4
Refrigerators
  • A device that uses electric energy to transfer
    thermal energy from a cooler location to a warmer
    location is called a refrigerator.
  • In a refrigerator, a coolant is pumped through
    pipes on the inside and the outside of the
    refrigerator.

61
Lesson 3-4
  • Coolant in a refrigerator moves thermal energy
    from inside to outside the refrigerator.

62
Lesson 3-4
  • The coolant, which begins as a liquid, passes
    through an expansion valve and cools.

63
Lesson 3-4
  • As the cold gas flows through pipes inside the
    refrigerator, it absorbs thermal energy from the
    refrigerator compartment and vaporizes.

64
Lesson 3-5
Heat Engines
  • A heat engine is a machine that converts thermal
    energy into mechanical energy.
  • When a heat engine converts thermal energy into
    mechanical energy, the mechanical energy moves
    the vehicle.
  • Most cars, buses, boats, trucks, and lawn mowers
    use a type of heat engine called an internal
    combustion engine.

65
Lesson 3-5
Internal Combustion Engine
66
Lesson 3-5
Internal Combustion Engine
67
Lesson 3-5
Heat Engines (cont.)
What is one form of energy that is output from a
heat engine?
68
Lesson 3 - VS
  • A bimetallic coil inside a thermostat controls a
    switch that turns a heating or cooling device on
    or off.

69
Lesson 3 - VS
  • A refrigerator keeps food cold by moving thermal
    energy from the inside of the refrigerator out to
    the refrigerators surroundings.

70
Lesson 3 - VS
  • In a car engine, chemical energy in fuel is
    transformed into thermal energy. Some of this
    thermal energy is then transformed into
    mechanical energy.

71
Lesson 3 LR1
Curling irons, coffeemakers, and clothes irons
are some examples of what?
A. thermostats B. refrigerators C. heat
engines D. heating appliances
72
Lesson 3 LR2
Which is pumped through pipes on the inside and
the outside of a refrigerator?
A. water B. ice C. coolant D. bimetallic coil
73
Lesson 3 LR3
Which term refers to a device that regulates the
temperature of a system?
A. heat engine B. heating appliance
C. refrigerator D. thermostat
74
Lesson 3 - Now
Do you agree or disagree?
5. Car engines create energy. 6. Refrigerators
cool food by moving thermal energy from inside
the refrigerator to the outside.
75
Chapter Review Menu
Key Concept Summary Interactive Concept
Map Chapter Review Standardized Test Practice
76
The BIG Idea
  • Thermal energy can be transferred by conduction,
    radiation, and convection. Thermal energy also
    can be transformed into other forms of energy and
    used in devices such as thermostats,
    refrigerators, and automobile engines.

77
Key Concepts 1
Lesson 1 Thermal Energy, Temperature, and Heat
  • The temperature of a material is the average
    kinetic energy of the particles that make up the
    material.
  • Heat is the movement of thermal energy from a
    material or area with a higher temperature to a
    material or area with a lower temperature.
  • When a material is heated, the materials
    temperature changes.

78
Key Concepts 2
Lesson 2 Thermal Energy Transfers
  • When a material has a low specific heat,
    transferring a small amount of energy to the
    material increases its temperature significantly.
  • When a material is heated, the thermal energy of
    the material increases and the material expands.
  • Thermal energy can be transferred by conduction,
    radiation, or convection.

79
Key Concepts 3
Lesson 3 Using Thermal Energy
  • The two different metals in a bimetallic coil
    inside a thermostat expand and contract at
    different rates. The bimetallic coil curs and
    uncurls, depending on the thermal energy of the
    air, pushing a switch that turns a heating or
    cooling device on or off.
  • A refrigerator keeps food cold by moving thermal
    energy from inside the refrigerator out to the
    refrigerators surroundings.
  • In a car engine, chemical energy in fuel is
    transformed into thermal energy. Some of this
    thermal energy is then transformed into
    mechanical energy.

80
Chapter Review MC1
Which describes the sum of the kinetic energy and
the potential energy of the particles that make
up a material?
A. heat B. temperature C. thermal
energy D. mechanical energy
81
Chapter Review MC2
The transfer of thermal energy from one material
to another by electromagnetic waves is called
what?
A. conduction B. radiation C. specific heat
D. thermal expansion
82
Chapter Review MC3
Which refers to a decrease in a materials
volume when its temperature decreases?
A. conduction B. radiation C. thermal contraction
D. thermal expansion
83
Chapter Review MC4
Which describes the amount of thermal energy
required to increase the temperature of 1 kg of
a material by 1C?
A. thermal expansion B. specific
heat C. convection D. conduction
84
Chapter Review MC5
What term refers to the part of a thermostat
that expands and contracts to turn a furnace on
and off?
A. coolant B. piston C. bimetallic coil D. heat
engine
85
Chapter Review STP1
What term refers to the movement of thermal
energy from a warmer object to a cooler object?
A. temperature B. heat C. potential
energy D. kinetic energy
86
Chapter Review STP2
Which term refers to a material through which
thermal energy does not flow easily?
A. convection current B. thermal
contraction C. thermal conductor D. thermal
insulator
87
Chapter Review STP3
Which is the movement of fluids in a cycle
because of convection?
A. convection current B. thermal contraction
C. thermal expansion D. thermal conductor
88
Chapter Review STP4
Which term describes the transfer of thermal
energy between materials by the collisions of
particles?
A. convection B. conduction C. thermal
expansion D. thermal contraction
89
Chapter Review STP5
Which describes a machine that converts thermal
energy into mechanical energy?
A. piston B. thermostat C. heat
engine D. heating appliance
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