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Hydrogen and Fuel Cells


Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Shannon Baxter-Clemmons, PhD Institute of Management Accountants January 19, 2011 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells

Hydrogen and Fuel Cells
Shannon Baxter-Clemmons, PhD Institute of
Management Accountants January 19, 2011
SCHFCA Mission
  • The South Carolina Hydrogen and Fuel Cell
    Alliance is a public-private collaboration for
    cooperative and coordinated utilization of
    resources in the state used to advance the
    commercialization of hydrogen and fuel cell

I/U Cooperative Research Center for Fuel Cells
Current U.S. Economy is Unsustainable
  • U.S. is 5 of world population but consume 25 of
    energy produced in the world.
  • Over 700 billion are leaving this country to
    foreign nations every year. That's four times the
    cost of the Iraqi war, and it's killing our
    economy. It'll be the largest transfer of wealth
    in the history of mankind. T. Boone Pickens,
  • Up to 30 of plant and animal species could face
    extinction by mid-century if global warming is
    left unchecked. The U.N.
    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change

The Opportunity
  • Current U.S. economy is unsustainable
  • Hydrogen and fuel cells allow people to increase
    their standard of living in a sustainable manner
  • SC is well positioned to be home to the hydrogen
    and fuel cell industry
  • Fuel cell vehicle technology has advanced
    significantly in recent years
  • Key issues currently being addressed include
    hydrogen storage, FC system costs durability,
    and hydrogen infrastructure
  • Pilot testing of vehicles is occurring in Japan,
    Europe, and the U.S. (esp. California, Michigan,
    and Washington, D.C.) under a U.S. DOE program

SC Research Institutions
Genesis for Economic Cluster
  • Savannah River National Laboratory
  • Applied Research Center Hydrogen
  • University of South Carolina
  • NSF Industry/University Cooperative Research
  • Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Center of Excellence
  • South Carolina State University
  • James E. Clyburn Transportation Center
  • Clemson University
  • International Center for Automotive Research

April 2010
State of the States Fuel Cells in America
  • South Carolina
  • is one of the
  • Top 5 Fuel Cell States
  • in the U.S.A.
  • Top 5 (alphabetical) California, Connecticut,
    New York, Ohio, and South Carolina.

Policy Development
SC Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Permitting Law
  • Places the authority and responsibility of
    permitting hydrogen and fuel cells in SC in the
    jurisdiction of the Office of the State Fire
  • Benefits
  • Increases public safety by creating a state
    expert at the Office of the State Fire Marshal
  • Creates a better business environment for the
    placement of hydrogen and fuel cell facilities
  • Raises South Carolinas profile as a progressive
    place for hydrogen and fuel cells.

  • Builds hybrid and all-electric city buses
  • Building a 68 million plant in Greenville
  • Breaking ground in July 2010
  • Expected to generate over 1,000 jobs

  • Build Hydrogen Fuel Cell generators and hydrogen
    fuel canisters for commercial uses
  • Moved its manufacturing and administration to
    Columbia, creating over 1,000 jobs
  • Partner with Midlands Techhired first 5 fuel
    cell technology graduates in 2010
  • An SCLaunch! partner company

Hydrogen and Fuel Cells are part of a Portfolio
of Transportation Energy Solutions
  • Conservation
  • Gasoline-electric hybrids
  • Flex fuel
  • Plug-in hybrids
  • Neighborhood electric vehicles
  • Hydrogen internal combustion engine
  • Hydrogen fuel cell

What is hydrogen?
What is a fuel cell?
  • An electrochemical device that combines hydrogen
    and oxygen to produce electricity, with water and
    heat as its by-product 
  • It is clean, quiet and highly efficient two to
    three times more efficient than fuel burning
  • The most abundant element in the universe
  • A universal fuel that can be used to power
    anything from cars to cell phones
  • Non-toxic, lighter than air, colorless, odorless,

Benefits of a Hydrogen Economy
  • Environmental and human health protection
  • No harmful or climate change emissions from the
    use of hydrogen
  • Energy security
  • Hydrogen can be produced from local resources
  • Ability to couple stationary and transportation
  • Distributed network possible versus a centralized
  • Complements the intermittent nature of renewables
  • Economic prosperity
  • Technology innovations
  • Sustainable fuel supplypredictable price

Lifecycles Lifestyle Sources(Jones, Horvath
Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Change is Good! (as long as it doesnt affect my
Economic Growth Takes Energy
PPP Purchasing Power Parity - A rate of
exchange that accounts for price differences
across countries allowing international
comparisons of real output and incomes.
Source UN and DOE EIA, Slide courtesy of Steven
E. Koonin, Chief Scientist, BP, plc
Peak Oil is Within Sight
Long-Term World Oil Supply Scenarios The Future
Is Neither as Bleak or Rosy as Some Assert, John
H. Wood, Gary R. Long, David F. Morehouse
Hydrogen makes Energy Security a Local Issue
  • Couples transportation and stationary energy
  • Firms up renewable resources
  • Allows for the use of indigenous fuel sources
  • Renewables, nuclear, fossil fuels
  • Breaks traditional energy paradigms
  • Monopolies
  • Fueling infrastructure
  • Vehicle capabilities

Effects of a Transition to a Hydrogen Economy on
Employment in the US, National Academy of
Science, July 2008
Economic Impacts
  • Assuming the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative is
  • 1st HFCV sales in 2018
  • 100 of new car sales in 2050
  • Net increase in employment of 361,000 jobs
  • Scientific and Technical Service sectors will
  • South, new automotive manufacturing center, will
    do well

South Carolina Hydrogen A Natural Fit
  • SC has a 50 year history of hydrogen research
  • A Harvard study identified hydrogen and fuel
    cells as a major economic focus for SC
  • In 2006, the South Carolina Hydrogen and Fuel
    Cell Alliance was formed to coordinate and
    collaborate SCs hydrogen initiatives with
    economic development goals in mind

SC has many existing hydrogen strengths
  • Multi-level governmental support of hydrogen
  • Long-existing strength in research
  • Emerging strengths in a variety of hydrogen
  • Long-existing manufacturing expertise encourages
    economic development and private investment
  • Coordination and collaboration through SCHFCA

SCs Unique Hydrogen Markets
  • Focused on feasible near-term applications
  • Portable applications Such as ETV fuel cell
    cameras and emergency responder packs
  • Off-road applications Such as USC/Hydrogen
    Hybrid Mobility fuel cell Segway and Bridgestone
    hydrogen forklift projects
  • Automotive Federal Transit Administrations
    National Fuel Cell Bus Program, Fall 2008

Columbia, SC
  • In 2007, the City of Columbia unanimously passed
    a resolution to become a leader in fuel cell
  • The Greater Columbia Fuel Challenge funds
    projects of various scales, including
  • Portable fuel cell battery packs for ETV cameras
  • First responder extended fuel cell power packs
  • University of South Carolina professors unveiled
    two hydrogen fuel cell Segways in 2007
  • NSF Research Center for Fuel Cells
  • 2 Endowed Chairs in fuel cell research
  • Site of the 2009 National Hydrogen Association

Aiken, SC
  • 10 million Center for Hydrogen Research opened
  • Currently under expansion, 2009
  • SCs first hydrogen vehicle, 2007 Chevrolet
    Silverado truck, delivered February 2008
  • Bridgestone plant deployed 23 hydrogen
    forklifts in 2008 with plans to create an
    all hydrogen forklift fleet by 2009
  • GENCO facility in process of adding hydrogen
  • Hydrogen station part of SC Hydrogen Freeway

Upstate of SC
  • Home to CU-ICAR and a growing Southeast
    Automotive Cluster
  • Tetramer
  • Kusters-Zima working with Nuvera
  • Hyperion
  • BMWgasoline/liquid hydrogen

Transportation Industry Challenges
  • Hydrogen storage
  • Fuel cell cost and durability
  • Infrastructure

ChallengeH2 Storage
  • Should achieve high energy density (by wt. and
    vol.), low cost, quick refueling and good safety
  • Candidates compressed gas (5k 10k psi),
    liquid, metal hydride, carbon nanotubes, chemical
  • No perfect solution yet but there are workable

Consumers demand 300 mile range per fill.
Challenge Fuel Cell Cost and Durability
  • GM, Toyota, Honda Motor Co. and Daimler AG say
    durability improvements and cost reductions may
    enable them to sell the zero-emission vehicles by
    2015. Costs to make the fuel-cell cars have
    fallen from 1 million each a few years ago, and
    automakers are working to meet a proposed goal of
    slashing the premium for the cars to 3,600 more
    than a midsized gasoline model. GM, Toyota
    Fuel-Cell Plans Clash With U.S. Battery Car Push,
    October 9, 2009.
  • Fuel cell manufacturers have achieved DOE cost
    and durability targets

GM Example of Progress
  • The fuel cell stack itself has been shrunk in
    terms of both size and cost and now fits in
    roughly the same space as GM's EcoTec
    four-cylinder engine.
  • The second generation hydrogen fuel cell system
    in development is half the size, 220 pounds
    lighter and uses less than half the precious
    metal of the current generation in the Chevrolet
    Fuel Cell electric vehicle
  • GMs fifth-generation fuel cell stack, could
    be commercialized in the 2015 time frame

Challenge Fuel Cell Cost and Durability
  • Investment Tax Credit (ITC)
  • Example If a US Telecom company purchases a
    10kW fuel cell based backup power system at a
    price of 35,000 the value of the ITC will be the
    smaller of
  • ITC Computation Based on Capital Cost
  • 30 of purchase price 0.30 x 35,000
  • ITC Cap Computation
  • 3,000 per kW 3,000/kW x 10kW 30,000
  • Value of the ITC to the US Telecom company in
    this example 10,500

Challenge Fuel Cell Cost and Durability
  • Grant-In-Lieu of Tax Credit
  • Example If a US Telecom company purchases a 5kW
    fuel cell based backup power system at a price of
    15,000 the value of the grant will be the
    smaller of
  • Grant Computation Based on Capital Cost
  • 30 of purchase price 0.30 x 15,000 4,500
  • Grant Cap Computation
  • 3,000 per kW 3,000/kW x 5kW 15,000
  • Value of the grant to the US Telecom company in
    this example 4,500

South Carolina Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Tax
Challenge Fuel Cell Cost and Durability
  • Any device, equipment, or machinery operated by
    hydrogen or fuel cells
  • Any device, equipment, or machinery used to
    generate, produce, or distribute hydrogen and
    designated specifically for hydrogen or fuel cell
    applications and
  • Any device, equipment, or machinery used
    predominantly for manufacturing, or research and
    development involving hydrogen or fuel cell
  • (Reference South Carolina Code of Laws

  • Germany Daimler (DAI), the German government,
    and several industrial companies announced a plan
    to build 1,000 hydrogen-fueling stations across
  • Japan Announcement on 1/18/11 for 100 more
    fueling stations
  • US approximately 76 hydrogen fueling stations
    with more to coming online
  • Stations in Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Canada,
    China, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland,
    Italy, Netherlands, Singapore, South Korea,
    Spain, UK
  • A study commissioned by the National Academy of
    Science concluded that the U.S. would need to
    spend 3 billion to 4 billion a year for 15
    years to subsidize the cost of the cars and get a
    national infrastructure in place to make the
    transition to hydrogen. About the same amount in
    annual subsidies that corn-based ethanol receives.

S.C. Hydrogen Freeway
  • Sage Mill Hydrogen Station
  • Capacity 80 kg/day
  • Columbia Hydrogen Station
  • Capacity 120 kg/day

First H2 vehicle to drive SC H2 Freeway
Near Term Opportunities
  • Energy Stations
  • Hydrogen fueling stations where the primary
    function is to supply power to a nearby location
  • Niche Markets
  • Telecommunications
  • Forklifts
  • APU and Scooters
  • Applications with a high need for reliability
  • Opportunity Fuels
  • Waste hydrogen from chemical processes
  • Methane from landfills
  • Anaerobic digester gas from wastewater treatment

Early Niche Markets
  • Telecommunications
  • Cell tower back-up
  • Fuel cells can meet battery price point with
  • Fuel cells offer longer, continuous runtime and
    are more durable in harsh environments
  • Forklifts
  • Fuel cells are superior performing in
    high-productivity markets
  • Rapid refueling, eliminate down-time for battery
  • Fuel cells provide a unique value to market
    segment not met by competing technologies

Growing Markets
  • Currently putting together Case Studies that
    examine the
  • Current Market Value Proposition
  • for hydrogen and fuel cells in
  • Cell Phone Towers
  • Combined Heat and Power (CHP)
  • Forklifts

Market Value Proposition
Hydrogen Fork-Lifts
  • Bridgestone-Firestone Plant
  • GENCO warehouse in Aiken, SC
  • Creates jobs for operation, maintenance, and
    distribution of technology
  • Key Strategy to increasing hydrogen through put
    of local hydrogen station

Example of fuel cell application for
Market Value Proposition
Fuel Cell/Battery Side by Side
Fuel Cell/Battery Side by Side
Fort Jackson Fuel Cell Applications
Capacity Back Up Function
15 KW Emergency services center and 911 call center
30 KW Critical communications and IT services
5 KW Base-wide energy management control center
10-5 KW units in 3 locations
Ft. Jackson Emergency Services Center
Ft. Jackson Telecommunications Center
Hydrogen still needs your support
  • Let your state and local representatives know you
    support hydrogen and the work of the SCHFCA
  • Educate yourself on hydrogen and fuel cells
  • Visit schydrogen.org for information on SCs
  • Plug into national activities at
    hydrogenassociation.org and h2andyou.org
  • Learn more about favorable state incentives for
    adopting alternative energy technologies at

Shannon Baxter-Clemmons baxterclemmons_at_schydrogen.
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