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Pascal and Archimedes

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Title: Pascal and Archimedes


1
Pascal and Archimedes
PPorgh
FbuoyWfluid_displ
2
Typical content of the atmosphere (ppm by volume
near the surface)
  • N2 780,900
  • O2 209,400
  • H2O variable (lt20,000)
  • Argon 9,300
  • CO2 380
  • Neon 18
  • Helium 5.2
  • Methane 1.7
  • Krypton 1
  • Hydrogen 0.5
  • NAAQS pollutants (ppm)
  • CO 9 (Prim. standard)
  • NO2 0.05 (NOx??)
  • O3 0.075
  • SOx 0.03
  • P10 150 mg/m3
  • P2.5 15 mg/m3
  • Lead 0.15 mg/m3

Occur naturally, but variable due to human
activity
http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ImageAtmosphere_gas_
proportions.svg
3
http//eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/EDDOCS/images/Erb/comp
onents2.gif
4
Atmospheric structure
T up to 1500 K due to intense solar radiation
Chemical composition changes to be richer in
lighter gases, gravitational stratification
almost no H2O or ozone
T relatively constant, increasing to About 200K
at the stratopause
Average dT/dh -6 K/km The region of weather!
http//www.mardiros.net/atmosphere/atmosphere_stru
cture.html
5
Troposphere and Ozone
http//www.weatherquestions.com/troposphere.jpg
10 ppm ozone at 50 km compared to 40 ppb ozone
in the troposphere!
http//www.mardiros.net/atmosphere/atmosphere_stru
cture.html
6
Temperature Inversion
In extreme cases the temperature can actually
increase with height.
http//www.weatherquestions.com/What_is_a_temperat
ure_inversion.htm
7
Temperature Inversion
http//daphne.palomar.edu/calenvironment/smog.htm
8
Example of an inversion (Scotland)
http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Temperature_inversion
9
Schanghai Dec. 1993
http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ImageSha1993_smog_wk
pd.jpg
10
Aerosols
http//earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Library/Aerosols/

11
(No Transcript)
12
(2) As of Oct. 2008
http//www.epa.gov/air/criteria.html
13
Health Effects Time and concentration
Sulfur dioxide as an example
14
CO
http//www.epa.gov/air/emissions/index.htm
15
SO2
http//www.epa.gov/air/emissions/index.htm
16
NO2
http//www.epa.gov/air/emissions/index.htm
17
PM2.5
18
VOCs
http//www.epa.gov/air/emissions/index.htm
19
Air pollution profile for typical cities
What are the key trends you observed here, and
what is behind those trends?
20
(2) As of Oct. 2008
http//www.epa.gov/air/criteria.html
21
Summary of Tuesday
  • Six pollutants controlled under NAAQS CO, NO2,
    SO2, O3, PM-(2.5,10), Pb VOC contributes to the
    formation of O3. Amounts released15 (NO) - 110
    (CO) million tons/yr.
  • Coal is a major source of PM-X and SO2
  • Vehicles are major source of NO2, CO, VOC (and
    therefore O3).
  • Temperature inversions concentrate pollution,
    they are not caused by pollution nor are they
    responsible for the pollutants in the first place.

22
KH fig 8.13
23
Typical TRACE Impurities in Coal (does not
include sulfur, which is not a trace impurity,
but can be several !)
  • How much lead, mercury, and uranium is emitted
    per year in the US by power plants burning this
    stuff?

24
Solution I Build taller smoke stacks
http//science.howstuffworks.com/clean-coal.htm
http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flue_gas_stack
Worlds tallest smoke stack (420 m) in Ekibastusz
Kasakhstan at a 1GWe coal-fired power plant
(second tallest, at 380m) is at a nickel smelter
in the North American Midwest. There are LOTS of
tall stacks In the Midwest (many at power plants).
25
Global wind patterns
http//ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/(Gh)/wwhlpr/hurricane
_globalwinds.rxml?hret/indexlist.rxml
26
Acid rain patterns in the US
NOTE neutral water is pH7 the lower the
number, the stronger the acid.
ca. 2000
27
Pollution control devices Power plant
28
Control of particle emissionsFilters and
precipitators
H.V. on a wire in the center
Cyclonic (better for large gt50 mm particles)
Electrostatic (better for small particles)
29
See also an IU article On coal and limestone
http//www.indiana.edu/rcapub/v20n3/p9.html
http//www.dukepower.com/environment/air/scrubber_
diagram.pdf
30
Auto emission controls
  • Catalytic Converter
  • Reduce CO, NOx, VOC
  • Emission Gas Recirculation valve (EGR)
  • Reduces NOx
  • Electronic ignition control
  • Reduce CO, VOC
  • Positive Crankcase Vent. Valve
  • Reduce VOC emission
  • Gas vapor capture
  • Reduce VOC emission

http//auto.howstuffworks.com/catalytic-converter.
htm
31
Emission Standards for cars(grams/mile)
Pollutant 1975 1990 2004
VOC 3.4 0.41 0.15
NOx 3.1 1.0 0.43
CO 34 3.4 3.4
32
Chapter 9 Global Climate Change
http//eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/EDDOCS/images/Erb/comp
onents2.gif
33
Quiz 5
  • Three of the seven pollutants (the six NAAQS
    substances plus VOCs) we discussed on Tuesday
    are produced in greater quantities through
    natural processes than through activities
    associated with mankind (so-called anthropogenic
    sources). Identify two of these three, and
    provide a BRIEF explanation for why we are more
    concerned with the anthropogenic sources than the
    natural sources of these pollutants.

34
Spectrum of Solar radiation at the Earths surface
HK fig 6.2
Absorption bands due to gasses like CO2, H2O, CH4
etc. These are the so-called green-house gasses.
35
CO2 Concentrations and Temperature Change
36
http//www.whrc.org/carbon/ (Woods Hole
Research Center)
37
Carbon Cycle
http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_cycle
38
Sediments and sedimentary Rocks could account for
another 6x107 Petagrams! (www.physicalgeography.
net/9r.html)
1 petagram 1.1x109 tons CO2 emissions are some
65 times the CO emissions
http//www.whrc.org/carbon/ (Woods Hole
Research Center)
39
Carbon Sequestration (Clean coal as of 2000)
Research and Creative Activity, Oct 2008, IU OVPR
publication
Note that clean coal is a term that has been
around for a long time, but it has only recently
morphed into this incarnation. Originally it
referred simply to using low-sulfur coal, then
to including emission control measures, and
finally to include limits on CO2 emissions. Its
true meaning in the mind of the user is therefore
to be taken with some appropriate degree of
skepticism!
40
Ozone in the atmosphere good and bad
10 ppm ozone at 50 km compared to 40 ppb ozone
in the troposphere!
http//www.mardiros.net/atmosphere/atmosphere_stru
cture.html
41
Ozone levels at Halley Bay station (Antarctica)
http//www.atm.ch.cam.ac.uk/tour/part2.html
42
TOMS Satellite movie(Total Ozone Mapping
Spectrometer)
http//www.atm.ch.cam.ac.uk/tour/anim_toms.html
43
TOMS Satellite movie(Total Ozone Mapping
Spectrometer)
http//www.atm.ch.cam.ac.uk/tour/part2.html
44
Hurricane Interior
45
Global warming What is the controversy?
http//www.junkscience.com/GMT/index.htm
Interesting NPR story on recently rejected coal
power plant in Kansas http//www.npr.org/templates
/story/story.php?storyId15546026
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