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INFINITIVES AND PARTICIPLES (INCLUDING GERUNDIVE AND GERUND)

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INFINITIVES AND PARTICIPLES (INCLUDING GERUNDIVE AND GERUND) DEFINITIONS Infinitive: A verbal noun, similar in function to the English infinitive (to love etc.). – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: INFINITIVES AND PARTICIPLES (INCLUDING GERUNDIVE AND GERUND)


1
INFINITIVES AND PARTICIPLES (INCLUDING GERUNDIVE
AND GERUND)
2
DEFINITIONS
  • Infinitive A verbal noun, similar in function to
    the English infinitive (to love etc.).
  • Laborare est orare To work is to pray
  • Participle An adjective formed from a verb and
    also functioning as a noun for people doing,
    having done something etc.
  • Caesar, omnibus hostibus superatis, Romam rediit.
  • With all his enemies defeated, Caesar
    returned to Rome
  • Gerundive A verbal adjective acting rather like
    a future passive participle (going to be ---ed)
    but also expressing the idea of necessity or
    obligation.
  • Delenda est Carthago Carthage must be
    destroyed
  • Gerund a verbal noun identical in form to the
    neuter singular of the gerundive. It is not used
    in the nominative, for which the infinitive is
    used instead.
  • Amicos defendendi causa pugnavimus We fought
    for the sake of defending our friends
  • Supine A verbal noun identical in the accusative
    (-um) to the neuter singular of the past
    participle and with an ablative/dative in -u.
  • Hic liber dignus est lectu
    This book is worth reading

3
PARTICIPLE FORMATION
  • Present
  • The ns, -ntis ending for the present participle
    is normally added to the base used in the
    Imperfect tense
  • The verb esse had no present participle in the
    classical period but a form ens, entis came into
    use in the Middle Ages.
  • The common irregular verb eo (go) has u before
    the nt iens, euntis
  • The participle declines like an ordinary third
    declension adjective but the ablative singular
    ends in e, not i if the participle is felt to
    be more verbal than adjectival in meaning
  • Cum puella canente ambulabam I was walking with
    a girl who was singing
  • Cum puella canenti ambulabam I was walking with
    a girl who was a singer
  • Perfect
  • The fourth of a verbs four principal parts.
  • Always ends in tus, -sus, or xus
  • Future
  • Formed from the perfect participle by inserting
    ur- before the endings. With intransitive verbs,
    a future participle may be formed from what the
    perfect participle would have been if one
    existed! E.g. venturus, about to come

4
PARTICIPLES
PRESENT (ACTIVE) amans, amantis habens, habentis regens. regentis audiens, audientis ____
PERFECT (PASSIVE but ACTIVE in Deponents)
FUTURE (ACTIVE)
5
PARTICIPLES
PRESENT (ACTIVE) amans, amantis habens, habentis regens. regentis audiens, audientis ____
PERFECT (PASSIVE but ACTIVE in Deponents) amatus habitus rectus auditus ____
FUTURE (ACTIVE)
6
PARTICIPLES
PRESENT (ACTIVE) amans, amantis habens, habentis regens. regentis audiens, audientis ____
PERFECT (PASSIVE but ACTIVE in Deponents) amatus habitus rectus auditus ____
FUTURE (ACTIVE) amaturus habiturus recturus auditurus futurus
7
DECLENSION OF PRESENT PARTICIPLE
M F (Sing) Neut (Sing) M F (Plr) Neut (Plr)
Nominative regens regens regentes regentia
Genitive
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
8
DECLENSION OF PRESENT PARTICIPLE
M F (Sing) Neut (Sing) M F (Plr) Neut (Plr)
Nominative regens regens regentes regentia
Genitive regentis regentis regentium regentium
Dative
Accusative
Ablative
9
DECLENSION OF PRESENT PARTICIPLE
M F (Sing) Neut (Sing) M F (Plr) Neut (Plr)
Nominative regens regens regentes regentia
Genitive regentis regentis regentium regentium
Dative regenti regenti regentibus regentibus
Accusative
Ablative
10
DECLENSION OF PRESENT PARTICIPLE
M F (Sing) Neut (Sing) M F (Plr) Neut (Plr)
Nominative regens regens regentes regentia
Genitive regentis regentis regentium regentium
Dative regenti regenti regentibus regentibus
Accusative regentem regens regentes regentia
Ablative
11
DECLENSION OF PRESENT PARTICIPLE
M F (Sing) Neut (Sing) M F (Plr) Neut (Plr)
Nominative regens regens regentes regentia
Genitive regentis regentis regentium regentium
Dative regenti regenti regentibus regentibus
Accusative regentem regens regentes regentia
Ablative regenti/regente regenti/regente regentibus regentibus
12
GERUNDIVE
  • A passive verbal adjective (sometimes described
    as a future passive participle) usually formed by
    adding ndus, -a, -um to the base used in forming
    the imperfect tense and present participle. In
    the third and fourth conjugations, u can be used
    instead of e
  • amabat gt amandus docebat gt docendus
  • regebat gt regendus (regundus) audiebat gt
    audiendus (audiundus)
  • Used for expressing necessity, with the person
    who needs to act put in the Dative. The most
    natural english translation is usually in the
    active voice
  • Nobis haec vocabula ediscenda sunt.

    We have to learn these words by heart.
  • Mihi theatrum relinquendum est. I have to leave
    the theatre.
  • Also used in noun phrases where English would
    prefer the (active) gerund in ing or two nouns
  • De castris defendendis colloquamur Lets talk
    about defending the camp/the defence
    of the camp.

13
GERUND
  • A verbal noun, identical to the neuter of the
    gerundive, but used in the active sense.
  • Equivalent to the English ing form of the verb,
    which is called a gerund when it is used like a
    noun but a present participle when it is an
    adjective
  • Can be used in a noun phrase with a noun in the
    accusative in place of a gerundive phrase but
    this tends to happen only when gerundive and noun
    both have long endings (especially genitive
    plural)
  • de amicis defendendis (with gerundive) is better
    than de amicos defendendo (with gerund)
  • amicos defendendi causa (with gerund) is better
    than amicorum defendendorum causa (with
    gerundive)

14
SUPINE
  • Normally identical with the neuter singular of
    the past participle and therefore used as the
    fourth principal part of a transitive verb not
    often used in sentences.
  • With iri, forms the future passive infinitive.
    This is used in indirect stement but often the
    construction with fore ut (to be going to be
    that)plus subjunctive is preferred
  • Non putabam Henricum superatum iri / fore ut
    Henricus superaretur I didnt think Henry
    would be defeated.
  • Can be used to express purpose after a verb of
    motion
  • Petrus cubitum it. Peter goes to lie down
    (i.e. goes to bed) verb is cubo, cubare,
    cubui, cubitum
  • There is a special ablative form in u which can
    be used with adjectives in expressions such as
    mirabile dictu (strange to say), liber est lectu
    dignus (the book is worth reading)

15
INFINITIVES
  • Note that most infinitives are invariable
    (endings do not change) but that when they
    contain a perfect or future participle, they are
    declined like bonus bona bonum.
  • The future passive infinitive in um iri (to be
    going to ____ ed) is rarely used and, where one
    would expect it in indirect statement, is
    normally replaced by a paraphrase with fore ut
    (to be going to be that) plus the subjunctive
  • Putasne fore ut milites nostri superentur?
    Do you hink our soldiers will
    be defeated?
  • Putabasne fore ut milites nostri superarentur?
  • Did you think our soldiers would be
    defeated?

16
INFINITIVES
PRESENT ACTIVE amare habere regere audire esse
PRESENT PASSIVE
PERFECT ACTIVE
PERFECT PASSIVE
FUTURE ACTIVE
FUTURE PASSIVE
17
INFINITIVES
PRESENT ACTIVE amare habere regere audire esse
PRESENT PASSIVE amari haberi regi audiri ____
PERFECT ACTIVE
PERFECT PASSIVE
FUTURE ACTIVE
FUTURE PASSIVE
18
INFINITIVES
PRESENT ACTIVE amare habere regere audire esse
PRESENT PASSIVE amari haberi regi audiri ____
PERFECT ACTIVE amavisse habuisse rexisse audivisse fuisse
PERFECT PASSIVE
FUTURE ACTIVE
FUTURE PASSIVE
19
INFINITIVES
PRESENT ACTIVE amare habere regere audire esse
PRESENT PASSIVE amari haberi regi audiri ____
PERFECT ACTIVE amavisse habuisse rexisse audiri fuisse
PERFECT PASSIVE amatus esse habitus esse rectus esse auditus esse _____
FUTURE ACTIVE
FUTURE PASSIVE
20
INFINITIVES
PRESENT ACTIVE amare habere regere audire esse
PRESENT PASSIVE amari haberi regi audiri ____
PERFECT ACTIVE amavisse habuisse rexisse audiri fuisse
PERFECT PASSIVE amatus esse habitus esse rectus esse auditus esse _____
FUTURE ACTIVE amaturus esse habiturus esse recturus esse auditurus esse futurus esse OR fore
FUTURE PASSIVE
21
INFINITIVES
PRESENT ACTIVE amare habere regere audire esse
PRESENT PASSIVE amari haberi regi audiri ____
PERFECT ACTIVE amavisse habuisse rexisse audiri fuisse
PERFECT PASSIVE amatus esse habitus esse rectus esse auditus esse _____
FUTURE ACTIVE amaturus esse habiturus esse recturus esse auditurus esse futurus esse OR fore
FUTURE PASSIVE amatum iri habitum iri rectum iri auditum iri _____
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