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Intimate Violence and Sexual Abuse

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Title: Intimate Violence and Sexual Abuse


1
Chapter 13
  • Intimate Violence and Sexual Abuse

2
Chapter Outline
  • Intimate Violence and Abuse
  • Types of Intimate Violence
  • Why Families Are Violent Models of Family
    Violence
  • Prevalence of Intimate Violence
  • Women and Men as Victims and Perpetrators

3
Chapter Outline
  • Class and Race
  • Marital Rape
  • Violence in Gay and Lesbian Relationships
  • Dating Violence and Date Rape
  • When and Why Some Women Stay in Violent
    Relationships

4
Chapter Outline
  • The Costs of Intimate Violence
  • Responding to Intimate Violence Police
    Intervention, Shelters, and Abuser Programs
  • Child Abuse and Neglect
  • Hidden Victims of Family Violence Siblings,
    Parents, and the Elderly
  • Child Sexual Abuse

5
True or False?
  • Rape by an acquaintance, date, or partner is less
    likely than rape by a stranger.

6
False
  • Sexual intercourse with a dating partner that
    occurs against his or her will with force or the
    threat of force often referred to as date
    rapeis the most common form of rape.

7
True or False?
  • Physically abused children are often perceived by
    their parents as different from other children.

8
True
  • Children who are abused are often labeled by
    their parents as unsatisfactory,a term that may
    describe any of the following
  • A normal child who is the product of a
    difficult or unplanned pregnancy, is of the
    wrong sex, or is born outside of marriage.
  • An abnormal child, one who was premature or of
    low birth weight, possibly with congenital
    defects or illness.
  • A difficult child, one who shows such traits as
    fussiness or hyperactivity.

9
Family Violence and Abuse in America
  • More than 8 million adults, 5.3 million women and
    3.2 million men experience some form of violence
    by an intimate partner.
  • 30 to 40 of college students report violence in
    dating relationships.
  • At least 1 million American children are
    physically abused by their parents each year.
  • As many as 27 of American women and 16 of men
    have been victims of childhood sexual abuse.

10
Types of Intimate Violence
  • Common couple violence erupts during an argument
    when one partner strikes the other in the heat of
    the moment.
  • Intimate terrorism occurs in relationships where
    one partner tries to dominate and control the
    other.

11
Types of Intimate Violence
  • Violent resistance tends to be perpetrated by
    women and can signal that the victim is moving
    toward leaving the abusive partner.
  • Mutual violent control refers to relationships in
    which both partners are violent.

12
Models Used to Study Family Violence
  • Psychiatric model
  • Finds the source of violence in the personality
    of the abuser.
  • Ecological model
  • Looks at the childs development in the family
    and the familys development in the community.

13
Models Used to Study Family Violence
  • Feminist model
  • Finds violence inherent in male-dominated
    societies.
  • Social situational model
  • Views family violence as arising from structural
    stress and cultural norms.
  • Social learning model
  • Violence is seen as a behavior learned within the
    family and larger society.

14
Models Used to Study Family Violence
  • Resource model
  • Assumes force is used to compensate for a lack of
    personal, social, and economic resources.
  • Exchange/social control model
  • Holds that people weigh the costs versus the
    rewards in all their actions and will use
    violence if the costs are not high enough.

15
Three Factors That Reduce Social Control
  • Inequality of power in the family
  • The private nature of the family
  • The real man image

16
Causes of Family Violence
  • Gender
  • Violence by males has different causes and
    results in different consequences.
  • Power and Control
  • Violence may be used as a tool to obtain and
    maintain power, in or outside of families.

17
Causes of Family Violence
  • Stress
  • As individuals are subjected to a variety of
    stresses (unemployment, illness, pregnancy)
    tensions between family members may rise.
  • Intimacy
  • Cultural beliefs about intimacy allow loved ones
    the right or responsibility to influence or
    affect each others behavior.

18
Causes of Violence
  • Tension and conflict are normal features of
    family life but can escalate into violence under
    certain conditions.

19
Findings Report on Violence Between Intimates
  • There are an estimated 1 million rapes, sexual
    assaults, robberies, or assaults between
    intimates each year.
  • Approximately 85 of these incidents had female
    victims.
  • 150,000 men were victims of violent crimes
    committed by an intimate.

20
Findings Report on Violence Between Intimates
  • In 2000, there were nearly 1700 murders
    attributed to spouses, ex-spouses, boyfriends, or
    girlfriends.
  • 1 in 11 homicides was a murder between intimate
    partners or ex-partners.
  • 1/3 of female murder victims and 4 of male
    murder victims in 2000 were killed by an intimate.

21
Female Victims and Male Perpetrators
  • Of all violent crime experienced by women, 20 is
    from an intimate.
  • In 2001, intimates accounted for 3 of nonfatal
    violence against men.
  • In 1996, at least a third of women who
    experienced violence reported having been
    assaulted more than once within the 6 months
    before the survey 12 were assaulted at least
    six times.

22
Female Victims and Male Perpetrators
  • Half of victims report an injury one in five
    injured women seeks medical treatment.
  • More than 55 of female victims call the police.
  • Between 1993 and 2001 intimate violence against
    women declined by nearly half.

23
Characteristics of Male Perpetrators
  • Believes the common myths about battering
  • Believes in the traditional home, family, and
    gender-role stereotypes
  • Has low self-esteem and may use violence as a
    means of demonstrating power
  • May be sadistic, pathologically jealous, or
    passive-aggressive

24
Characteristics of Male Perpetrators
  • May have aDr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde personality
    and capable at times of great charm
  • May use sex as an act of aggression.
  • Believes in the moral rightness of his violent
    behavior (even though he may accidentally go
    too far)

25
Female Perpetrators and Male Victims
  • Although it is true that some men are injured in
    attacks by wives or lovers, most injured victims
    of severe intimate partner violence are women.
  • Often, if a woman attempts to inflict damage on a
    man in self-defense or retaliation, her chances
    of prevailing in hand-to-hand combat with a man
    are slim.

26
Class
  • Data from the 1992 National Crime Victimization
    Survey found young women in low-income households
    were most likely to experience partner violence.
  • Data from the 1995 National Alcohol Survey
    indicate that household income had the greatest
    influence on intimate partner violence, across
    racial and ethnic lines.

27
Marital Rape
  • One of the most widespread and overlooked forms
    of intimate violence.
  • Approximately 10 to 14 of wives have been
    forced by their husbands to have sex against
    their will.
  • In the late 1970s, most states enacted
    legislation to make some forms of marital rape
    illegal.
  • On July 5, 1993, marital rape became a crime in
    all 50 states.

28
Violence in Gay and Lesbian Relationships
  • Research indicates that the rate of abuse in gay
    and lesbian relationships is comparable to that
    in heterosexual relationships.
  • A recent estimate placed the range between 25
    and 50 for lesbian couples.
  • One form of abuse unique to same-sex couples is
    the threat of outing a partner to coworkers,
    employers, or family.

29
Dating Violence and Date Rape
  • Dating violence is often precipitated by jealousy
    or rejection.
  • Date rape may not be recognized by the assailant
    or the victim because they assume rape is
    something done by strangers.
  • Date-rape drugs (Rohypnol and GHB) are used to
    sedate and victimize women prompting the passage
    of date-rape drug prohibition laws.

30
Avoiding Date Rape
  • When dating someone for the first time, go to a
    public place, such as a restaurant, movie, or
    sports event.
  • Share expenses.
  • Avoid using drugs or alcohol.
  • Avoid ambiguous verbal or nonverbal behavior.

31
Avoiding Date Rape
  • Be forceful and firm. Dont worry about being
    polite.
  • If things get out of hand, be loud in protesting,
    leave, and go for help.
  • Be careful about what you drink, who you accept
    drinks from, and where you place your drink if
    you put it down.

32
Reasons Women Stay in Battering Relationships
  • Economic dependence
  • Religious pressure
  • Childrens need for a father
  • Fear of being alone
  • Belief in the American dream
  • Pity for her husband
  • Guilt and shame
  • Duty and responsibility
  • Love
  • Cultural reasons
  • Nowhere else to go

33
The Costs of Intimate Violence
  • Medical and mental health services for victims of
    partner violence, rape, assault and stalking
    total over four billion dollars.
  • There are millions of dollars worth of broken or
    stolen property and lost wages due to time out of
    work.
  • Non-financial costs include the health and mental
    health effects with which victims of violence
    must cope.

34
Child Abuse
  • Children are the least protected members of our
    society.
  • Much physical abuse is camouflaged as discipline
    or as the parent losing his or her temper.

35
Report Children's Defense Fund
  • Every 10 seconds, a child is reported abused or
    neglected.
  • Every 14 seconds, a child is arrested.
  • Every 2 hours a child is killed by firearms.
  • Every 4 hours a child commits suicide.
  • Every 5 hours a child dies from abuse or neglect.

36
Psychological Aggression
  • Consists of the following kinds of behaviors
  • Shouting, yelling, or screaming at a child
  • Threatening to spank or hit a child but not
    actually doing it
  • Swearing or cursing at a child
  • Threatening to send a child away or kick him or
    her out of the house
  • Calling a child dumb or lazy, or making some
    other disparaging comment

37
Prevalence of Psychological Aggression
Measure in last year
Name-calling 17.5
Severe 33.4
Shouting, yelling 74.7
Threatening to spank 53.6
Swearing or cursing 24.3
Name-calling 17.5
Threatening to kick out 6.0
38
Characteristics of Parents Who Abuse Their
Children
  • Father was physically punished by his parents,
    and his father physically abused his mother.
  • Believe in corporal discipline of children and
    wives.
  • Marital relationship may not be valued by the
    parents.

39
Characteristics of Parents Who Abuse Their
Children
  • Believe the father should be the dominant
    authority figure.
  • Low self-esteem.
  • Unrealistic expectations for the child.

40
Characteristics of Parents Who Abuse Their
Children
  • Parents use the child to gratify their own needs.
  • Parents appear unconcerned about the seriousness
    of a childs injury.

41
Battered Children
  • Often labeled by their parents as unsatisfactory.
  • They may be
  • A normalchild who is the product of a difficult
    or unplanned pregnancy.
  • An abnormal childpremature or born with
    congenital defects.
  • A difficult childwith traits such as fussiness
    or hyperactivity.

42
Characteristics of Families that Experience Child
Abuse
  • The family experiences unemployment.
  • The family is socially isolated.
  • The family has a low income.
  • The family lives in an unsafe neighborhood.

43
Characteristics of Families that Experience Child
Abuse
  • The home is crowded, dirty, or unhealthy.
  • The family is a single-parent family in which the
    parent works and is overstressed and
    overburdened.
  • One or more family members have health problems.

44
Hidden Victims of Family Violence
  • Siblings
  • Have the highest rate of violent interaction.
  • Parents assaulted by their adolescent or youthful
    children.
  • Elders assaulted by their middle-aged children.

45
Reducing Child Abuse
  • Parents must learn how to deal positively and
    effectively with their children.
  • Children need to be infused with self-esteem and
    taught skills to report abuse.
  • Professionals working with children and families
    should receive adequate training in child abuse.
  • Agencies should coordinate efforts for preventing
    and investigating child abuse.

46
Reducing Child Abuse
  • Public awareness needs to be created.
  • The workplace should promote programs to
    eliminate sexism, provide adequate childcare, and
    help reduce stress among its workforce.
  • Government should support sex education and
    family life programs to help reduce the number of
    unwanted pregnancies.

47
Elder Abuse
  • It is estimated that approximately 500,000
    elderly people are physically abused annually.
  • An additional 2 million are thought to be
    emotionally abused or neglected.
  • The most likely victims are suffering from
    physical or mental impairments.

48
Reducing Family Violence Recommendations
  • Reduce poverty, racism and inequality,
    unemployment, and inadequate health care
  • Eliminate sexism
  • Furnish adequate day care
  • Promote educational and employment opportunities
    equally for men and women
  • Promote sex education and family planning to
    prevent unwanted pregnancies

49
Reducing Family Violence Recommendations
  • Initiate prevention and early intervention for
    young males before they become adult batterers.
  • Establishing supportive networks that include
    relatives, friends, and community.
  • Eliminate corporal punishment and promote
    education about disciplinary alternatives.
  • Eliminate cultural norms that legitimize and
    glorify violence.

50
Children Most at Risk for Sexual Abuse
  • Females
  • Preadolescents
  • Children with absent or unavailable parents
  • Children with poor parental relationships
  • Children with parents in conflict
  • Children living with a stepfather.

51
Initial Effects of Child Sexual Abuse
  • Emotional disturbances
  • fear, anger, hostility, guilt, and shame
  • Physical consequences
  • difficulty in sleeping, changes in eating
    patterns, and pregnancy

52
Initial Effects of Child Sexual Abuse
  • Sexual disturbances
  • higher rates of open masturbation, sexual
    preoccupation, and exposure of the genitals
  • Social disturbances
  • difficulties at school, truancy, running away
    from home, and early marriages among abused
    adolescents

53
Long-term Effects of Child Sexual Abuse
  • More frequent but less satisfying sexual
    encounters
  • Greater anxiety and less pleasure from sex
  • Using drugs and/or alcohol with sex that increase
    risk of sexually transmitted disease or HIV
    infection
  • Engaging in sex soon after meeting a partner

54
Long-term Effects of Child Sexual Abuse
  • Depression
  • Self-destructive tendencies, including suicide
    attempts and thoughts of suicide
  • Anxiety and nervousness, eating disorders and
    feelings that things are unreal
  • Negative self-concept, including feelings of low
    self-esteem, isolation, and alienation

55
Long-term Effects of Child Sexual Abuse
  • Revictimization, in which women abused as
    children are more vulnerable to rape and marital
    violence
  • Sexual problems
  • Interpersonal relationship difficulties

56
Components of Sexual Abuse
  • David Finkelhor and Angela Browne suggest a model
    of sexual abuse with four components
  • Traumatic sexualization
  • Betrayal
  • Powerlessness
  • Stigmatization
  • These distort a childs self-concept, worldview
    and affective abilities.
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