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Title: Formative%20Assessments:%20The%20Key%20to%20Effective%20Planning%20and%20Preparation


1
Formative Assessments The Key to Effective
Planning and Preparation

Presented by Quality Quinn Quality Quinn, Inc.
2
For more information
  • www.qualityquinn.com
  • Click on Booking Info
  • Find the date of your presentation
  • Click on Download Presentation!

3
Experiment for the Adolescent LiteracyINSTRUCTIO
NAL
  • Direct, explicit instruction
  • Vocabulary and extended word study in Content
    Areas
  • Substantial increase in Reading Fluency in
    Content Areas
  • Text Comprehension strategies in Content Areas
  • Effective instructional principles embedded in
    content
  • Motivation and self-directed learning
  • Text-based collaborative learning
  • Strategic tutoring
  • Diverse texts
  • Intensive writing
  • A technology component
  • Ongoing formative assessment of students

4
Suggested Experiment for the Adolescent
LiteracyINFRASTRUCTURAL
  • Extended time for learning
  • Professional development
  • Ongoing summative assessment
  • Teacher teams
  • Leadership
  • A comprehensive and coordinated literacy program

5
15 Elements of Effective Adolescent Literacy
  • Direct, explicit instruction
  • Effective instructional principles embedded in
    content
  • Motivation and self-directed learning
  • Text-based collaborative learning
  • Strategic tutoring
  • Diverse texts
  • Intensive writing
  • A technology component
  • Ongoing formative assessment of students
  • Extended time for learning
  • Professional development
  • Ongoing summative assessment
  • Teacher teams
  • Leadership
  • A comprehensive and coordinated literacy program

6
You Cant Tutor What HasntBeen Taught
  • You cant tutor what hasnt been taught
  • You cant tutor what hasnt been taught
  • You cant tutor what hasnt been taught
  • You cant tutor what hasnt been taught
  • You cant tutor what hasnt been taught
  • You cant tutor what hasnt been taught
  • You cant tutor what hasnt been taught

7
The goal of the teacher is to create an
environment that allows every reader to move as
quickly as possible to grade level, content area
reading
8
The Challenge
  • 37 of all 8th graders scored below Basic on the
    NAEP
  • After third grade, the achievement gap with
    minority, second language, and low-income
    learners widens substantially
  • The prospect of exit exams yields an increase in
    drop-outs

9
The Challenge
  • After third grade, the achievement gap with
    minority, second language, and low-income
    learners widens substantially
  • Incomplete beginning reading instruction
  • Serious vocabulary deficit
  • Very limited knowledge of text structure
  • Misconceptions about fluency
  • Lack of meaningful early comprehension assessment

10
Three Flavors of Assessment
  • Summative Assessment External Reporting
  • Scorekeeping
  • Broad data for identifying specific populations
  • Program evaluation and budget indicators
  • Formative Assessment Internal Reporting
  • Intervention Do something differently,
    immediately (STOP Spray and Pray!)
  • Progress monitoring over time for individual
    students
  • Data used to plan next move for instruction
    (lesson design --GLM)
  • Getting a Grade Comfort the troubled, trouble
    the comfortable
  • Public relations
  • A,B,C,D,F Coin of the realm

11
The Zone of Proximal Development
  • Moving readers from their level of success to the
    appropriate level of difficulty
  • Using Coached Reading to identify the independent
    reading supportshow does the reader solve her
    problem? How do you or the materials you employ
    help?
  • Fluency is not about how fast you read, but what
    is it that is slowing you down.

12
The Gradual Release Model
Read Aloud and Think Alouds Shared Reading and Shared Thinking Guided or Coached Reading and Thinking Independent Reading and Thinking
13
5 Critical Elements for Rapid Growth
  • New expectation for ALL learners
  • Interactive learning and discourse for meaning
  • What the brain likes-MULTISENSORY
  • Reading for MATH
  • Analyzing Data
  • Moving from being data rich to analysis poor
  • ELL, Spec. Ed.

14
5 Critical Elements for Rapid Growth
  • Lesson Design
  • Reading Content alignment vertical and
    horizontal teamingELL, Spec.Ed.
  • Assessment driving differentiated instruction
  • Classroom Management
  • Instruction in terms of minutes
  • Collaboration
  • Whole class, small group, think-pair-share,
    indep.
  • Grade Level Meetings
  • Agendas, increased frequency, evidence driven
  • Student specific with proofs of
    instruction/learningThe Role of the Literacy
    Coach

15
Grade Level Meetings Student specific
  • Find and use ALL data (bring to meeting)
  • Do analysis for strength and weakness
  • Prioritize needs
  • Set goals (what of sub groups will grow 04-05)
  • Brainstorm specific strategies
  • Results indicators
  • Action Plan

16
The Bones of a Lesson Design
17
What do THEY need to learn?
18
Who Are They?
19
What Resources are Available?
20
Assessment
21
Cambridge Model
  • Planning and Preparation
  • Environment
  • Instruction
  • Assessment
  • Leadership

22
The three most important words for the struggling
reader
  • VOCABULARY
  • VOCABULARY
  • VOCABULARY
  • Words-words-words-words-words-words-words-words-wo
    rds-words-words-words-words-words-words-words-word
    s-words-words-words-you get it!!!!

23
Five Types of Vocabulary
  • Listening Vocabulary
  • Thinking Vocabulary
  • Speaking Vocabulary
  • Reading Vocabulary
  • Writing Vocabulary

24
Writing for Success
  • Question Are people motivated to achieve by
    personal satisfaction rather than by fame or
    money?
  • My view of the idea that it is personal
    satisfaction rather than money or fame that
    motivates people to achieve is sometimes wrong
    because in sports some people do it for personal
    satisfaction because they love the game and some
    people do it for the money because it pays well.

25
Student response
  • Even though we live in a capitalist society, I
    still cannot help but believe, despite my own
    cynicism, that people are more motivated to
    achieve something for personal satisfaction
    rather than monetary gains.

26
Five Elements of Reading
  • Phonemic Awareness
  • Phonics
  • Vocabulary
  • Fluency
  • Text Comprehension

27
What Spanish and English have in Common
  • Spanish is 90 Latin
  • English is 67 Latin
  • Both languages are alphabetic
  • Both languages have the same vowels

28
How Spanish and English are Different
  • Spanish is a language of segmentation
  • English is a language blending
  • Spanish has three types of syllables
  • English has six types of syllables
  • English has words that must be learned by sight
    (sight words are also called high frequency words)

29
What the Research Indicates
  • Identify the language demands of the content
  • Emphasize academic vocabulary
  • Activate and strengthen prior knowledge
  • Promote oral interaction and extended academic
    talk
  • Review academic vocabulary and content concepts

30
(No Transcript)
31
Registers of Language R. Payne
  • Frozen Language that is always the same
  • Formal Standard sentence syntax of work and
    school.
  • Consultative Formal register when used with
    conversation. Discourse patterns slightly less
    formal.
  • Casual Language between friends 400-800 word
    vocabulary. Non-specific word-choice non-verbal
    assists determine meaning. Sentence syntax often
    incomplete.
  • Intimate Language between lovers or twins. The
    language of sexual harassment.

32
Vocabulary Instruction
  • Concept vocabulary
  • Big idea words attrition, populism, hypothesis
  • Context vocabulary
  • Words that have multiple meanings economy,
    mine, elements, book, state, set, case
  • Vocabulary structure
  • Words with recognizable Latin cognates
    migratory, revolt, spectator
  • Jim Cummins-Word Harvesting

33
What Words to TeachBringing Words to LifeROBUST
Vocabulary InstructionIsabel Beck ,Nancy MacKowen
  • First tier words Words that you wish students
    knew, hope they can get, but you dont have time
    to teach.
  • Second tier words High utility words that they
    need to know in your class, and everyone elses.
  • Third tier words Extremely specific words in your
    content area that require considered, deliberate
    and in depth instruction.

34
Three Muscles
  • Early Language Experience
  • Phonemic awareness and concept development
  • Vocabulary, academic language and alphabetic
    principle
  • Decoding muscle
  • Three ways of getting meaning off the page
  • (1)phonicsprimary decoding strategy
  • (2)semantics and vocabulary
  • (3) syntax and structure
  • Fluency muscle
  • Reads a lot of words fast w/ comprehension
  • Class libraries of high-interest content related
    articles
  • Every day, every reader reading at a level of
    success of self-selected quality literature
    (fiction or non-fiction)

35
Text Structures
36
Language Arts
37
Language Arts
  • Whose woods these are I think I know his house
    is in the village, though. He will not mind me
    stopping here to watch his woods fill up with
    snow. My little horse must think it queer to stop
    without a farmhouse near. He gives his harness
    bells a shake, to ask if there is some mistake.
    The only other sounds the sweep of easy wind and
    downy flake. The woods are lovely dark and deep,
    but I have promises to keepand miles to go
    before I sleep. And miles to go before I sleep.

38
Science
39
Science
  • The Hall-Heroult process is essentially the
    electrolytic decomposition of purified bauxite.
    In a cell made of iron, a solution of Al2O3 in
    molten cryolite, Na3AlF6, conducts the current.
  • Procedural words, ordinals, first, then, next,
    etc.

40
Social Studies
8
41
Social Studies/History
  • Although The Confederacy represented the Southern
    states, its army attacked Gettysburg from the
    North. The Confederate Generals, having spent a
    tough winter and spring in the Shenandoah Valley,
    were desperate for supplies, particularly shoes.
    Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, a farming and shoe
    manufacturing community would hopefully provide
    the much needed supplies.
  • Subordinating conjunctions since, while,
    because, although, yet, if, as if, however, etc.

42
Math
43
Math
  • The architect and contractor were conferring over
    the blueprints of the new ten story parking
    garage. It needed to be ten floors and have space
    for compact cars. Each floor required twenty-two
    I beams, plus one additional beam for each
    additional floor after the first. Determine the
    number of I beams and show a possible
    structural configuration.

44
Math Research
  • Embed in real worldmake it engaging, generating
    more questions
  • Create a language rich classroom
  • Justifying, generalizations, highly verbal,
    highly visual students
  • Draw pictures, create mental images, foster
    visualization
  • Build from charts, graphs tables- also, the
    misinterpretation of data
  • Dont leave out measurement

45
Lets Demystify Reading
46
Three Muscles
  • Early Language Experience
  • Phonemic awareness and concept development
  • Vocabulary, academic language and alphabetic
    principle
  • Decoding muscle
  • Three ways of getting meaning off the page
  • (1)phonicsprimary decoding strategy
  • (2)semantics and vocabulary
  • (3) syntax and structure
  • Fluency muscle
  • Reads a lot of words fast w/ comprehension
  • Class libraries of high-interest content related
    articles
  • Every day, every reader reading at a level of
    success of self-selected quality literature
    (fiction or non-fiction)

47
News Flash!!!!!
  • 26 letters and 44 sounds
  • 16 reliable letters, (letters that always sound
    the same) q,w,t,p,d,f,h,j,k,l,z,x,v,n,m,b,
  • 4 that are switch hitters... s,g,cr
  • 3 that are pests ...a,o,u
  • 3 that will make you CRAZY!!!!i,e,y
  • Double vowels oa, oo, ee, ea, oi, ou, au
  • Blends ch, sh, wh, st,str, pl, sl, fl, gl, cl,
    bl, kl,cr,scr,

48
Vocabulary and Phonics
  • stench ap-pal-ling
  • de-hu-man-ize in-tro-spec-tion
  • in-e-qui-ty el-e-ments
  • cru-el-ty re-a-li-ty in-hu-man-i-ty
  • in-hu-man col-lab-o-ra-tion
  • e-con-o-my hur-dle
  • shame re-con-struc-tion
  • em-path-y mine

49
Teaching Word Attack (phonics) in Science
  • Con-ser-va-tion bun-dle
  • Ac-cel-er-a-tion state
  • Force base
  • Mass mol-e-cule
  • Grav-i-ta-tion-al force gas-e-ous
  • Ter-min-al vel-o-city
  • Grav-i-ta-tion-al at-trac-tion
  • Mo-men-tum

50
anthropologically
  • An-thro-po-log-i-cal-ly

51
australopithecine
  • Aus-tra-lo-pith-e-cine

52
Definition of Comprehension
  • Comprehension is defined as
  • intentional thinking during which meaning is
    constructed through interactions between the text
    and the reader (Harris Hodges,1995)

53
STRATEGIES
  • Clarifying
  • Comparing and contrasting
  • Connecting to prior experiences
  • Inferencing (including generalizing and drawing
    conclusions)
  • Predicting
  • Questioning the text
  • Recognizing the authors purpose
  • Seeing causal relationships
  • Summarizing
  • visualizing

54
an excerpt
  • Draped for the formal unveiling May 31 with
    only an insouciant topknot and Horton The
    Elephants trunk peeking out the sculptures
    frolic on the wide green linking the city library
    and its four museums that gave wing to the
    authors imagination.--

55
Process for Leadership
  • Challenge the process
  • search for opportunities
  • change status quo
  • Inspiring a shared vision
  • imagine the ideal situation
  • Enabling others to act
  • foster cooperation
  • modeling the way
  • Encouraging the heart to begin the journey

56
-el words
  • Towel
  • Trowel
  • Compel
  • Dispel
  • Dowel
  • Repel
  • Bushel
  • Shovel
  • Pummel
  • Level revel travel dishevel

57
Testwiseness An Important Piece of a
Comprehensive Intervention Strategy
  1. On-going, sustained test readiness and rehearsal,
    i.e. testwiseness
  2. Phonics instruction for those who received
    hit-or-miss decoding during whole language
    approach analyze spelling errors
  3. Build fluency with an every day, every child
    reads at a level of success approach assess for
    oral expression, pace and accuracy
  4. Use regular non-fiction writing events to teach
    science soc. studies syntax CRCT high-level
    comprehension objectives

58
Teaching Comprehension Directly
  • Monitor the use of the strategy
  • Offer less coaching as less is called for
  • Ask what strategy they are using why, therefore
    bringing the strategy to the students awareness
  • Give students continued opportunity to observe
    more modeling
  • Provide multiple and ongoing opportunities for
    students to interact w/others using a variety of
    text

59
How do I teach those strategies?
  • Decide which strategy you want to model and which
    text to use
  • Tell your students which strategy you are going
    to practice while you read
  • Read the passage to the students modeling the
    strategy you are using..think aloud
  • During real reading, give your students multiple
    chances to practice
  • Continue modeling as the genre or text structure
    changes
  • Give students a chance to practice without your
    coaching or support

60
Recent Headlines and Quotes
  • More than half of California 9th Graders Flunk
    Exit Exam, Education Week
  • It will take at least ten years to reach
    proficiency for all learnersNCLB
  • adequate yearly progress President Bush
  • Still Leaving Children Behind Krista Kafta,
    Heritage Foundation
  • Reading is the New Requisite for Math Education
    Week

61
Struggling Older Reader
  • Incomplete beginning reading instruction
  • Lacks metacognitive strategies
  • Limited prior knowledge
  • Limited word study skills and spelling
  • No text available at level of success
  • No adults modeling reading
  • No history of reading success

62
Five Keys to No Child Left Behind
  • Vertical team study of 4-9 reading curriculum
    with evidence of student work
  • Phonemic Awareness Phonics training for 4th
    through 9th grade teachers
  • Vocabulary instruction training geared more
    toward word harvest
  • Ready availability of compelling leveled text
    with conditional assessment
  • Classroom management strategies that provide
    intensity and focus for below level readers

63
Process for Leadership
  • Challenge the process
  • search for opportunities
  • change status quo
  • Inspiring a shared vision
  • imagine the ideal situation
  • Enabling others to act
  • foster cooperation
  • modeling the way
  • Encouraging the heart to begin the journey

64
The Old Syllable-the part of a word controlled by
a vowel- In English, there are 6 types
  • Syllable that is a single letter, single vowel,
    as in a-bout, i-dent-i-fy, e-lec-tric,
    a-vail-a-ble
  • Syllable ending in vowel, as in cru-el-ty,
  • Syllable ending in a consonant, as in al-co-hol,
    con-su-mer, ath-lete
  • Syllable ending in -tion-sion, as in
    in-tro-duc-tion
  • Syllable ending in -le, as in tin-gle, pic-kle,
    bi-cy-cle
  • Syllable ending with a vowel, consonant, silent
    e, as in shame, dime, kite, mon-o-tone,
    val-en-tine
  • O-le
  • Que-so
  • Cam-e-ro-nes

65
Grammar IS Syntax
  • The power the lowly preposition
  • The power of the subordinating conjunction

66
Persuasive
  • State opinion
  • Support with clear evidence or examples
  • Personalize
  • Appeal to the emotions
  • Graphic imagery
  • Structured argument
  • All to action

67
Phoneme Isolation
  • Children recognize individual sounds in a word.
  • Teacher
  • What is the first sound in van?
  • Children
  • The first sound in van is /v/.

68
Phoneme Identity
  • Children recognize the same sounds in different
    words.
  • Teacher
  • What sound is the same in fix, fall, and fun?
  • Children
  • The first sound, /f/, is the same.

69
Phoneme Categorization
  • Children recognize the word in a set of three or
    four words that has the odd sound.
  • Teacher
  • Which word doesnt belong? Bus, bun, rug.
  • Children
  • Rug does not belong. It doesnt begin with /b/.

70
Phoneme Blending
  • Children listen to a sequence of separately
    spoken phonemes, and then combine the phonemes to
    form a word.
  • Teacher
  • What word is /b/ /i/ /g/?
  • Children
  • /b/ /i/ /g/ is big.
  • Teacher
  • Now lets write the sounds in big /b/ /i/ /g/.
    (Teacher writes big.) Now were going to read the
    word big.

71
Phoneme Segmentation
  • Children break a word into its separate sounds,
    saying each sound as they tap out or count it.
  • Teacher
  • How many sounds are in grab?
  • Children
  • /g/ /r/ /a/ /b/. Four sounds.
  • Teacher
  • Now lets write the sounds in grab /g/ /r/ /a/
    /b/. (Teacher writes grab.) Now were going to
    read the word grab.

72
Phoneme Deletion
  • Children recognize the word that remains when a
    phoneme is removed from another word.
  • Teacher
  • What is smile without the /s/?
  • Children
  • Smile without the /s/ is mile.

73
Phoneme Addition
  • Children make a new word by adding a phoneme to
    an existing word.
  • Teacher
  • What word do you have if you add /s/ to the
    beginning of park?
  • Children
  • Spark.

74
Phoneme Substitution
  • Children substitute one phoneme for another to
    make a new word.
  • Teacher
  • The word is bug. Change /g/ to /n/. Whats the
    new word?
  • Children
  • Bun.

75
What should be done?
  1. Dedicated developmental reading testing
    preparedness program 5th through 8th
  2. Continued professional development for ALL
    teachers in reading intervention 5-12
  3. Initiate on-going professional development in
    science, social studies, and math reading
    writing
  4. Integrate a testwiseness curriculum for state
    testing programs with strong emphasis on the
    content areas

76
Reader Response
  • Review the story
  • Select a sentence or phrase that lingers
  • Write down two reasons for selecting that
  • Share your sentence and reasons w/others
  • Come to consensus
  • Be prepared to share to group

77
What is being done?
  • Mandatory summer school
  • Same thing, but LOUDER
  • Expensive intervention programs with uneven
    results
  • Teacher training institutions changing reading
    requirements

78
Five Steps to Two Years Growth for One Year of
Instruction
  • Vertical team study of k-8 reading curriculum
    with evidence of student work
  • Phonics training for 3rd through 8th grade
    teachers
  • Vocabulary instruction training geared more
    toward word harvest
  • Ready availability of compelling leveled text
    with conditional assessment
  • Classroom management strategies that provide
    intensity and focus for below level readers

79
The Goal Show Improvement
  • Growth triggers funding
  • Data is the gatekeeper
  • No improvement no money
  • Show enough growth to secure funding
  • What will be considered growth?

80
What you can do in the classroom?
  • Discipline
  • Use the adult voice first, then the parent voice.
  • To avoid arguments with parents and students, use
    the adult voice.
  • Use discipline interventions as an opportunity
    for instruction.
  • Use the parent voice to stop behaviors. Use the
    parent voice to change behaviors.

81
Useful References
  • Adams, M.J. (2000). Beginning to Read thinking
    and learning about print. Cambridge, MA The
    MIT Press.
  • Alexander, K. Entwisle, D. (1996). Schools
    and children at risk. In A. Booth J. Dunn
    (Eds.). Family-school links How do they affect
    educational outcomes? Hillsdale, NJ Erlbaum.
  • Baker, L. (1994). Contexts of emergent literacy
    Everyday home experiences of urban
    pre-kindergarten children. College Park, MD
    National Reading Research Center.
  • Baker, L., D. Scher, and K. Mackler. (1997).
    Home and family influences on motivations for
    reading. Educational Psychologist 32(2) 6982.
  • Burns, M.S., Griffin, P., Snow, C.E. (1999).
    Starting out right A guide to promoting
    childrens reading success. Washington, DC
    National Academy Press.
  • Baker, L., Allen. J., Schockley, B, Pelligrini,
    A.D., Galda, L. Stahl, S. (1996). Connecting
    school and home Constructing partnerships to
    foster reading development in L. Baker, P.
    Afflerbach D. Reinking (Eds.), Developing
    engaged readers in home and school communities,
    Mahwah, New Jersey Lawrence Erlbaum, pp. 21-41.

82
  • Burns, M.S., Griffin, P., Snow, C.E. (1999).
    Starting out right A Guide to promoting
    childrens reading success. Washington, DC
    National Academy Press.
  • Bus. A.G., M.H. van Ijzendoorn, and A.D.
    Pellegrini. (1995). Joint book reading makes
    for success in learning to read A meta-analysis
    on intergenerational transmission of literacy.
    Review of Educational Research 65(1) 1-21.
  • Center for the Improvement of Early Reading
    Achievement. (2001). Put reading first The
    research building blocks for teaching children to
    read. Jessup, MD Partnership for Reading.
    Available www.nifl.gov.
  • Edwards, P.A. (1995). Empowering low income
    mothers and fathers to share books with young
    children. The reading teacher 48 4888-564.
  • Epstein, J.L., Coates, L., Salinas, K.C.,
    Sanders, M.G., Simmons, B.S. (1997). School,
    family and community partnerships Your handbook
    for action. Thousand Oaks, CA Corwin Press.
  • Gallimore, R., Goldenberg, C. (1993).
    Activity settings of early literacy Home and
    school factors in childrens emergent literacy.
    In E. Forman, N. Minick, A. Stone (Eds.),
    Contexts for learning Sociocultural dynamics in
    childrens development (pp. 315-335). New York
    Oxford University Press.

83
  • Gentile, L. M., McMillan, M.M. (1992).
    Literacy for students at-risk Developing
    critical dialogues. Journal of Reading, 35,
    636-640.
  • Hart, Betty Risley, Todd R. (1995). Meaningful
    Differences in the Everyday Experience of Young
    American Children. Paul H Brookes Pub Co.
  • Lyon, G.R. (1998). Overview of reading and
    literacy initiatives. Testimony Provided to the
    Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United
    States Senate. Bethesda, MD National Institute
    of child Health and Human Development.
  • Moats, L. (1999, June). Teaching Reading is
    Rocket Science. Wahington, DC American
    Federation of Teachers. Available online
    http//www.aft.org/edissues/rocketscience.htm
    National Center for Education Statistics (1998).
    Characteristics of childrens early care and
    Education programs Data from, the 1995 National
    Household Education Surveys (NCES No. 98-128).
  • National Reading Panel. (1999). Teaching
    children to read An evidence-based Assessment
    of the scientific research literature on reading
    and its implications for reading instruction
    Reports of the subgroups. Washington DC
    National Institute of Child Health and Human
    Development. Available www.nichd.nih.gov/public
    ations/pubskey.
  • ODonnell, M.P., Wood, M. (1992). Becoming a
    reader A developmental instruction. Boston
    Allyn Bacon.

84
  • Oldfather, P. Wigfield, A. (1996). Childrens
    motivations for literacy learning in Developing.
    In L. Baker, C. Afflorbach D. Reinking (Eds.).
    Developing engaged readers in home and school
    communities. (pp. 89-113, Mahwah, New Jersey
    Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Riley, J. (1996). The teaching of reading,
    London Paul Chapman.
  • Robbins, C., and L.C. Ehri. (1994). Reading
    storybooks to kindergarteners helps them learn
    new vocabulary words. Journal of Educational
    Psychology 86(1) 54-64.
  • Snow, Catherine E., M. Susan Burns, and Peg
    Griffin. (1998). Preventing Reading
    Difficulties in Young Children. Washington D.C.,
    National Academy Press.
  • Sonnenschein, S., Brody, G., Munsterman, K.
    (1996). The influence of family beliefs and
    practices on childrens early reading
    development, In L. Baker, P. Afflerback D.
    Reinking (Eds.). Developing engaged readers in
    home and school communities. Mahwah, New Jersey
    Lawrence Erlbaum. PP. 3-20.
  • U.S. Department of Education. (1999). Start
    early, finish strong How to help every child
    become a reader (America Reads Challenge),
    Washington, D.C. author. Available online
    http//www.ed.gov.pubs/startearly/

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Take Me Out to the Ballgame
  • Take out to the ballgame
  • Take me out to the crowd
  • Buy me some peanuts and crackerjacks
  • I dont care if I ever get back
  • Let me root, root ,root for the home team
  • If they dont win its a shame
  • For its one, two, three strikes youre out
  • At the old ball game

86
What is fluency
  • Attaching sounds quickly to letters
  • Blending and segmenting quickly
  • Knowing most of the words you are reading
  • Paying attention

87
Your students the practice
  • Give your students the prac-tice,
  • To read with ease and con-fi-dence
  • And wa----tch ac-c-u-ra-cy and
  • Un-der-sta-a-a-n-ding. Soar by
  • Mo-del flu-et read-ing
  • Do re-pea-ted read-ing
  • Promote phrased read-ing
  • En-list tu-tors (to help)
  • And try readers theater in class

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The Challenge
  • After third grade, the achievement gap with
    minority, second language, and low-income
    learners widens substantially
  • Incomplete beginning reading instruction
  • Serious vocabulary deficit
  • Very limited knowledge of text structure
  • Misconceptions about fluency
  • Lack of meaningful early comprehension assessment
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