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The Second War for Independence

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Title: The Second War for Independence


1
The Second War for Independence the Upsurge of
Nationalism
  • 1812 1824
  • Mr. Love

2
Mr. Madisons War
  • War of 1812
  • June 1812 declaration of war
  • Opposed by Federalists Middle Atlantic states
  • West Southern states supported

3
War of 1812
  • One of Americas worst fought wars
  • People divided/ apathetic
  • Militarily unprepared
  • Canadian strategy poorly conceived
  • Economic life was crippled

4
Indian Resistance
  • Battle of the Thames 1813
  • Tecumseh killed by William Henry Harrisons
    forces
  • Battle of Horseshoe Bend - 1814
  • Creek Indians defeated by Andrew Jackson

5
Canadian Strategy
  • 3 pronged invasion of 1812
  • Troops sent from Detroit, Niagara, Lake
    Champlain
  • All were beaten back shortly after they crossed
    the Canadian border. Some militia would not
    cross state lines. Made it hard to engage enemy!

6
British Canadians
  • Displayed energy from the outset
  • Captured Fort Michilimackinac (SAY IT 3 TIMES
    FAST)
  • Commanded the upper Great Lakes
    Indian-inhabited area to the south west
  • British General Isaac Brock
  • 1813- Americans began to look for successes on
    water after land invasions were hurled back

7
Oliver Hazard Perry
  • Captured British fleet on the shores of Lake Erie
  • We have met the enemy they are ours.
  • Retreating redcoats were overtaken by General
    Harrisons army beaten at the Battle of the
    Thames Oct. 1813

8
Problems for America
  • 1814 Americans were grimly defending their own
    soil against the invading British
  • Napoleon was exiled from France to the island of
    Elba leaving America to fight alone

9
Battle of Plattsburgh 1814
  • British prepared to attack NY
  • Forced to bring supplies over Lake Champlain
  • Challenged by Thomas Macdonough
  • British were forced to retreat (BIG WIN)
  • Saved upper NY from conquest

10
Washington Burned
  • Aug. 1814 4000 British landed in Chesapeake Bay
    advanced to Washington
  • Bladensburg Races 6000 panicky militia ran
  • British entered burned capital
  • set fire to most of the public buildings
    including the capitol the White House
  • British moved on to Baltimore
  • Beaten off by defenders of Fort McHenry
  • Francis Scott Key The Star-Spangled Banner

11
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12
Battle of New Orleans 1815
  • Andrew Jackson his hodgepodge forces defeat
    British fight behind bales of hay.
  • Jackson becomes the hero of the west and a
    national celebrity.
  • Most devastating defeat of the entire war
  • Peace Treaty had been signed 2 weeks earlier
  • Naive citizens believed British signed treaty
    because of battle

13
The Treaty of Ghent 1814
  • Tsar Alexander I of Russia proposed mediation.
    Why is he getting in on this?
  • 5 American peacemakers met in Ghent
  • John Quincy Adams Henry Clay
  • British demands
  • Neutralized Indian buffer state in Great Lakes
    region
  • Control of Great Lakes
  • Substantial part of Maine

14
Treaty of Ghent
  • 12-24-1814 basically an armistice
  • Agreement
  • Both sides agreed to stop fighting
  • Restore conquered territory
  • American Grievances were not addressed
  • Indian menace, search seizure, Orders of
    Council, impressment, confiscations
  • Clear that America had not managed to defeat the
    British virtual draw

15
Hartford Convention 1814
  • States involved
  • MA, CT, RI, NH, VT -- 26 delegates total
  • Met in complete secrecy for 3 weeks
  • Purpose to discuss grievances seek redress
    for wrongs
  • Final Report
  • Financial assistance from Washington to
    compensate for lost trade
  • Constitutional amendments requiring 2/3 vote in
    Congress for embargo, new states admitted, or war
    declared except in case of invasion
  • Arrived in Washington after Ghent
  • Death of Federalist Party

16
Results of War of 1812
  • War heroes emerged Jackson Harrison
  • Manufacturing prospered industries less
    dependent on Europe
  • Canadian patriotism nationalism
  • Rush-Bagot agreement limited naval armament on
    lakes
  • 6000 Americans killed or wounded
  • Republic had shown that it would resist what it
    regarded as grievous wrongs
  • Nations developed a new respect for America
  • Federalist Party died

17
Nationalism
  • Nationalism increased after the War of 1812
  • Washington Irving James Fenimore Cooper
  • Nations 1st writers to use American scenes
    themes
  • North American Review 1815

18
Nationalistic Spirit
  • 1816 Congress revived Bank of the US
  • National capital began to rise from the ashes of
    Washington
  • Army was expanded to 10,000 men
  • 1815 Naval victory in North Africa
  • Stephen Decatur naval hero of War of 1812 of
    the Barbary coast expeditions

19
Tariff of 1816
  • Factories had mushroomed
  • British began to dump their bulging ware-houses
    on the US
  • Cutting their prices below cost to hurt American
    war-baby factories
  • Nationalist Congress responds
  • 1st protective tariff in American history
  • Instituted primarily for protection, not revenue
  • Started a trend for more protective tariffs

20
American System
  • Henry Clays plan for developing a profitable
    home market
  • 3 main parts
  • Strong banking system provide easy abundant
    credit
  • Protective tariff eastern manufacturing would
    flourish
  • Network of roads canals knit country together
    economically politically

21
Internal Improvements
  • 1817 Congress voted to distribute 1.5 million to
    states for internal improvements
  • Vetoed by measure as unconstitutional
  • States were forced to move ahead with their own
    programs
  • Erie Canal New York/ 1825
  • New England strongly opposed federally
    constructed roads canals
  • Would drain away population create competing
    states beyond the mountains

22
Era of Good Feelings
  • James Monroe became president in 1817
  • Part of the Virginia dynasty
  • Period of one-party rule
  • Monroe
  • 1817 inspection of military defenses
  • Boston newspaper coined the
    term Era of Good Feelings
  • Somewhat misleading

23
Problems during the Era of Good Feelings
  • Tariff
  • Bank
  • Internal improvements
  • Sale of public lands
  • Sectionalism
  • Conflict over slavery

24
Panic of 1819
  • Paralyzing economic panic
  • Results
  • deflation, depression, bankruptcies, bank
    failures, unemployment, soup kitchens,
    overcrowded pesthouses
  • West was especially hit hard
  • Foreclosures were common bank became the
    financial devil
  • Imprisonment of debtors

25
Growing Pains of the West 9 frontier states
joined the union
  • Vermont - 1791
  • Kentucky - 1792
  • Tennessee 1796
  • Ohio 1803
  • Louisiana - 1812
  • Indiana 1816
  • Mississippi 1817
  • Illinois 1818
  • Alabama - 1819

26
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27
Westward Expansion
  • Cheap land
  • European immigrants
  • Land exhaustion in tobacco states
  • Speculators accepted small down payments making
    it easier to buy new holdings
  • Economic distress during embargo years
  • Defeat of Indian resistance opened virgin land
  • Building of highways improved land routes
  • Cumberland Road 1811 ran westward from
    Maryland to Illinois
  • Steamboat 1811

28
Land Act of 1820
  • West demanded
  • Cheap acreage
  • Land Act of 1820 - Authorized a buyer to
    purchase 80 virgin acres at a minimum of 1.25 an
    acre in cash
  • Cheap transportation
  • Cheap money fought the powerful Bank of US to
    attain its goal (Read p. 246 247)

29
Slavery Sectional Balance
  • 1819 Missouri applies for statehood
  • Tallmadge amendment passed
  • No new slaves gradual emancipation of children
    born to slave parents in Missouri
  • Viewed as a threat to sectional balance by South
  • Defeated in Congress
  • Sectional Problems
  • 1788 South North equal in population wealth
  • 1819 North was becoming more populated
    wealthier

30
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31
Issue of Balance
  • 11 slave states 11 free states map p. 247
  • Missouri 1st state from Louisiana Territory
  • Would set a precedent for the rest of the area
  • Issue was political economic balance

32
Missouri Compromise
  • 1820 Henry Clay played major role in compromise
  • Missouri Compromise
  • Missouri slave state
  • Maine free state
  • Slavery was prohibited in the remainder of the
    Louisiana Purchase north of the line of 3630
    (the southern boundary of Missouri)

33
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34
Satisfied?
  • Both North South yielded something, both gained
    something
  • Missouri Compromise
  • lasted 30 years
  • Preserved the shaky compact of the states
  • Ducked the question of slavery it did not
    resolve it

35
James Monroe
  • Reelected in 1820 received every electoral vote
    except one
  • Only president in American history to be
    reelected after a term in which a major financial
    panic began

36
John Marshall
  • Shaped the Constitution in the direction of a
    more potent central government at the expense of
    states rights
  • McCullouch v. Maryland (1819)
  • Denied the right of Maryland to tax Bank of the
    US
  • Cohens v. Virginia (1821)
  • Right of the Supreme Court to review
    the decisions of the state supreme
    courts in all questions involving
    powers of the federal govt

37
Marshall conti.
  • Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
  • Constitution conferred on Congress alone the
    control of interstate commerce
  • Fletcher v. Peck (1810)
  • Legislative land grant was a contract the
    Constitution forbids state laws impairing
    contracts
  • Protected property rights
  • Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819)
  • Safe guarded business enterprise from domination
    by the states governments
  • Daniel Webster

38
Treaty of 1818
  • Treaty with Britain
  • Permitted America to share the coveted
    Newfoundland fisheries with Canada
  • Fixed northern limits of Louisiana - 49th
    parallel from the Lake of the Woods (Minnesota)
    to the Rocky Mountains (p. 250)
  • 10 year joint occupation of Oregon country no
    surrender of rights or claims

39
Florida
  • General Andrew Jackson 1817
  • Sent to Florida to punish outlaws
  • Hanged 2 Indians, executed 2 British subjects,
    seized two Spanish posts St. Marks Pensacola
  • Florida Purchase Treaty of 1819 (Adams Onis
    Treaty)
  • Spain ceded Florida as well as claims to Oregon
  • America abandon claims to Texas

40
Monroe Doctrine
  • Concern over Russian expansion in Alaska, Oregon,
    and even California
  • Monroe Doctrine 1823 proposed by Sec Adams
  • Era of colonization in America had ended
  • No more European intervention in the affairs of
    the Western Hemisphere
  • Expressed an increasing American sense of
    isolationism from world affairs nationalism
  • No contemporary significance because
    the US could not enforce it
  • Self Defense Doctrine

41
Russo-American Treaty of 1824
  • Fixed the southern most limits at the line of
    5440 the present southern tip of the Alaska
    panhandle
  • Settled before the Monroe Doctrine was issued
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