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Special Interests

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Title: Hit me please! 8:15pm tonight Author: depot_002 Last modified by: bturner Created Date: 11/16/2000 4:16:48 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Special Interests


1
Special Interests.
2
Definition of Interest Group
  • an organized body of individuals who share some
    goals and who try to influence public policy
  • Parties largely try to determine who occupies
    positions in government
  • interest groups primarily try to affect the
    decisions that others make

3
Normative ?s about IG
  • Is this growth of interest groups a good thing?
  • What is the appropriate role of interest groups
    in a democracy?
  • Madison
  • Causes of Factions Are Sown Into the Nature of
    Man
  • Remedy is Worse Than the Disease

4
Pluralism
  • Empirical Description of Politics
  • Politics is a struggle between groups
  • For every interest, there is a group
  • Policy reflects the balance of power between
    groups in society
  • Normative Description of Politics
  • Reflects the intensity of preferences as well as
    the direction
  • No permanent losers

5
Theory of Pluralism
  1. Groups are basis of politics
  2. self-interest will lead organizations to form
    groups for policies
  3. hidden hand of self-interest will lead to good
    overall effects.
  4. If one group is too powerful, counter-groups will
    form.
  5. No permanent losers
  6. Groups reflect intensity ofpreferences

6
Critiques of Pluralism
  • "The heavenly chorus of the interest group
    process sings with an upper-class accent."
  • Collective Action problem
  • Overcoming the free rider problem
  • Solidarity benefits
  • Material benefits
  • Purposive benefits

7
Why is Sugar Powerful?
8
Big Sugar
  • Who can overcome collective action problem?
  • Winners Losers

9
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10
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11
The Climate Change Lobby Explosion WILL THOUSANDS
OF LOBBYISTS IMPERIL ACTION ON GLOBAL
WARMING? By Marianne Lavelle February 24, 2009
12
Goals of Interest Groups
  • Improve Probability that Their Interests Will Be
    Treated Favorably
  • Influence Policy-Making Process
  • Preserve Organization

13
Inside Game
  • Focus is on Governing Officials
  • Lobbying
  • Litigation
  • Electoral Politics
  • Political Action Committees (PACs)

14
"The Outside Game"
  • Focus is on shaping public opinion
  • Indirect influence
  • Publicity and Mass Appeal
  • Mass Mailing
  • Organize the District

15
Why Groups Use Different Tactics
  • group characteristics
  • Exxon vs. Greenpeace
  • situational characteristics
  • Outs vs. the Ins
  • Convergence between outside and inside strategies
  • General Electric

16
Interest Group Influence
  • empirical component
  • how powerful are they?
  • normative component
  • how powerful should they be?

17
Iron Triangles
  • Alliance of common interest between an interest
    group, a congressional committee, and a
    bureaucratic agency
  • Department of Defense/Pentagon- House and Senate
    Armed Services Committeeand Defense Contractors
  • interest groups play the dominant role
  • Outsiders are shut out

18

19
Issue Networks
  • larger and looser connection of interest groups,
    committees, and agencies in a particular policy
    area
  • Case of Tobacco Policy
  • More open and less stable than old triangles
  • More closely resembles that of pluralist doctrine

20
Hyperpolitics- Cigler Loomis
  • Politicization of all communications
  • Permanent campaign
  • Microsoft- Interest group shaping perceptions
    of problems and political agenda

21
Hyperpolitics- Cigler Loomis
  • Affordable Energy Is Important to Me
  • http//www.americaspower.org/News/Ad-Archive
  • Tea Party Patriots
  • http//teapartypatriots.org/
  • Getting Health Reform Right
  • http//www.gethealthreformright.org
  • This is Reality
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch!vZmVDu_gIpc4featur
    erelated
  • http//www.thisisreality.org//?pfacility

22
Criteria for power
  • Access
  • Information
  • Numerical strength
  • Group unity
  • Money
  • Narrow goals
  • Defense
  • Nature of issue

23
Influence of IG is conditional
  • most influential
  • on low profile issues
  • In blocking actions hard to originate
  • When unopposed by other groups
  • If they have plentiful resources
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