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U.S. History Ch. 13

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U.S. History Ch. 13 The Age of Jackson Election of 1840 The Whigs chose General William Henry Harrison, hero of the 1811 Battle of Tippecanoe, to represent them in ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: U.S. History Ch. 13


1
U.S. History Ch. 13
  • The Age of Jackson

2
Andrew Jackson
3
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4
The West Changes Politics
  • The west was quickly being populated
  • Westerners were hard working people
  • They liked self-made leaders and more democracy.
  • New western states gave all white men the right
    to vote
  • Voter registration and turnout skyrocketed.
  • Many of these things spread to the east.

5
Voter Turnout 1820 - 1860
6
Presidential Election of 1824
  • Election of 1824
  • Fueled by Sectionalism
  • John Q. Adams wins
  • Jackson accuses him of a corrupt bargain
  • Jackson formed the Democratic Party

7
Election of 1824 results
8
John Q Adams
Jackson
9
Election of 1828
  • Jackson Adams ran against one another in 1828.
  • The two viciously attacked one another during the
    campaigning.
  • Jackson won by a landslide, winning the support
    of the working class, farmers, and westerners.
  • Jackson became a symbol of the common man and
    democracy

10
Jackson Campaign poster
11
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12
Jackson's Presidency
  • People didnt know what to expect
  • Inaugural party was filled with rugged country
    folk with very little sophistication
  • Jackson fired many government employees and
    replaced them with his supporters. He did this
    openly and proudly. This became known as the
    spoils system
  • He refused to listen to his cabinet members
    approved by Congress. Instead he consulted with
    a cabinet of his friends that were known as the
    kitchen cabinet

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15
War with the Bank
  • Jackson hated the Bank of the U.S.
  • In 1832 Nicholas Biddle, bank president, asked
    Congress to renew the bank charter, even though
    it wasnt due until 1836
  • Henry Clay pushed the bill to the president in
    hopes of using it against him in the 1832
    presidential election.
  • Jackson vetoed the bill saying the bank was
    corrupt and Anti-American
  • Jackson won re-election in 1832 and attacked the
    bank by placing federal funds into certain state
    banks that became known as pet banks
  • Biddle responded by limiting how much money was
    released from the Bank of the U.S. This made
    paper money very scarce in the U.S. and pushed
    the U.S. toward financial crisis
  • The Bank of the U.S. collapsed in 1836

16
Nicholas Biddle
Second Bank of the U.S.
17
Henry Clay
18
The Fall of the Bank of the US
19
Tariff of Abominations
  • A protective tariff was passed in 1828
  • Northerners loved tariffs, but southerners hated
    them
  • Southerners called it the Tariff of
    Abominations
  • John C. Calhoun was vice president and from South
    Carolina.
  • Calhoun challenged that states had the right to
    nullify, or cancel, any federal law that they
    considered unconstitutional (states rights)
  • The nation divided on this issue.
  • Jackson didnt choose a side for a while, but
    eventually he sided with the union and opposed
    states rights
  • Calhoun resigned in Dec. 1832 and was replaced by
    Martin Van Buren
  • In 1832 S. Carolina passed the Nullification Act
    that declared the tariff null void. They then
    threatened to secede, or leave the union
  • Jackson threatened to use force
  • A compromise tariff was passed and S. Carolina
    withdrew the Nullification Act, but the idea of
    secession was now there

20
Stances on the issue of the Tariff of Abomination
Daniel Webster Liberty and Union, now and
forever, one and inseparable.
Andrew Jackson Our Federal Unionit must
be preserved.
John C. Calhoun The Union, next to our
liberty, most dear.
21
Martin Van Buren
John C. Calhoun
22
Election of 1932 results
23
Native American Removal
  • In the 1830s Native American lands was a major
    issue
  • Jackson the U.S. govnt believed that Native
    Americans should give their land to white
    settlers and move to Indian Territory (Oklahoma)
  • 1828 the Cherokee vs Georgia case went to the
    Supreme Court
  • Cherokee said they were a sovereign nation but
    Georgia said they could make laws for them.
  • Supreme Court agreed with the Cherokee and
    declared Georgias actions unconstitutional
  • Pres. Jackson sided with Georgia and told the
    Supreme Court, What army will you use to enforce
    your decision
  • The ruling was ignored by Georgia

24
The Cherokee Nation After 1820
25
  • Jackson professed a love for the Indians.
  • Americanization and removal was his solution

26
Trail of Tears
  • Congress passed the Indian Removal Act of 1830,
    which allowed for the removal of Native Americans
    from their lands
  • Native Americans refused to leave until they were
    forced by the U.S. govnt
  • Many Native Americans died on the trip to
    Oklahoma. The vicious weather, lack of food,
    lack of shelter, and other conditions were
    terrible
  • The trip became known as the Trail of Tears
  • Some tribes refused to leave and fought against
    the govnt.

27
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29
Election of 1836
  • In 1836, Andrew Jackson did not run for a 3rd
    term, but he could have easily won one.
  • He used his influence to get his Vice President
    Martin Van Buren elected.
  • The Whig Party put four candidates against Van
    Buren, but he easily won

30
Results of the 1836 election
31
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32
Economic Crisis
  • Problems from Jacksons war with the Bank of the
    U.S. occurred during Van Burens presidency
  • Bank of U.S. collapsed in 1836 and state banks
    began loaning money freely.
  • More money was printed than was backed by specie,
    or hard currency
  • Land speculators began borrowing money to buy
    govnt land and sell it for higher prices
  • In 1836 the Specie Act said that govnt land had
    to be bought with gold or silver. This lowered
    land sales which lowered prices and many
    speculators lost their land b/c they couldnt pay
    loans.
  • Banks then couldnt sell the land for enough to
    recover from the loan amount.

33
Economic Crisis (Continued)
  • People rushed to banks and cashed in their
    banknotes for hard currency.
  • Banks ran out of hard currency and couldnt do
    business
  • Cotton prices fell in the South southern
    farmers couldnt pay loans off and lost their
    lands.
  • Lack of money meant less factory goods were
    bought, so factories cut back production and laid
    off workers.
  • The peak of this crisis was called the Panic of
    1837 it occurred in the first three months of
    Van Burens presidency.
  • Banks closed all over the country
  • Van Buren didnt do much to help, but he did
    establish a Federal Treasury in 1840.
  • The treasury kept government money and didnt
    allow independent banks to mismanage this money.
    This would prevent future economic problems

34
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35
Election of 1840
  • The Whigs chose General William Henry Harrison,
    hero of the 1811 Battle of Tippecanoe, to
    represent them in the election
  • Democrats put up Van Buren for reelection
  • Harrison was made to represent a poor man who
    grew up in a log cabin, but he actually grew up
    in a wealthy Virginia family.
  • Harrisons running mate was John Tyler. Their
    campaign slogan was Tippecanoe and Tyler too
  • Harrison won the election, but he died a month
    into his presidency.
  • He was replaced by John Tyler his V.P.
  • This was the first time that the Vice President
    had to replace the President due to death.

36
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37
Log cabin campaign
38
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39
Log cabin Campaign
William H. Harrison
40
John Tyler
41
Photo of Andrew Jackson in 1844 (one year before
his death)
1767 - 1845
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