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Summary of 10 years of sediment toxicity monitoring for the San Francisco Estuary Regional Monitoring Program

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Title: Summary of 10 years of sediment toxicity monitoring for the San Francisco Estuary Regional Monitoring Program


1
Summary of 10 years of sediment toxicity
monitoring for the San Francisco Estuary Regional
Monitoring Program Brian Anderson, Bryn
Phillips, John Hunt, Patricia Nicely, Ron
Tjeerdema University of California, Davis Bruce
Thompson, Sarah Lowe, Jay Davis San Francisco
Estuary Institute Karen Taberski California
Regional Water Quality Control Board San
Francisco Bay Region
2
Contaminants entering the estuary attach to
particles which may then be deposited as
sediments
Contaminants may impact benthic organisms or
higher trophic level species
3
Laboratory Toxicity Testing (UC Davis
Marine Pollution Studies Lab)
Amphipod 10-d survival test
Measures acute effects
4
Mussel embryo development
48-h exposure Sublethal endpoint
Sediment elutriate exposure
Sediment-water interface exposure
5
Toxicity test data used in a weight-of-evidence
Sediment contamination Sediment toxicity Benthic
community structure Bioaccumulation Results used
to identify and map areas of impaired or
potentially impaired beneficial uses Aquatic
life Human health Wildlife
6
Napa River
Grizzly Bay
San Pablo Bay
Rivers
Horseshoe Bay
 
Yerba Buena Island
Redwood Creek
San Jose
Coyote Creek
South Bay
Some stations are consistently toxic, others
exhibit seasonal toxicity
7
Change in RMP Experimental Design 1993
2001 Winter and Summer Sampling of Fixed
Stations 2002-2003 Summer Sampling
Using Probabilistic Sampling Design
(7 fixed stations 21 random
stations)
2002
100
Stations toxic to amphipods
50
18
0
Summer
8
Amphipod response vs. contaminant mixtures
100
80
r - 0.685
p lt0.0001
60
n 118
Amphipod survival
40
20
0
0.06
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
1.40
mERMQ
Always Toxic
Never Toxic
toxic
nontoxic
Thompson et el. 1999
9
Amphipod response vs. contaminant mixtures
toxic
nontoxic
100
80
r - 0.685
p lt0.0001
60
n 118
Amphipod survival
40
20
0
0.06
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
1.40
mERMQ
Always Toxic
Never Toxic
Benthic impact 68 stations
Benthic impact 100 stations
Thompson et el. 1999 Thompson and Lowe in review
10
Toxicity Identification Evaluations (TIEs)
Phase I characterization e.g., metals vs
organics, ammonia, H2S Phase II
identification specific metal or organic
compound(s) responsible for toxicity Phase
III confirmation Consider confounding factors
grain size, ammonia, pH etc.
Once identified, chemical responsible for
toxicity are emphasized in later studies
Source identification and control
11
Grizzly Bay Bivalve TIE w/ 25 Elutriate
Mortality ()
Phillips et al. in press
12
Sediment-Water Interface TIE w/ EDTA
Mortality ()
Phillips et al. in press
13
  • Bivalve TIE Summary Grizzly Bay
  • Copper is implicated as the primary cause of
    sediment
  • toxicity to bivalves (elutriates,
    sediment-water interface)
  • u Other divalent metals may also contribute to
    elutriate toxicity
  • Amphipod TIE Summary Grizzly Bay
  • Toxicity is probably not due to organic
    chemicals
  • Sediment is toxic, pore water is not
  • Toxicity is due to some acid-soluble compound

14
North Bay Rivers
Napa River
Petaluma River
Coyote Creek
Redwood Creek
Guadalupe River
15
Future Work
  • Continued Status and Trends monitoring
  • Application of TIEs at consistently toxic
    stations
  • Winter samples
  • Possible Special Studies
  • Winter sampling at the base of key tributary
    streams
  • Dose-response toxicity tests with resident and
    surrogate
  • toxicity test species
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