Psychopathology and Treatment - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Psychopathology and Treatment PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 7030e8-NGMzY



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Psychopathology and Treatment

Description:

Psychopathology and Treatment – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:56
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 37
Provided by: elizab215
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Psychopathology and Treatment


1
Psychopathology and Treatment
2
Definition
  • Psychopathology
  • Clinical term
  • A disorder of the mind that interferes with
    everyday functioning
  • Insanity
  • Legal term
  • Definition has changed over time
  • Mental illness or defect decreased the
    individuals capacity to appreciate the
    criminality of their behavior or to conform to
    the law

3
Diagnosis
  • Emil Kraeplin (1883)
  • First to propose a classification system for
    mental disorders
  • Noticed that not all patients with mental illness
    suffered from the same disorder
  • Noticed that certain symptoms tended to cluster
    together as a unique syndrome or disorder

4
Diagnosis
  • Categorical vs Dimensional Diagnosis?
  • Categorical
  • Set of symptoms that vary together
  • Must meet minimum threshold (e.g., 4 or more
    symptoms out of 9), to have the disorder
  • Dimensional
  • May involve a set of symptoms
  • Disorder varies in degree of severity (from
    non-existent to severe)

5
Diagnosis
  • Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental
    Disorders IV
  • Categorical diagnostic system
  • Specifies sets of observable symptoms for each
    disorder
  • Specifies criteria for having or not having the
    diagnosis
  • Because symptoms of different disorders overlap,
    gives information for differential diagnosis

6
Diagnosis
7
Difficulties in Diagnosis
  • Rosenhan (1973)
  • 8 participants (pseudo-patients) approached 12
    different psychiatric hospitals
  • All reported hearing voices saying thud,
    empty, and hollow
  • Reported no history of psychiatric problems
  • Reported no other symptoms
  • All other information about past history was
    accurate
  • Once in the hospital, stopped reporting symptom
    and behaved normally

8
Difficulties in Diagnosis
  • All 12 hospitals admitted the pseudo-patients
  • All pseudo-patients were given the diagnosis of
    Schizophrenia
  • Took between 7 and 52 days to be released
  • All released with a diagnosis of Schizophrenia in
    Remission
  • None of staff, but some of the patients, realized
    that the pseudo-patients were sane

9
Determining Risk
  • Risk for Self-Harm or Harm of Others
  • Mental health professionals have legal
    responsibility to breach confidentiality if they
    determine that a patient is at risk for harming
    him/herself or someone else
  • E.g., Tarasoff Case
  • Problem ? determining potential for harm is
    difficult

10
(No Transcript)
11
Causes of Mental Disorder
  • Biological/Genetic
  • Brain structure or neuronal defect
  • Inherited predisposition
  • Psychological
  • Faulty defense mechanisms
  • Social Factors
  • Family Systems Model
  • Sociocultural Model
  • Cognitive Behavioral
  • Classical/operant conditioning
  • Modeling/Vicarious reinforcement

Treatment is based on the conceptualization of
the disorder
12
Mood Disorders
13
Mood Disorders
  • Mood disorders reflect extreme emotions that
    affect our ability to function and perform
    everyday activities

14
Mood Disorders
  • Depressive Disorders (AKA unipolar depression) ?
    pervasive feelings of sadness
  • Major Depression
  • Dysthymia
  • Bipolar Disorders ? radical fluctuations in mood
    from sad to elated or irritable
  • Bipolar I ? Major Depression Mania
  • Bipolar II ? Major Depression Hypomania
  • Cyclothymia ? Dysthymia Hypomania

15
Major Depression
16
Symptoms
  • Depressed mood most of the day, nearly every day
  • Loss of interest/ pleasure in previously enjoyed
    activities
  • Significant weight loss or gain (gt 5 of body
    weight)
  • Insomnia/hypersomnia
  • Psychomotor agitation or retardation
  • Fatigue or loss of energy
  • Feelings of worthlessness or guilt
  • Impaired thinking/concentration
  • Recurrent thoughts of death or of suicide

17
Causes
  • Genetic
  • Twin, family, and adoption studies suggest a
    genetic component for depression
  • Identical twins 4 X more likely to be concordant
    for depression than Fraternal twins
  • Biological
  • Low levels of norepinephrine ? depression
  • Low levels of serotonin ? depression

18
Causes
  • Biological (continued)
  • Circadian rhythms, particularly patterns of
    sleeping and waking, are associated with
    depression
  • Seasonal Affective Disorder
  • As amount of daylight decreases, level of
    depression increases

19
Seasonal Affective Disorder
20
Causes
  • Social/Environmental
  • More stressful events ? greater likelihood of
    developing depression
  • Having a close friendship ? mitigates against the
    impact of stressful life events

21
Causes
  • Cognitive (A.T. Beck)
  • Cognitive Triad
  • Depressed people think about themselves, their
    situation, and the future in a negative manner
  • Attributions
  • Failures/misfortunes (internal causes) personal
    defects
  • Successes (external causes) luck
  • Errors in Logic
  • Overgeneralizing based on single events
  • Magnifying the seriousness of events
  • Taking responsibility for bad events

22
Causes
  • Learned Helplessness (Seligman)
  • People view themselves as unable to control the
    negative events in their lives
  • Attribute negative events to personal defects
    stable and global
  • People begin to feel helpless about the ability
    to make positive changes
  • Theory based on animal research
  • Animals placed in aversive situations that they
    could not escape ? passive and unresponsive

23
Treatment
  • Depressive Disorders

24
Medication
  • Early Antidepressants
  • Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOI)
  • Effective for treating depression
  • Highly toxic
  • Tricyclic antidepressants
  • Effective for treating depression
  • Cause weight gain, sedation, sweating,
    constipation, heart palpitations, and dry mouth

25
Medication
  • Modern Antidepressants
  • Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)
  • e.g., Prozac, Lexapro, Paxil
  • Increase serotonin levels by blocking reuptake
  • Some also have norepinephrine effects
  • Also effective for treating anxiety
  • Atypical Antidepressants
  • Bupropion ? fewer side effects than other
    antidepressants (no sexual side effects)

26
Behavioral Therapies
  • Cognitive Therapy
  • People are depressed because of negative beliefs
    about themselves, their situation and the future
  • Therapy focuses on helping clients
  • Recognize when they are thinking negatively
  • Identify the negative thoughts/beliefs
  • Challenge the beliefs with more positive and
    adaptive thoughts and/or behavioral experiments

27
Cognitive Therapy
28
Personality Disorders
29
Personality Disorder
  • When an individual relates to the world in
    inflexible and maladaptive ways that is
    long-lasting and interferes with social,
    occupational or other functioning

30
Types of Personality Disorders
  • Cluster A ? Odd or Eccentric Behavior
  • Paranoid
  • Schizoid
  • Schizotypal
  • Cluster B ? Dramatic, emotional or erratic
    behavior
  • Histrionic
  • Narcissistic
  • Borderline
  • Antisocial
  • Cluster C ? Anxious or Fearful Behavior
  • Avoidant
  • Dependent
  • Obsessive-Compulsive

31
Borderline Personality Disorder
32
Symptoms
33
Causes
  • Genetics
  • Unclear at present
  • Often have families members with mood disorders
  • Biological
  • Low Serotonin ? depressed mood and impulsivity
  • Social/Cultural
  • 70-80 have history of physical or sexual abuse
    or other trauma
  • Caretakers who were critical or rejecting
  • Caretakers who fostered dependence

34
Treatment
  • Borderline Personality Disorder

35
Behavioral
  • Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT)
  • Combines elements of behavioral, cognitive, and
    psychodynamic approaches
  • Involves both group and individual therapy
    sessions
  • Begins with a discussion of what is expected of
    the client and what can be expected of the
    therapist

36
Dialectical Behavior Therapy
  • Three Stages of Treatment
  • Stage 1 ? extreme symptoms (i.e., self-injurious
    and suicidal behaviors) are replaced with more
    effective/acceptable coping strategies
  • Stage 2 ? explore and address traumatic
    experiences
  • Stage 3 ? works on development of self-respect
    and independent problem-solving
  • learn to support and validate themselves rather
    than relying on others
About PowerShow.com