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What are the two types of waves?se.

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What are the two types of waves?se. Saltwater and freshwater. Longitudinal and Transverse Latitude and longitude Convergent and divergent. 10 20 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: What are the two types of waves?se.


1
What are the two types of waves?se.
  1. Saltwater and freshwater.
  2. Longitudinal and Transverse
  3. Latitude and longitude
  4. Convergent and divergent.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
2
What are the parts (A, B, and C) of the following
wave called? response.
A
C
  1. Top, bottom and width.
  2. Crest, trough and wavelength.
  3. Compression, rarefaction and wavelength.
  4. Superior, inferior and resultant.

B
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
3
E What are these parts (A, B, and C) of the wave?
nter your response.
C
A
B
  1. Top, bottom and width.
  2. Crest, trough and wavelength.
  3. Compression, rarefaction and wavelength.
  4. Superior, inferior and resultant.. .

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
4
E The material a wave travels through is
the______. your response.
  1. Host.
  2. Solute.
  3. Solvent.
  4. Medium.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
5
E When a wave bends because it has entered into a
new medium it is called what? nter your response.
  1. Reflection.
  2. Refraction.
  3. Rarefaction.
  4. Reduction

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
6
  • Waves
  • PS 9.18
  • PS 9.19
  • PS 9.20

7
  • Key concepts
  • Know the two types of waves, the parts of each
    and examples of each.
  • Know the electromagnetic spectrum.
  • Know what a medium is and how different mediums
    affect the properties of waves.
  • Know what happens when waves superimpose each
    other.

8
  • Waves
  • Waves transfer energy from one place to another.
    They do this by vibrating something up and down,
    or back and forth.
  • In almost all waves, the direction of wave motion
    is at 90 to the oscillation. For others, the
    oscillations are in the same direction as the
    wave.

9
  • Types of Wave
  • There are two types of wave motion transverse
    and longitudinal. You need to learn these names,
    and what distinguishes them. This is a transverse
    wave.

10
  • Transverse is the one most people can draw. The
    oscillations are at 90 (perpendicular) to the
    wave motion
  • One way of remembering this is that is looks like
    an s on its side. Transverse has two s's in it,
    longitudinal has none.

11
Wavelength Perhaps the simplest definition in
waves is the wavelength. It doesn't take a genius
to realize that this is the length of the wave
-)


12
  • The biggest mistake most people make is with
    drawing this on a picture of a wave. Draw a
    complete wave length - from the same point on
    each wave ripple crest
  • trough

13
  • Amplitude
  • We call the amount of movement from equilibrium
    displacement. Amplitude is just the maximum
    displacement of a wave

14
  • Frequency
  • Frequency means how frequent.
  • In other words, how often something happens per
    second.
  • For a wave, frequency means how many waves per
    second.

15
  • Longitudinal Waves
  • Here the oscillations are in the direction of
    wave motion.
  • Examples of longitudinal waves are sound,
    ultrasound and earthquake P-waves.

16
  • Longitudinal Wavelength
  • Just like transverse waves, we can measure a
    wavelength and amplitude for longitudinal waves.
    Compression Rarefaction
  • Wavelength is the distance between parts of the
    wave that are doing the same thing.

17
Sound Waves are Longitudinal Waves
  • Sound is produced when a compression is made.
  • It requires a producer and a medium to travel
    through.
  • The more elastic the object, the faster sound
    travels.

18
Sound acts like other waves
  • Echoes are reflected sound waves
  • Sonar uses echoes to judge distance to
    obstructions
  • Human hearing is 20,000 Hz, below 10 Hz is
    infrasonic, and above 20,000 Hz is ultrasonic.

19
Sound Waves move through matter not through empty
space.
Resonance is the vibration of another object
struck by a wave of the correct frequency. Since
the forks are identical, the second one receives
the correct frequency to begin vibrating.
20
  • Electromagnetic Spectrum
  • The only special thing about light is that our
    eyes can detect it. However, it is just a tiny
    part of a collection of electromagnetic waves
    that make up the electromagnetic spectrum.
  • They are all transverse waves. Like all waves,
    they can be reflected, refracted and diffracted
    and they all are energy.

21
  • Electro Magnetic Spectrum
  • All parts of the elecrtomagnetic spectrum move at
    a speed of
  • 3x108 m/s (speed of light)
  • radio micro IR visible UV X gamma You need
    to know the order of waves in the electro
    magnetic spectrum! Remember this saying,
    matching the waves in order of decreasing
    wavelength or increasing frequency

22
  • Real Radio low frequency Men
    Microwave Inevitably Infra Red
    Visit Visible Ugly
    Ultra Violet
  • eX X rays Girlfriends Gamma
    high frequency
  • It is the high frequency waves that are the most
    dangerous.

long wavelength
23
  • Radio Waves
  • These have the longest wavelengths and are used
    in telecommunications (radio and TV broadcasts,
    as well as portable phones and walkie talkies).
  • Some radio waves come from space. Astronomers
    look at these waves using giant radio telescopes.
  • The advantage of radio astronomy is that you can
    do it during the day, at night, and even when
    it's cloudy!

0
24
  • Microwaves
  • Go to even shorter wavelengths than radio waves,
    and we come to microwaves. Microwaves are very
    useful in communications.
  • Microwave ovens also use microwaves, as they can
    be tuned to match the vibrations of water
    molecules The waves just make the molecules
    vibrate with a larger amplitude, which heats the
    food up.

0
25
0
  • Infra Red
  • Beyond the red end of the visible spectrum is
    infra red. This is detectable by our skin as heat
    radiation.
  • A filament lamp emits light and heat radiation.
    The sun also emits huge amounts of infra-red
    radiation. It is this that keeps the Earth warm.

26
  • Visible Light
  • Each color of light we see has a different
    wavelength and frequency.
  • The longest wavelength light we can see is red,
    Any longer than this, and we cannot see it.
  • The shortest wavelength light we can see is
    violet. Any shorter than this, and we see
    nothing.

0
27
0
  • Ultra Violet
  • Beyond violet is a dangerous type of radiation
    called ultra violet. You can remember it's
    dangerous by the expression "ultra violent"!
  • UV is also emited from the Sun. It is to this
    that our bodies respond when out in the sunshine
    for too long.

28
0
  • A brown pigment is produced in the skin to help
    protect our living cells from destruction - or
    even cancer.
  • UV is partly absorbed by the ozone layer, but it
    is still important to apply sunscreen as an extra
    layer of protection.

29
0
  • X-Rays
  • Many of us have been to hospital to have an X-ray
    photograph taken of a broken bone.
  • X-rays are even more dangerous than UV, but are
    amazingly useful. How else would you see what was
    going on inside you easily?

30
0
  • Having a few X-rays taken every year is not
    harmful to your health, and physicists have
    developed more sensitive detectors recently so
    that weaker X-rays can be used.
  • X-rays are absorbed by bone, but pass almost
    perfectly through flesh.

31
  • Gamma Waves
  • These are the most dangerous and penetrating form
    of electro-magnetic waves. Gamma rays are emitted
    by some radioactive nuclei.
  • Gamma waves have the shortest wavelengths, and
    highest frequency. They are also produced during
    supernova explosions!

0
32
0
  • Despite the apparent danger, they can be
    amazingly useful. Amongst others, they are widely
    used in hospitals.
  • Some medical imaging equipment involves the use
    of gamma rays.
  • Gamma waves can also be used to kill cancerous
    cells by direct exposure.

33
0
  • The substance that the wave travels through is
    called the medium. Sound waves need a medium but
    electromagnetic waves (radio, infrared,
    ultraviolet, etc.) do not need a medium to travel
    through. This is why light can travel through
    space (vacuum) and sound cannot.

34
0
  • Reflection
  • All waves will reflect off different surfaces.
    This means that instead of just passing into
    another medium, the waves bounce back.

35
0
  • The incoming ray of light is called the incident
    ray. We measure the angle it makes not to the
    mirror, but to an imaginary line at 90 to its
    surface the normal.
  • The law of reflection states angle of incidence
    angle of reflection i r

36
0
37
0
  • Refraction
  • Refraction, like reflection, often involves waves
    changing direction. However this isn't always the
    case.
  • Refraction is more subtle than reflection, since
    it involves waves changing speed when they pass
    from one medium into another.

38
  • Refraction of light. When light (or other
    electromagnetic waves) pass into denser mediums
    the waves find it harder to move and they slow
    down.
  • This results in a change of direction.

39
  • Refraction Actions
  • When light passes into less dense mediums, it
    speed up. In this case the waves bend away from
    the Normal

40
  • Waves bend around the edge of an obstacle in
    their path, a behavior that is called
    diffraction.  Water waves passing through slits
    are bent around the corners of the slit as they
    pass through giving an example of diffraction. 
    When two or more waves superimpose, they are said
    to have interference. 

41
Waves Java Applet
  • http//www.learningincontext.com/PiC-Web/chapt08.h
    tm

42
  • While interfering, it is possible that the wave
    pulses reinforce one another, causing the
    amplitude of the combined waveform to be greater,
    producing what is called constructive
    interference.  On the other hand, if two pulses
    tend to cancel each other, the amplitude of the
    combined waveform is smaller.  This is called
    destructive interference.

43
  • Seismic Waves
  • The outer layer of the Earth is called the crust.
    This is broken into many separate pieces, called
    plates. Under this lies the mantle, a hot, fluid
    layer which makes the plates move over a long
    time.
  • Sometimes they shift slightly, leading to
    gigantic vibrations that pass both throughout the
    earth, and over its surface as earthquake waves.

44
  • Earthquake Waves
  • There are four kinds of waves produced by an
    earthquake. Two move over the surface, causing
    damage, and two pass through the Earth itself -
    called body waves.

45
  • S and P Waves
  • P-waves
  • Primary waves are longitudinal waves that push
    and pull the earth. They are the fastest body
    wave, averaging speeds of about 6 km/s.
  • S-waves
  • Secondary waves are transverse waves, which make
    the earth shake from side to side. Slower than P
    waves, they average about 4 km/s so arrive
    second.

46
What are the two types of waves?se.
  1. Saltwater and freshwater.
  2. Longitudinal and Transverse
  3. Latitude and longitude
  4. Convergent and divergent.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
47
What are the parts (A, B, and C) of the following
wave called? response.
A
C
  1. Top, bottom and width.
  2. Crest, trough and wavelength.
  3. Compression, rarefaction and wavelength.
  4. Superior, inferior and resultant.

B
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
48
E What are these parts (A, B, and C) of the wave?
nter your response.
C
A
B
  1. Top, bottom and width.
  2. Crest, trough and wavelength.
  3. Compression, rarefaction and wavelength.
  4. Superior, inferior and resultant.. .

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
49
E The material a wave travels through is
the______. your response.
  1. Host.
  2. Solute.
  3. Solvent.
  4. Medium.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
50
E When a wave bends because it has entered into a
new medium it is called what? nter your response.
  1. Reflection.
  2. Refraction.
  3. Rarefaction.
  4. Reduction

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32
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