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Title: Engaging Students Through Active and Cooperative Learning


1
Engaging Students Through Active and Cooperative
Learning
Karl A. Smith Civil Engineering - University of
Minnesota ksmith_at_umn.edu http//www.ce.umn.edu/sm
ith Design and Implementation of Active and
Cooperative Learning in Large Classes Michigan
State University 11th Annual Spring Institute
2
To teach is to engage students in learning thus
teaching consists of getting students involved in
the active construction of knowledge. . .The aim
of teaching is not only to transmit information,
but also to transform students from passive
recipients of other people's knowledge into
active constructors of their own and others'
knowledge. . .Teaching is fundamentally about
creating the pedagogical, social, and ethical
conditions under which students agree to take
charge of their own learning, individually and
collectively Education for judgment The
artistry of discussion leadership. Edited by C.
Roland Christensen, David A. Garvin, and Ann
Sweet. Cambridge, MA Harvard Business School,
1991.
3
Formulate-Share-Listen-Create (Think-Pair-Share)
  • Individually read the quote To teach is to
    engage students in learning. . .
  • Underline/Highlight words and/or phrases that
    stand out for you
  • Turn to the person next to you and talk about
    words and/or phrases that stood out

4
Lila M. Smith
5
Pedago-pathologies Amnesia Fantasia Inertia Lee
Shulman MSU Med School PBL Approach (late
60s early 70s), Currently President of the
Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of
College Teaching Shulman, Lee S. 1999. Taking
learning seriously. Change, 31 (4), 11-17.
6
What do we do about these pathologies? Lee
Shulman Activity Reflection Collaboration
Passion Combined with generative content and the
creation of powerful learning communities
Shulman, Lee S. 1999. Taking learning
seriously. Change, 31 (4), 11-17.
7
Lila M. Smith
8
Cooperative Learning Task Groups
Perkins, David. 2003. King Arthur's Round Table
How collaborative conversations create smart
organizations. NY Wiley.
9
Active/Cooperative Learning, Learning
Community Success Story Reflect on and Talk
about your Active/Cooperative Learning, Learning
Community Success(es) 1. Context? 2. Structure/Pro
cedure? 3. Outcome?
10
Key Features of Cooperative Learning Active/Inte
ractive Cooperative Personal (before
professional) Structure (before
task) Knee-to-Knee, Eye-to-Eye/Space/Focus Challen
ging task (worthy of group effort) Students
talking through the material (cognitive
rehearsal) Learning groups are small (2-5) and
assigned Heterogeneous Your own cooperative group
11
Backdrop Recent Reports
  • National Research Council Reports
  • How People Learn Brain, Mind, Experience, and
    School (1999).
  • How People Learn Bridging Research and Practice
    (2000).
  • Knowing What Students Know The Science and
    Design of Educational Assessment (2001).
  • The Knowledge Economy and Postsecondary Education
    (2002). Chapter 6 Creating High-Quality
    Learning Environments Guidelines from Research
    on How People Learn

12
Designing Learning Environments Based on HPL (How
People Learn)
13
Getting Students Actively Involved Using
Cooperative Learning Principles, Strategies,
and Problem-Solving What is it? How do you do
it? Why bother?
14
Cooperative Learning is instruction that involves
people working in teams to accomplish a common
goal, under conditions that involve both positive
interdependence (all members must cooperate to
complete the task) and individual and group
accountability (each member is accountable for
the complete final outcome). Key
Concepts Positive Interdependence Individual
and Group Accountability Face-to-Face Promotive
Interaction Teamwork Skills Group Processing
15
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16
http//clte.asu.edu/active
17
Robert Barr John Tagg. From teaching to
learning A new paradigm for undergraduate
education. Change, 27(6), 1995. Wm.
Campbell Karl Smith. New Paradigms for College
Teaching. Interaction Books, 1997.
18
New Paradigm
  • Defining educational objectives, facilitating
    development of critical and creative thinking and
    problem-solving skills
  • Active learning (individual and group activities
    in class)
  • Structured cooperative learning (including
    multidisciplinary teamwork and facilitating
    development of written and oral communication
    skills)
  • Writing and (multidisciplinary) design across the
    curriculum
  • Inquiry and discovery learning (problem-based,
    case- based)
  • Teaching to diversity (different learning styles,
    ethnicities, genders)
  • Appropriate use of technology (tools, simulation,
    exploration)

19
Pressures to Change
  • Legislators (in public institutions)
  • National Science Foundation Career Development
    Award, Shaping the Future
  • Professional Accreditation ABET Assessment,
    Synthesis Design
  • Financial especially the growing gap between
    the falling public support and the rising costs
  • Employers and Workforce Development Agencies
    Workplace Basics, Global Engineer
  • University Administration Professional
    Organizations Renewing the Covenant, Greater
    Expectations
  • Boyer Commission Reports Educating
    Undergraduates in the Research Universities,
    Scholarship Reconsidered
  • Educational Research Active, Interactive
    Cooperative Learning, Inquiry Problem-Based
    Learning

20
Business Week December 22, 1997
21
Shaping the Future New Expectations for
Undergraduate Education in Science, Mathematics,
Engineering and Technology National Science
Foundation, 1996
Goal B All students have access to supportive,
excellent undergraduate education in science,
mathematics, engineering, and technology, and all
students learn these subjects by direct
experience with the methods and processes of
inquiry. Recommend that SMET faculty Believe
and affirm that every student can learn, and
model good practices that increase learning
starting with the students experience, but have
high expectations within a supportive climate
and build inquiry, a sense of wonder and the
excitement of discovery, plus communication and
teamwork, critical thinking, and life-long
learning skills into learning experiences.
22
Tracking Change - Seymour "The greatest single
challenge to SMET pedagogical reform remains the
problem of whether and how large classes can be
infused with more active and interactive learning
methods." Seymour, Elaine. 2001. Tracking the
processes of change in US undergraduate education
in science, mathematics, engineering, and
technology. Science Education, 86, 79-105.
23
Active Learning Cooperation in the College
Classroom
  • Informal Cooperative Learning Groups
  • Formal Cooperative Learning Groups
  • Cooperative Base Groups

24
Book Ends on a Class Session
25
  • Book Ends on a Class Session
  • Advance Organizer
  • Formulate-Share-Listen-Create (Turn-to-your-neighb
    or) -- repeated every 10-12 minutes
  • Session Summary (Minute Paper)
  • What was the most useful or meaningful thing you
    learned during this session?
  • What question(s) remain uppermost in your mind as
    we end this session?
  • What was the muddiest point in this session?

26
Advance Organizer The most important single
factor influencing learning is what the learner
already knows. Ascertain this and teach him
accordingly._at_ David Ausubel - Educational
psychology A cognitive approach, 1968.
27
Knowledge Probe
  • Example from MOT 8221
  • What would you like to know about the students in
    your courses?

28
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29
MOT 8221 Spring 2005
PM Q1
PMI Q2
KM Q3
Leadership Q4
EngSys Q5
IE/OR Q6
Mod/Sim Q7
CAS Q8
MgmtSci Q9
6 Sigma Q10
30
Spread Q1
PM Q2
Stat Q3
Mod/Sim Q4
DB Q5
Prog Q6
MOT 8221 Spring 2005
31
Quick Thinks
  • Reorder the steps
  • Paraphrase the idea
  • Correct the error
  • Support a statement
  • Select the response
  • Johnston, S. Cooper,J. 1997. Quick thinks
    Active- thinking in lecture classes and televised
    instruction. Cooperative learning and college
    teaching, 8(1), 2-7.

32
  • Formulate-Share-Listen-Create
  • Informal Cooperative Learning Group
  • Introductory Pair Discussion of a
  • FOCUS QUESTION
  • Formulate your response to the question
    individually
  • Share your answer with a partner
  • Listen carefully to your partner's answer
  • Work together to Create a new answer through
    discussion

33
Minute Paper
  • What was the most useful or meaningful thing you
    learned during this session?
  • What question(s) remain uppermost in your mind as
    we end this session?
  • What was the muddiest point in this session?
  • Give an example or application
  • Explain in your own words . . .
  • Angelo, T.A. Cross, K.P. 1993. Classroom
    assessment techniques A handbook for college
    teachers. San Francisco Jossey Bass.

34
Informal CL (Book Ends on a Class Session) with
Concept Tests Physics Peer Instruction Eric
Mazur - Harvard B http//galileo.harvard.edu Pee
r Instruction www.prenhall.com Richard Hake
http//www.physics.indiana.edu/hake/ Chemistry
Chemistry ConcepTests - UW Madison B
www.chem.wisc.edu/concept Video Making
Lectures Interactive with ConcepTests ModularChem
Consortium B http//mc2.cchem.berkeley.edu/ STEM
TEC Video How Change Happens Breaking the
ATeach as You Were Taught_at_ Cycle B Films for the
Humanities Sciences B www.films.com Thinking
Together video Derek Bok Center B
www.fas.harvard.edu/bok_cen/
35
Richard Hake (Interactive engagement vs
traditional methods) http//www.physics.indiana.ed
u/hake/
Traditional (lecture)
Interactive (active/cooperative)
ltggt Concept Inventory Gain/Total
36
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37
The Hake Plot of FCI
35.00
SDI
30.00
ALS
WP
25.00
20.00
PI(HU)
15.00
ASU(nc)
WP
10.00
ASU(c)
HU
5.00
0.00
20.00
30.00
40.00
50.00
60.00
70.00
80.00
Pretest (Percent)
38
Physics (Mechanics) ConceptsThe Force Concept
Inventory (FCI)
  • A 30 item multiple choice test to probe student's
    understanding of basic concepts in mechanics.
  • The choice of topics is based on careful thought
    about what the fundamental issues and concepts
    are in Newtonian dynamics.
  • Uses common speech rather than cueing specific
    physics principles.
  • The distractors (wrong answers) are based on
    students' common inferences.

39
  • Session Summary
  • (Minute Paper)
  • Reflect on the session
  • 1. Most interesting, valuable, useful thing you
    learned.
  • 2. Question/Topic/Issue you would like to have
    addressed.
  • 3. Comments, suggestions, etc
  • Pace Too slow 1 . . . . 5 Too fast
  • Relevance Little 1 . . . 5 Lots
  • Format Ugh 1 . . . 5 Ah

40
MOT 8221 - Spring 2005 - Session 1
Q4 Pace Too slow 1 . . . . 5 Too fast Q5
Relevance Little 1 . . . 5 Lots Q6 Format Ugh
1 . . . 5 Ah
41
Mid-Term Review
http//eval.umn.edu
42
(No Transcript)
43
Informal Cooperative Learning Groups Can be
used at any time Can be short term and ad hoc May
be used to break up a long lecture Provides an
opportunity for students to process material
they have been listening to (Cognitive
Rehearsal) Are especially effective in large
lectures Include "book ends" procedure Are not as
effective as Formal Cooperative Learning or
Cooperative Base Groups
44
Cooperative Learning Research Support Johnson,
D.W., Johnson, R.T., Smith, K.A. 1998.
Cooperative learning returns to college What
evidence is there that it works? Change, 30 (4),
26-35. Over 300 Experimental Studies First
study conducted in 1924 High Generalizability
Multiple Outcomes
Outcomes 1. Achievement and retention 2.
Critical thinking and higher-level reasoning 3.
Differentiated views of others 4. Accurate
understanding of others' perspectives 5. Liking
for classmates and teacher 6. Liking for subject
areas 7. Teamwork skills
45
Small-Group Learning Meta-analysis
Springer, L., Stanne, M. E., Donovan, S. 1999.
Effects of small-group learning on
undergraduates in science, mathematics,
engineering, and technology A meta-analysis.
Review of Educational Research, 69(1), 21-52.
Small-group (predominantly cooperative) learning
in postsecondary science, mathematics,
engineering, and technology (SMET). 383 reports
from 1980 or later, 39 of which met the rigorous
inclusion criteria for meta-analysis. The main
effect of small-group learning on achievement,
persistence, and attitudes among undergraduates
in SMET was significant and positive. Mean
effect sizes for achievement, persistence, and
attitudes were 0.51, 0.46, and 0.55,
respectively.
46
Strategies for Energizing Large Classes From
Small Groups to Learning Communities Jean
MacGregor, James Cooper, Karl Smith, Pamela
Robinson New Directions for Teaching and
Learning, No. 81, 2000. Jossey- Bass
47
Formal Cooperative Learning Task Groups
48
  • Formal Cooperative Learning
  • Jigsaw
  • 2. Peer Composition or Editing
  • 3. Reading Comprehension/Interpretation
  • 4. Problem Solving, Project, or Presentation
  • 5. Review/Correct Homework
  • 6. Constructive Academic Controversy
  • 7. Group Tests

49
Challenged-Based Learning
  • Problem-based learning
  • Case-based learning
  • Project-based learning
  • Learning by design
  • Inquiry learning
  • Anchored instruction

John Bransford, Nancy Vye and Helen Bateman.
Creating High-Quality Learning Environments
Guidelines from Research on How People Learn
50
  • Professor's Role in
  • Formal Cooperative Learning
  • Specifying Objectives
  • Making Decisions
  • Explaining Task, Positive Interdependence, and
    Individual Accountability
  • Monitoring and Intervening to Teach Skills
  • Evaluating Students' Achievement and Group
    Effectiveness

51
Problem Based Cooperative Learning Format TASK
Solve the problem(s) or Complete the
project. INDIVIDUAL Estimate answer. Note
strategy. COOPERATIVE One set of answers from
the group, strive for agreement, make sure
everyone is able to explain the strategies used
to solve each problem. EXPECTED CRITERIA FOR
SUCCESS Everyone must be able to explain the
strategies used to solve each problem. EVALUATION
Best answer within available resources or
constraints. INDIVIDUAL ACCOUNTABILITY One
member from your group may be randomly chosen to
explain (a) the answer and (b) how to solve each
problem. EXPECTED BEHAVIORS Active
participating, checking, encouraging, and
elaborating by all members. INTERGROUP
COOPERATION Whenever it is helpful, check
procedures, answers, and strategies with another
group.
52
Cooperative Base Groups
  • Are Heterogeneous
  • Are Long Term (at least one quarter or semester)
  • Are Small (3-5 members)
  • Are for support
  • May meet at the beginning of each session or may
    meet between sessions
  • Review for quizzes, tests, etc. together
  • Share resources, references, etc. for individual
    projects
  • Provide a means for covering for absentees

53
It could well be that faculty members of the
twenty-first century college or university will
find it necessary to set aside their roles as
teachers and instead become designers of learning
experiences, processes, and environments. James
Duderstadt, 1999 We never educate directly, but
indirectly by means of the environment. Whether
we permit chance environments to do the work, or
whether we design environments for the purpose
makes a great difference. John Dewey, 1906
54
  • Session Summary
  • (Minute Paper)
  • Reflect on the session
  • What were the most important points for you?
  • What is one thing you would be willing to try?
  • What questions do you have?
  • Discuss with a partner
  • Points that were useful, meaningful, interesting,
    applicable, etc.
  • Questions that you have.
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