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Adolescent Socio-emotional Development


The physical, cognitive and socio-emotional development its impact and influence on adolescent. Form own perception on self include peers evaluation. * Involve ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Adolescent Socio-emotional Development

Topic 10
  • Adolescent
    Socio-emotional Development

Personality Identity Development
Identity Asking "Who Am I?"
  • During adolescence, self consciousness takes
    center stage!
  • Teens focus on wondering Who am I? and Where
    do I belong in the world?
  • WHY??
  • Teens begin to become more like adults
  • Realize the importance of establishing self in
    society, and shaping their individuality
  • Teens become more like adults physically
  • Dramatic changes during puberty make teens
    acutely aware of their own bodies

Self Concept Refining Self Perceptions
  • Self concept broadens during adolescence to
    include both one's own assessment of who you are
    and also includes others' views.
  • The view of self becomes more organized and
  • Adolescents can look at themselves in terms of
    traits and can see multiple aspects of themselves
    (which can be confusing at first).
  • During adolescence, teens become increasingly
    accurate in understanding who they are (they
    develop their self concept)
  • The increase in self-concept does not mean that
    they like themselves any better (self esteem may
    still be low)

Self-esteem is influenced by several factors
  • Gender - especially in early adolescence, girls
    have lower self-esteem
  • SES - higher SES leads to more self-esteem
    (especially in late adolescence when one can buy
    things of value)

  • Identity is a new way of thinking about oneself
    that emerges during adolescence.
  • Identity involves a sense of self-unity,
    accompanied by a feeling that the self has
    continuity over time.
  • A firmly established identity also provides a
    sense of uniqueness as a person.

During Adolescent Stage
  • Changes occurs ? influence adolescent to
    find and form own identity (differs from
    their parents).
  • Changes that occurs forced adolescent to
    adjust and re-arrange their lives ? formed
    a new identity.
  • The physical, cognitive and socio-emotional
    development ? its impact and influence on
  • Form own perception on self ? include peers

Approaches in understanding identity
  • Involve the cognitive element
  • Self-concept
  • Involve emotion element
  • Self-value or self-image
  • Involve personal element
  • Questions about self

Search for Identity
  • According to Erikson-
  • A teenager effort to make sense of the self
    is a-
  • Part of a healthy , vital process that
    builds on the achievement of earlier
  • Groundwork for coping with the crisis of
    adult life.
  • A man needs a stable identity before
    reaching intimacy, whereas, women define
    themselves through marriage and motherhood (
    may be different now).

Forming an identity during the teen years crisis
or change?
  • According to Erik Erikson, adolescents may
    encounter substantial psychological difficulties
    in their search for identity (the adolescent
    identity crisis)
    ION STAGE, where adolescents seek to determine
    what is unique and distinctive about themselves.
  • He defined identity as a "subjective sense of an
    invigorating sameness and continuity," as well as
    a "sense of feeling active and alive.
  • According to Erikson's psychosocial model of
    development, identity must not only be
    perceived by the individual, but also recognized
    and confirmed by others

Erikson's Identity-vs Identity Confusion Stage
  • Those who do not find a suitable identity, tend
    to follow a dysfunctional path because their
    sense of self is "diffuse".
  • There are a lot of social pressures to achieve a
    secure identity (or at least have clear career or
    major goals).
  • Which job track to follow?
  • Attend college? Which one?
  • Now, adolescents rely more on friends and peers
    than adults.

Ericksons Psychosocial Stage
  • 8 series of stages ? begin with infancy and
    ending with old age. Each stage is named
    for the particular psychosocial
    crisis/challenge that a person must resolve
    before moving to the next stage.
  • Basic Trust Versus Basic Mistrust (0-1 yr)
  • Autonomy Versus Shame (1-3 yrs)
  • Initiative Versus Guilt (3-6 yrs)
  • Industry Versus Inferiority (6-12)
  • Identity Versus Identity Diffusion (12-19)
  • Intimacy Versus Isolation (19-25)
  • Generativity Versus Self-Absorption (25-50)
  • Integrity Versus Despair (50 above)

Stage 5 (Focus on Adolescents) Identity vs
Role Confusion
  • Focus on
  • Formation of identity
  • Coherent

IDENTITY - According to James Marcia
  • Marcia argued that
  • identity could be viewed as a structure of
    beliefs, abilities and past experiences regarding
    the self.
  • "The better developed this structure is, the more
    individuals appear to be of their own...strengths
    and weaknesses....
  • The less developed this structure is, the more
    confused individuals seem to be about their own
    distinctiveness from others and the more they
    have to rely on external sources to evaluate
  • Identity is a dynamic, not static psychological
  • The formation of identity in adolescence sets the
    stage for continual changes in the content of
    identity through the adult years.

Marcia's Identity Statuses
  • In Marcia's model, identity involves the adoption
  • a sexual orientation,
  • a set of values and ideals and
  • a vocational direction
  • A well-developed identity gives on a sense of
    one's strengths, weaknesses, and individual
  • A person with a less well-developed identity is
    not able to define his or her personal strengths
    and weaknesses, and does not have a well
    articulated sense of self.

According to Marcia
  • Crisis Commitment ? influence individual
    identity status.
  • Identity formation ? a long term process.
  • Choose
  • Arrange
  • Try
  • Push out
  • Re-built
  • Finally ? choose (unique to him/her self)

Marcias identity formation process
  • Foreclosure.
  • Diffusion.
  • Moratorium.
  • Achievement.
  • Not progressive ? based on experience and

Marcias identity formation
  • Foreclosure
  • Commitment without crisis
  • Lack exploration of alternatives
  • Commitment has been made, but without exploration
    of alternatives, identity is not attained
  • Developmentally unsophisticated level of
  • Adopt parents' characteristics
  • Diffusion
  • Lack of commitment
  • Lack of exploration of alternatives
  • Least sophisticated level of development
  • Typically the level at which identity formation
    is begun
  • Do not feel accepted by parents

Marcias identity formation
  • Moratorium
  • Active exploration of alternative identities
  • Commitment is desired, but it is not yet attained
  • Sophisticated level of development
  • Achievement
  • Individual has explored alternatives.
  • Commitment is at a high level
  • According to individual's in this status, "The
    parts of my self feel as though they have finally
    come together.
  • Most developmentally sophisticated status of
    identity formation.
  • Perceive parents as supportive

What is Identity Confusion?
  • Identity problem
  • Autonomy problem
  • Attachment problem
  • Sexuality problem
  • Achievement problem

Social Influence in Identity Formation
  • Family
  • Discipline relationship
  • Environment
  • Socio-cultural
  • Diet
  • Education
  • Peers
  • Status symbol
  • Mass media