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A short history

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A short history and some insight into the future of IT Lionel Brunie National Institute of Applied Sciences (INSA) LIRIS Laboratory/DRIM Team UMR CNRS 5205 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: A short history


1
A short history and some insight into the future
of IT
Lionel Brunie National Institute of Applied
Sciences (INSA) LIRIS Laboratory/DRIM Team UMR
CNRS 5205 Lyon, France http//liris.cnrs.fr/lione
l.brunie
2
Laboratoire d InfoRmatique en Image et Systèmes
dInformation UMR CNRS 5205 (LIRIS)
  • 280 persons 100 permanent researchers and
    staff 180 PhD students
  • 2 departments
  • Image processing
  • Data-Knowledge-Services
  • DRIM team Distributed processing, Information
    Retrieval, Multimedia and Mobility

3
Agenda
  • Back to (pre-)history
  • What has happened to IT ?
  • Visions for a new (IT) world ?

Master course - Lyon, 2011-2012 - 08/11/2015
4
A short history of computers and IT
60 years ago
5
A short history of computers and IT
20 years ago
Master course - Lyon, 2011-2012 - 08/11/2015
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A short history of computers and IT
Today
Master course - Lyon, 2011-2012 - 08/11/2015
7
A short history of computers and IT
Today
Master course - Lyon, 2011-2012 - 08/11/2015
8
A short history of computers and IT
Tomorrow ?
Master course - Lyon, 2011-2012 - 08/11/2015
9
A short history of computers and IT The Jaguar
  • 224162 cores Memory 300 TB Disk 10 PB
  • AMD x86_64 Opteron Six Core 2600 MHz (10.4
    GFlops)
  • Rmax 1759 Rpeak 2331
  • Power 6,950 MW
  • http//www.nccs.gov/jaguar/

Master course - Lyon, 2011-2012 - 08/11/2015
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A short history of computers and IT Tianhe-1A
  • 186 368 cores Memory 229 TB Disk 10 PB
  • 14336 Intel EM64T Xeon X56xx (Westmere-EP) 2930
    MHz (11.72 GFlops) 7168 NVidia GPU Tesla M2050
  • Rmax 2566 Rpeak 4701
  • Power4,04 MW only !

Master course - Lyon, 2011-2012 - 08/11/2015
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A short history of computers and IT K-computer
  • 705 024 cores Memory 1410 TB Disk 10 PB
     6D-Torus-Tofu  Network
  • 88128 Fujitsu 2.0GHz 8-core SPARC64 VIIIfx
    processors packed in 864 cabinets (1 cabinet 96
    computing nodes 6 I/O nodes)
  • Rmax 10510 Rpeak 11280 (computing
    efficiency 93,2 )
  • Power12,7 MW only !

11
Master course - Lyon, 2011-2012 - 08/11/2015
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A short history of computers and IT The LCG
System Architecture
Tier-0
Trigger and Data Acquisition System
10 Gbps links Optical Private Network (to almost
all sites)
Tier-1
General Purpose/Academic/Research Network
Tier-2
From F. Malek LCG FRance
Master course - Lyon, 2011-2012 - 08/11/2015
13
And in 2011, a (still) new paradigm the Cloud
  • A large-scale distributed computing paradigm
    that is driven by economies of scale, in which a
    pool of abstracted, virtualized,
    dynamically-scalable, managed computing power,
    storage, platforms, and services are delivered on
    demand to external customers over the Internet
  • Amazon, Google, Microsoft even LOréal !
  • Everything as a service
  • Infrastructure as a service
  • Platform as a service
  • Software as a service
  • Behind the scene a grid
  • Do not worry, be happy the cloud takes care of
    your all your digital activities
  • Issue digital activity, digital life, life ?
  • For the first time in the history of mankind,
    somebody, thing can know everything about your
    life your professional data, your friends, the
    movies/the leisure you like, your friends, your
    political opinions, your mood

Master course - Lyon, 2011-2012 - 08/11/2015
14
What has happened to IT ?
Master course - Lyon, 2011-2012 - 08/11/2015
15
Technological Evolutions
  •  Universal  identification
  • RFID - Electronic Product Code (EPC)
    EPCGlobalNetwork Object Naming Service (ONS)
  • IETF Host Identity Protocol (HIP)
  • Large bandwidth communications
  • Optical fiber
  • 3G, 3G, 4G, WiMax
  • WiFi Direct
  • Geopositioning
  • GPS/Galileo
  • GSM

Master course - Lyon, 2011-2012 - 08/11/2015
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Technological Evolutions (Contd)
  • Super computing
  • Parallel super-computers (1- Jaguar (224162
    cores, 2,3(1,7) Pflops))
  • Super-clusters (Google 1,8 millions of servers ?
    Soon 10 millions ?)
  • Super storage
  • Key GB
  • Disk TB
  • Data Center PB
  • Micro-Nano technologies
  • Sensors Sensor networks
  • Convergence digital camera telephone laptop ?
    smartphone

Master course - Lyon, 2011-2012 - 08/11/2015
17
Software Evolutions
  • Cloud computing
  • Social networks
  • Services - SOA
  • E-Services
  • Mobility (M-services)
  • Object ? Service / Service ? Object
  • All digital, any where, any time Era

Master course - Lyon, 2011-2012 - 08/11/2015
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Vision Calm Technology
  •  The most profound technologies are those that
    disappear. They weave themselves into the fabric
    of everyday life until they are indistinguishable
    from it 
  • The objective of pervasive computing is to
    make a computer so imbedded, so fitting, so
    natural, that we use it without even thinking
    about it.
  • Ubiquitous (pervasive) computing is roughly the
    opposite of virtual reality. Where virtual
    reality puts people inside a computer-generated
    world, ubiquitous computing forces the computer
    to live out here in the world with people.
  •  A new way of thinking about computers in the
    world, one that takes into account the natural
    human environment and allows the computers
    themselves to vanish in the background 
  • Mark Weiser, Xerox PARC, 1991-

Master course - Lyon, 2011-2012 - 08/11/2015
19
Vision (Contd)
  • M. Satyanarayanan, 2001
  • Pervasive computing environment  one saturated
    with computing and communication capability, yet
    so gracefully integrated with users that it
    becomes a technology that disappears 
  • So
  • Smart spaces
  • Invisibility and transparency
  • Scalability

Master course - Lyon, 2011-2012 - 08/11/2015
20
Visions (Contd))
  • I just want to use these f so-called smart
    objects/appliances/
  • I want to get rid of the software/hardware/netwo
    rk organization/structure I just want to access
    my personal data and the data I need what ever
    the place /when ever the time
  • Put down the barriers no network
    interconnection pb, no computer administration
    frontiers
  • What about security/privacy ???

Master course - Lyon, 2011-2012 - 08/11/2015
21
Visions (Summary)
  • The object-subject is actor (a first-class
    citizen) of the system
  • smart objects / smart everything
  • active objects
  • Intelligence is, at first, the  network 
    i.e., the ability to exchange information
  • Intelligence , is also the ability to
    self-adapt to the user profile and the context
    ( context awareness ), to weave into the
    environment
  • Ego is part of the context
  • Intelligence , finally, is the ability to
    organize
  • autonomously (autonomic computing, self
    healing)
  • spontaneously
  • Ecosystem

Master course - Lyon, 2011-2012 - 08/11/2015
22
Applications of Ubi./ Perv. Comp. (for today)
  • Sensor networks (smart dust)
  • Home networks
  • Patient monitoring (personal area networks)
  • Emergency management / battlefield / borders
    monitoring
  • Museums and pervasive buildings
  • Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks (VANET) / MANET
  • Alert management (parking, kids, etc.)
  • Supply chain

Master course - Lyon, 2011-2012 - 08/11/2015
23
Applications of Ubi./ Perv. Comp. for tomorrow
maybe
  • Society and RFID
  • Personal data spaces
  • Web of things
  • Machine To Machine (M2M) / Object To Object (O2O)
  • The never lasting intelligent fridge ?
  • Maintenance Supply chain
  • Intelligent sensors networks

Master course - Lyon, 2011-2012 - 08/11/2015
24
Applications of Ubi./ Perv. Comp. for tomorrow
maybe(Contd)
  • U-Society
  • People to People (P2P) Facebook on your cell
    phone
  • People to Object (P2O) Pachube
  • Geopositioned Services App Store
  • Spimes (Bruce Sterling) ?
  •  Hypermatter  (Bernard Stiegler) ?
  • Do-IOT-Yourself Arduino / Fab Lab ?

Master course - Lyon, 2011-2012 - 08/11/2015
25
Back to the  vision  the Cloud
  • An old dream Computing as a utility (John Mac
    Carthy Computation may someday be organized as
    a public utility (1961))
  • A supposed to be user centered vision
  • managing a computer is exhausting
  • the user does not care about the system
    components the user just want his problem to be
    solved
  • eliminate the burden of the software/hardware
    management
  • allow the user benefit from economies of scale
  • A business vision
  • a small set of computing power providers
  • a global market
  • an integrated  hyper-market  computing,
    entertainment, learning ?
  • for the best of the big companies

Master course - Lyon, 2011-2012 - 08/11/2015
26
What IT world do you want to build ?
Master course - Lyon, 2011-2012 - 08/11/2015
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