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Federalism to the Rescue: U.S. State and Municipal Climate Change Policy

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Title: Federalism to the Rescue: U.S. State and Municipal Climate Change Policy


1
Federalism to the Rescue U.S. State and
Municipal Climate Change Policy
Spring 2011 Jean Monnet Symposium The Nexus of
Global Climate Change and Energy Transatlantic
Perspectives
  • Stanley J. Kabala, PhD
  • Center for Environmental Research and Education
  • Duquesne University
  • 412-396-4233
  • kabala_at_duq.edu

2
  • Where We Find Ourselves
  • On July 28, 2003, I called the threat of
    catastrophic global warming the "greatest hoax
    ever perpetrated on the American people
  • U.S. Sen. James M. Inhofe
  • (R-Okla), January 4, 2005
  •  

3
Where We Find Ourselves
  • McConnell Amendment to S. 493
  • Sen. Mitch McConnell (R-Ky)
  • Identical to
  • S. 492 Energy Tax Prevention Act
  • H.R. 910 Energy Tax Prevention Act
  • Possible vote on March 30, 2011

4
Where We Find Ourselves
  • Energy Tax Prevention Act of 2011 (HR 910)
  • Rep. Fred Upton (R-Mich), Chair, Energy and
    Commerce Committee
  • Exempts CO2 and other heat-trapping gases from
  • CAA definition of air pollutant
  • Thus, in effect, overturns Massachusetts v.
    EPA Section 2, adding CAA Section 330(a),
    (b)(1)
  • Repeals EPAs endangerment determination
     Section 2, adding CAA Section 330(b)(4)(A)
  • Blocks EPA carbon pollution performance standards
    for
  • Power plants 2.4 billion T C02/y (40 U.S.
    total)
  • Oil refineries hundreds of millions of tons
  • Any industries
  • Section 2, adding CAA Section 330(b)(1)(A),
    (b)(4)(K)

5
Massachusetts v. EPA
  • Background
  • 1999 petition to EPA
  • regulate new vehicle GHG
  • CAA endangerment of public health welfare
  • 2003 EPA denial of petition No CAA authority to
    do so
  • D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals
  • Plaintiff 2 states, 3 cities, 2 terr., several
    NGOs
  • Opposing USEPA, auto and truck related groups
  • Suit rejected because
  • EPA Administrator has discretion re CAA
  • Plaintiffs lack standing

6
Massachusetts v. EPA
  •   
  • Supreme Court 5 - 4 decision April 2, 2007
  • Massachusetts had standing to sue
  • Ruling favor of petitioners on all 3 issues
  • Injury Massachusetts loss of shoreline
  • Causation Traceable to defendant
  • Redressability Regulation to reduce warming
  • Discretion EPA Administrators judgment to on
    policy issues
  •  
  • CAA Sec. 202 sweeping definition
  • any air pollutant
  • any substance

7
U.S. EPA Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases
Rule (CFR 40 Part 98)
  • 12/17/10
  • 85 - 90 of U.S. GHG emissions
  • Emitters gt25,000 MT/year
  • 2010 reports due 9/30/11 (initially 3/31/11)
  • Data to be made public by end of 2011
  • Provide high-quality data (to) help industries
    businessesbe more efficient and save money,
    and be useful to Congress, state agencies, NGOs,
    public. (SJK, ed.)

8
  •  
  • U.S. responses to Kyoto Protocol
  • 1998 2006
  • 1998 Byrd-Hagel Senate Resolution (S. Res. 98)
  • No harm to U.S. economy
  • Require action by LDCs
  • Adopted 95-0
  • Dont bother to send treaty to Senate for
    ratification
  • 2002 Bush Administration Reduce GHG
    intensity 18 by 2012
  •  
  • 2003 McCain-Lieberman Climate Stewardship Act
  • Cap GHG emissions
  • 2006 Senate Amendment 866 (Bingaman, D-NM)
    adopted 53/44
  • National, mandatory, market-based limits to
  • slow, stop, and reverse growth of GHG
    emissions

9
U.S. State Responses The California Lead
  • 2000 The Pavley Act
  • Premise 40 California GHG emissions due to
    passenger vehicles light trucks
  • Goal 30 GHG reduction over 8 years
  • for new autos and light trucks
  • Activation Adopt by 1/1/2005
  • Enforce by 1/1/2006
  • In effect 2009 model year

10
U.S. State Responses The California Lead
  • June 2005 Executive Order of the Governor
  • GHG Emissions Reduction Targets
  • 2010 2000 Level
  • 2020 1990 Level (25 below 2005)
  • 2050 20 of 1990 Level

11
U.S. State Responses The California Lead
  • Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006
  •  
  • Cap on GHG from major industrial sources
  • GHG listed in Kyoto Protocol
  • Penalties for non-compliance
  • Emissions reduction to 1990 level by 2020
  • CARB cap-and-trade program 2012 - 2020
  •  

12
U.S. Regional GHG Initiatives
  • New England Governors CCAP (2001)
  • GHG emissions to 1990 levels by 2010
  • and 10 lt 1990 levels by 2020
  • Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (2003)
  • Stabilize CO2 emissions at 121.3 short tons
  • by 2015, reduce lt105 short tons by 2020
  • Western Climate Initiative (2007)
  • GHG emissions 15 lt 2005 levels by 2020

13
Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI)
  • Cooperative effort
  • Connecticut, Delaware, Maine, Maryland,
  • Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey,
  • New York, Rhode Island, Vermont
  • 860.9 million of CO2 permit sales proceeds going
    toward strategic energy programs
  • http//www.rggi.org/rggi
  • http//www.rggi.org/rggi_benefits

14
  • RGGI
  • Program design and approach
  • Multi-state cap-and-trade program
  • Initial focus CO2 only
  • Target electricity generators gt25 MW
  • Scheduled cap reduction 2.5/year
  • Reduction by 2018 10
  • Energy affordability and reliability considered
  • Tool interstate trading of carbon credits
  • Expandable more states, more allowances

15
Western Climate Initiative
  • Regional cap-and-trade system
  • Reduce GHG 15 below 2005 levels by 2020
  • State-specific goals and climate action plans
  • Signatories
  • Arizona, British Columbia, California,
  • Manitoba, Montana, New Mexico, Oregon, Ontario,
    Quebec, Utah, Washington
  • Implementation anticipated in January 2012

16
Western Climate Initiative
17
Western Climate Initiative State GHG Emissions
Goals
  • Short term Medium term Long term
  • 2101 2012 by 2020 2040 2050
  •  
  • Arizona ----- 2000 levels 50 2000 by 2040
  •  
  • Br. Columbia ----- 33 below 2007 -----
  •  
  • California 2000 levels 1990 levels 80 1990 by
    2050
  •   by 2010
  • Manitoba 6 below 1990 6 below 1990 -----
  •  
  • New Mexico 2000 levels 10 below 2000 75 2000 by
    2050 by 2012
  • Oregon Arrest growth 10 below 1990 75 below
    1990
  • by 2050
  •  
  • Utah ----- Set goals by 6/08 -----
  •  

18
Safe Climate Act of 2007
  • HR 1590 (Henry Waxman, D-Ca.)
  • Emissions
  • 2009 Frozen
  • 2010 2020 Cut 2 per year, to 1990 levels
  • 2020 2050 Cut 5 per year, to 80 lt 1990 levels
  • Actions
  • Cap-and-trade program for largest polluters
  • Allowance sales proceeds to Climate Reinvestment
    Fund
  • EPA standards for vehicle GHG /gt Californias,
    tightened in 2014 and periodically thereafter
  • DOE national standards for electricity requiring
  • share from renewable sources to reach 20 by 2020
  • utilities to obtain each year 1 of energy supply
    via efficiency improvements to customer
    facilities

19
Renewable/Alternative Energy Portfolio Standards
  • 33 states and D.C
  • Colorado (2004) 30 by 2020
  • California 20 by 2010
  • 33 by 2020 (3/28/11)
  • Maine 40 by 2017
  • New Jersey 22.5 by 2021
  • New York 29 by 2015
  • Penna. (2004) 18 by 2020
  • 8 from tier 1 sources
  • 10 from tier 2 sources

20
Pennsylvania Climate Change Response
  • Act 35 (2007)
  • 850MW of solar power generated in Pa. by 2020
  • Utilities plan to meet alternative energy target
  • Alternative energy credits remain the property of
    alternative energy system generating them
  • Pa. Climate Change Act, Act 70 (2008)
  • PADEP periodic reports
  • GHG emissions inventory
  • Climate change Advisory Committee
  • Voluntary GHG registry
  • Climate change action plan

21
Pa. Climate Change Advisory Committee
  • Non-binding 2020 goal GHG 30 lt 2000
  • Robust 2020 policies GHG /lt 38 2000
  • Improved building energy efficiency
  • Expanded energy effic./conserv. programs
  • Improved/expanded public transportation
  • Enhanced land conservation, urban forestry

22
U.S. Mayors Climate Protection Agreement
  • Launched 2/16/2005 (the day the Kyoto Protocol
    came in to effect)
  • 500 Mayors signed by 2007
  • Cities whose mayors signed
  • the agreement

23
U.S. Mayors Climate Protection Agreement
  • Participating cities commit to
  • Meet/beat Kyoto Protocol targets via anti-sprawl
    land-use policies, urban forest restoration,
    information campaigns
  • Urge state and federal action to meet/beat Kyoto
    Protocol GHG emissions reduction for U.S. 7 lt
    1990 by 2012
  • Urge Congress to establish a national GHG
    emissions trading system
  • http//www.usmayors.org/climateprotection/agreemen
    t.htm

24
U.S. Climate Action Partnership http//www.us-cap.
org/
  • Members
  • Corporations
  • Environmental organizations
  • Goal
  • Strong federal legislation requiring significant
    reductions of GHG
  • Tool
  • Principles and recommendations on on climate
    change policy

25
U.S. Climate Action Partnership Members
  • Corporations
  • AES
  • Alcoa
  • Alstom
  • Boston Scientific Corporation Chrysler
  • The Dow Chemical Company
  • Duke Energy
  • DuPont
  • Exelon Corporation
  • Ford Motor Company
  • General Electric
  • Honeywell
  • Johnson Johnson
  • NextEra Energy
  • NRG Energy
  • PepsiCo
  • PGE Corporation
  • PNM Resources
  • Rio Tinto
  • NGOs
  • Environmental Defense Fund
  • Natural Resources Defense Council
  • Pew Center on Global Climate Change
  • The Nature Conservancy
  • World Resources Institute

26
Pittsburgh Climate Initiative
  • Adopted by City Council in August 2008
  • 2003 Pgh. emitted 6.6 million tons CO2
  • Goal Cut GHG emissions 20 by 2023
  • Collaborative, multi-sectoral
  • Municipal
  • Community
  • Business
  • Higher Education
  • http//pittsburghclimate.org/


27
Local Response
  • ICLEI 5 milestone approach
  • Baseline emissions inventory and forecast.
  • Emissions reduction target.
  • Climate Action Plan.
  • Policies/measures.
  • Monitoring and verification

28
PADEP Response
  • Local Government Greenhouse Gas Pilot Grant
    Program
  • ALLEGHENY COUNTY
  • Wilkins Township (with Forest Hills and Penn
    Hills)
  • Mt. Lebanon
  • BUCKS COUNTY
  • Bucks County Multi-Municipal Program
  • BUTLER COUNTY
  • Cranberry Township
  • CENTRE COUNTY
  • Centre Region Greenhouse Gas Pilot Grant
  • CRAWFORD COUNTY
  • Meadville
  • DELAWARE COUNTY
  • Swarthmore Region

29
Wilkins Township et al
  • Municipal clients
  • Wilkins Twp., Pa.
  • Penn Hills, Pa.
  • Forest Hills, Pa.
  • Technical support Duquesne University CERE
  • Products
  • GHG inventories Climate Action Plans

30
Local Response Wilkins Township
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