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Energy Historical Overview Types of Energy Kinetic and Potential Energy Energy is classified as kinetic and potential energy Kinetic Energy Kinetic energy is the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Energy

  • Historical Overview

Types of Energy
  • Kinetic and Potential Energy
  • Energy is classified as kinetic and potential

Kinetic Energy
  • Kinetic energy is the energy associated with a
    moving object, for example, a moving football, a
    speeding train, a waterfall or a rock falling
    from a cliff.

Potential Energy
  • Potential energy is the energy in an object due
    to its position or the arrangement of its parts.
    It is divided into the following four areas
  • gravitational potential energy
  • elastic potential energy
  • chemical potential energy
  • electromagnetic potential energy

Gravitational Potential Energy
  • Gravitational potential energy is produced
    when an object is lifted up and work is done
    against the force of gravity. As the object
    falls, potential energy is converted to kinetic

Elastic Potential Energy
  • Elastic potential energy is produced when an
    object (such as a spring or a rubber band)
    resists being stretched out of shape. The energy
    from the deformation of the band can be converted
    into kinetic energy and used to do work, for
    example, to spin a propeller or power a toy

Chemical Potential Energy
  • Chemical potential energy is the energy that
    holds molecules together. Combustion, for
    example, of fossil fuels, releases the energy,
    which can be used to do work.

Combustion is a word scientists use for burning.
Electromagnetic Potential Energy
  • Electromagnetic potential energy can be stored
    in a battery or supplied from a power plant,
    hydroelectric dam or windmill.

Thermal energy
  • Thermal Energy is the movement of molecules
    that make up the object. All objects possess
    thermal energy (even cold ones), since they have
    a temperature above absolute zero.

Thermally Agitated Molecule.gif
Thermal energy
Friction is a form of thermal energy, which you
can feel when rubbing your hands together.
The sun is a source of thermal energy.
Hot springs are a source of thermal energy.
Human muscle power
  • Human muscle power was the only source of
    energy for (craft) production until the
    industrial revolution.

This picture shows how human muscle power and a
crank are used for driving a mill.
Development of machines
  • Water wheels
  • The development of machines based on flowing
    water led to a revolution in production.
  • The water wheel enabled the harnessing of
    energy for production.

However the water wheel had a fixed location next
to a fast flowing river and so lacked flexibility
The steam engineA steam engine is an external
combustion heat engine that makes use of the heat
energy that exists in steam, converting it to
mechanical work.
Development of machines
Steam engine in action.gif
  • The invention of the steam engine and the use
    of steam as the basis for the operation of
    machines led to a large increase in scale of
    production based on coal.

Development of the steam engine
  • Steam power is more efficient than water
    power, but still only 30 of the energy produced
    is converted. The advantage of steam power is
    that it is more moveable and therefore flexible.
  • Consider the impact of the steam engine on the
    mechanisation of the cotton industry.

The cotton industry
  • The impact that steam engines had on the
    cotton industry was huge.

Horse and water power became inadequate to drive
the new textile machinery. Horse powered mills
were limited in size by the number of horses that
could be used at any one time, and water power
required physical location on the rapidly
diminishing sites by rivers and streams.
James Watt's steam engines were key to Britain's
successful industrial development. By 1800, 500
had been built, of which 60 per cent were
rotative, suitable for turning factory machinery.
By 1800 there were 900 cotton spinning factories
in Britain, providing a fertile market for steam
engines in the future.
The development of electricity led to a
technological revolution and an increased volume
of production.
Development of electricity
Development of electricity
Electromagnetic induction underlies the operation
of generators, induction motors, transformers,
and most other electrical machines.

Faradays discovery of electromagnetic induction
and the invention of the dynamo allowed the
energy from coal or fast-flowing water to be
converted into electricity. As a result the
electricity industry was established, with a
sophisticated infrastructure enabling a new
generation of electrical machines and electrical
Factory production and the development of
assembly-line arrangements enabled the
development of a vast range of cheaper products.
Development of electricity

Early factory production for textiles.
A modern textile factory.
The electric motor is used widely in industry.
Electric Motor
  • Example
  • Drills
  • Saws
  • Lathes
  • Belt systems

The production and distribution of electricity
led to large-scale energy usage, security of
supply and the geographical spread of production
away from the source of energy supplies.
Production and distribution of electricity

Power stations are usually situated far away from
towns and businesses.
Electric power lines carry electricity to where
it is needed.
Homes have electric meters to monitor the use of
The electrical distribution network and grid
system allowed industry to move away from the
source of the fuel supply.
Production and distribution of electricity

Development of portable electricity
The development of localised, portable sources of
electrical energy in the form of batteries
changed the nature of energy usage and the
development of new types of products.
Development of battery powered cars
Most of these parts of the car are made to rid of
a few pounds and to increase the battery's
charging and increase the battery's energy
Portable radios.
Development of portable electricity
Mobile phones