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Human%20Impact%20on%20the%20Atmosphere%20Chapters%2018%20and%2019%20Living%20in%20the%20Environment,%2011th%20Edition,%20Miller

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Title: Human%20Impact%20on%20the%20Atmosphere%20Chapters%2018%20and%2019%20Living%20in%20the%20Environment,%2011th%20Edition,%20Miller


1
Human Impact on the AtmosphereChapters 18 and
19Living in the Environment, 11th Edition,
Miller
2
Pollution Thorpe, Gary S., M.S., (2002).
Barrons How to prepare for the AP Environmental
Science Advanced Placement Exam
  • The term Smog (smoke and fog) was first used in
    1905 to describe sulfur dioxide emission
  • In 1952, severe pollution took the lives of 5000
    people in London
  • It isnt pollution thats harming the
    environment. Its the impurities in our air and
    water that are doing it.

    Former U.S. Vice President Dan Quayle

www.aqmd.gov/pubinfo/ 97annual.html
3
TheCleanAirAct
  • Congress found
  • Most people now live in urban areas
  • Growth results in air pollution
  • Air pollution endangers living things
  • It decided
  • Prevention and control at the source was
    appropriate
  • Such efforts are the responsibility of states
    and local authorities
  • Federal funds and leadership are essential for
    the development of effective programs

4
Clean Air Act
  • Originally signed 1963
  • States controlled standards
  • 1970 Uniform Standards by Federal Govt.
  • Criteria Pollutants
  • Primary Human health risk
  • Secondary Protect materials, crops, climate,
    visibility, personal comfort

5
Clean Air Act
  • 1990 version
  • Acid rain, urban smog, toxic air pollutants,
    ozone depletion, marketing pollution rights,
    VOCs
  • 1997 version
  • Reduced ambient ozone levels
  • Cost 15 billion/year -gt save 15,000 lives
  • Reduce bronchitis cases by 60,000 per year
  • Reduce hospital respiratory admission 9000/year

6
Clean Air Act
  • President George W. Bush signed rules amending
    Clean Air Act that allowed power plants and other
    industries to increase pollution significantly
    without adopting control measures

7
http//www.cnn.com/2003/LAW/12/24/bush.clean.air.a
p/index.html
Appeals court blocks Bush clean air
changes Wednesday, December 24, 2003 Posted 210
PM EST (1910 GMT)
  • WASHINGTON (AP) -- A federal appeals court on
    Wednesday blocked new Bush administration changes
    to the Clean Air Act from going into effect the
    next day, in a challenge from state attorneys
    general and cities that argued they would harm
    the environment and public health.

8
Clean Air Act http//www.epa.gov/air/oaq_caa.html
  • Title I - Air Pollution Prevention and Control
  • Part A - Air Quality and Emission Limitations
  • Part B - Ozone Protection (replaced by Title VI)
  • Part C - Prevention of Significant Deterioration
    of Air Quality
  • Part D - Plan Requirements for Nonattainment
    Areas
  • Title II - Emission Standards for Moving Sources
  • Part A - Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel
    Standards
  • Part B - Aircraft Emission Standards
  • Part C - Clean Fuel Vehicles
  • Title III - General
  • Title IV - Acid Deposition Control
  • Title V - Permits
  • Title VI - Stratospheric Ozone Protection

9
Outdoor Air Pollution
10
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11
Major Sources of Primary Pollutants
  • Stationary Sources
  • Combustion of fuels for power and heat Power
    Plants
  • Other burning such as Wood crop burning or
    forest fires
  • Industrial/ commercial processes
  • Solvents and aerosols
  • Mobile Sources
  • Highway cars, trucks, buses and motorcycles
  • Off-highway aircraft, boats, locomotives, farm
    equipment, RVs, construction machinery, and lawn
    mowers

12
(No Transcript)
13
54 million metric tons from mobile sources in 1990
14
Human Impact on Atmosphere
  • Burning Fossil Fuels
  • Using Nitrogen fertilizers and burning fossil
    fuels
  • Refining petroleum and burning fossil fuels
  • Manufacturing
  • Adds CO2 and O3 to troposphere
  • Global Warming
  • Altering Climates
  • Produces Acid Rain
  • Releases NO, NO2, N2O, and NH3 into troposphere
  • Produces acid rain
  • Releases SO2 into troposphere
  • Releases toxic heavy metals (Pb, Cd, and As) into
    troposphere

www.dr4.cnrs.fr/gif-2000/ air/products.html
15
Criteria Air Pollutants
  • EPA uses six "criteria pollutants" as indicators
    of air quality
  • Nitrogen Dioxide NO2
  • Ozone ground level O3
  • Carbon monoxide CO
  • Lead Pb
  • Particulate Matter PM10 (PM 2.5)
  • Sulfur Dioxide SO2
  • Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
  • EPA established for each concentrations above
    which adverse effects on health may occur

16
Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)
  • Properties reddish brown gas, formed as fuel
    burnt in car, strong oxidizing agent, forms
    Nitric acid in air
  • Effects acid rain, lung and heart problems,
    decreased visibility (yellow haze), suppresses
    plant growth
  • Sources fossil fuels combustion, power plants,
    forest fires, volcanoes, bacteria in soil
  • Class Nitrogen oxides (NOx)
  • EPA Standard 0.053 ppm

17
Mobile Source Emissions Nitrogen Oxides
18
Ozone (O3)
  • Properties colorless, unpleasant odor, major
    part of photochemical smog
  • Effects lung irritant, damages plants, rubber,
    fabric, eyes, 0.1 ppm can lower PSN by 50,
  • Sources Created by sunlight acting on NOx and
    VOC , photocopiers, cars, industry, gas vapors,
    chemical solvents, incomplete fuel combustion
    products
  • Class photochemical oxidants

19
Ozone (O3)
  • 10,000 to 15,000 people in US admitted to
    hospitals each year due to ozone-related illness
  • Children more susceptible
  • Airways narrower
  • More time spent outdoors

20
Mobile Source Emissions Hydrocarbons
Precursors to Ozone
21
Carbon Monoxide (CO)
  • Properties colorless, odorless, heavier than
    air, 0.0036 of atmosphere
  • Effects binds tighter to Hb than O2, mental
    functions and visual acuity, even at low levels
  • Sources incomplete combustion of fossil fuels 60
    - 95 from auto exhaust
  • Class carbon oxides (CO2, CO)
  • EPA Standard 9 ppm
  • 5.5 billion tons enter atmosphere/year

22
Mobile Source Emissions - CO
23
Lead (Pb)
  • Properties grayish metal
  • Effects accumulates in tissue affects kidneys,
    liver and nervous system (children most
    susceptible) mental retardation possible
    carcinogen 20 of inner city kids have high
  • Sources particulates, smelters, batteries
  • Class toxic or heavy metals
  • EPA Standard 1.5 ug/m3
  • 2 million tons enter atmosphere/year

24
Suspended Particulate Matter (PM10)
  • Properties particles suspended in air (lt10 um)
  • Effects lung damage, mutagenic, carcinogenic,
    teratogenic
  • Sources burning coal or diesel, volcanoes,
    factories, unpaved roads, plowing, lint, pollen,
    spores, burning fields
  • Class SPM dust, soot, asbestos, lead, PCBs,
    dioxins, pesticides
  • EPA Standard 50 ug/m3 (annual mean)

25
Mobile Source Emissions Fine Particulate Matter
(PM2.5)
26
Sulfur Dioxide (SO2)
  • Properties colorless gas with irritating odor
  • Effects produces acid rain (H2SO4), breathing
    difficulties, eutrophication due to sulfate
    formation, lichen and moss are indicators
  • Sources burning high sulfur coal or oil,
    smelting or metals, paper manufacture
  • Class sulfur oxides
  • EPA Standard 0.3 ppm (annual mean)
  • Combines with water and NH4 to increase soil
    fertility

27
VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds)
  • Properties organic compounds (hydrocarbons) that
    evaporate easily, usually aromatic
  • Effects eye and respiratory irritants
    carcinogenic liver, CNS, or kidney damage
    damages plants lowered visibility due to brown
    haze global warming
  • Sources vehicles (largest source), evaporation
    of solvents or fossil fuels, aerosols, paint
    thinners, dry cleaning
  • Class HAPs (Hazardous Air Pollutants)
  • Methane
  • Benzene
  • Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), etc.
  • Concentrations indoors up to 1000x outdoors
  • 600 million tons of CFCs

28
Other Air Pollutants
  • Carbon dioxide
  • ChloroFluoroCarbons
  • Formaldehyde
  • Benzene
  • Asbestos
  • Manganese
  • Dioxins
  • Cadmium
  • Others not yet fully characterized

29
Formation Intensity
  • Factors
  • Local climate (inversions, air pressure,
    temperature, humidity)
  • Topography (hills and mountains)
  • Population density
  • Amount of industry
  • Fuels used by population and industry for
    heating, manufacturing, transportation, power
  • Weather rain, snow,wind
  • Buildings (slow wind speed)
  • Mass transit used
  • Economics

30
Thermal Inversion
31
Smog Forms
...when polluted air is stagnant (weather
conditions, geographic location)
Los Angeles, CA
32
Primary Pollutants
CO
CO2
Secondary Pollutants
SO2
NO
NO2
SO3
Most hydrocarbons
HNO3
H2SO4
Most suspended particles
H2O2
O3
PANs
and
salts
Most
Natural
Sources
Stationary
Mobile
33
Photochemical Smog
UV radiation H2O O2
Primary Pollutants NO2 Hydrocarbons
Secondary Pollutants HNO3 O3 nitric
acid ozone Photochemical Smog
Auto Emissions
34
Solar radiation
Photochemical Smog
Ultraviolet radiation
NO Nitric oxide
O2 Molecular oxygen
O Atomic oxygen
NO2 Nitrogen dioxide
H2O Water
Hydrocarbons
PANs Peroxyacyl nitrates
Aldehydes (e.g., formaldehyde)
O3 Ozone
HNO3 Nitric acid
P h o t o c h e m i c a l S m o g
35
Indoor Air Pollution
36
Why is indoor air quality important?
  • 70 to 90 of time spent indoors, mostly at home
  • Many significant pollution sources in the home
    (e.g. gas cookers, paints and glues)
  • Personal exposure to many common pollutants is
    driven by indoor exposure
  • Especially important for susceptible groups
    e.g. the sick, old and very young

37
Exposure
  • Time spent in various environments in US and
    less-developed countries

38
House of Commons Select Committee Enquiry on
Indoor Air Pollution (1991)
  • There is evidence that 3 million people have
    asthma in the UK and this is increasing by 5
    per annum.
  • Overall there appears to be a worryingly large
    number of health problems which could be
    connected with indoor pollution and which affect
    very large numbers of the population.
  • The Committee recommends that the Government
    develop guidelines and codes of practice for
    indoor air quality in buildings which
    specifically identify exposure limits for an
    extended list of pollutants

39
Sources of Indoor Air Pollutants
  • Building materials
  • Furniture
  • Furnishings and fabrics
  • Glues
  • Cleaning products
  • Other consumer products
  • Combustion appliances (cookers and heaters)
  • Open fires
  • Tobacco smoking
  • Cooking
  • House dust mites, bacteria and moulds
  • Outdoor air

40
Important Indoor Air pollutants
  • Nitrogen dioxide
  • Carbon monoxide
  • Formaldehyde
  • Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
  • House dust mites (and other allergens, e.g. from
    pets)
  • Environmental tobacco smoke
  • Fine particles
  • Chlorinated organic compounds (e.g. pesticides)
  • Asbestos and man-made mineral fibres
  • Radon

41
Health Effects
  • Nitrogen dioxide
  • Respiratory irritant
  • Elevated risk of respiratory illness in children,
    perhaps resulting from increased susceptibility
    to respiratory infection inconsistent evidence
    for effects in adults
  • Concentrations in kitchens can readily exceed WHO
    and EPA standards

42
Health Effects
  • Carbon monoxide
  • An asphyxiant and toxicant
  • Hazard of acute intoxication, mostly from
    malfunctioning fuel-burning appliances and
    inadequate or blocked flues
  • Possibility of chronic effects of long-term
    exposure to non- lethal concentrations,
    particularly amongst susceptible groups

43
Health Effects
  • Formaldehyde
  • Sensory and respiratory irritant and sensitizer
  • Possible increased risk of asthma and chronic
    bronchitis in children at higher exposure levels
  • Individual differences in sensory and other
    transient responses
  • Caution over rising indoor concentrations

44
Health Effects
  • Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
  • Occur in complex and variable mixtures
  • Main health effects relate to comfort and
    well-being, but benzene (and other VOCs) are
    carcinogenic
  • Concern about possible role of VOCs in the
    aetiology of multiple chemical sensitivity also
    implicated in sick building syndrome

45
Health Effects
  • House dust mites
  • House dust mites produce Der p1 allergen, a
    potent sensitizer
  • Good evidence of increased risk of sensitization
    with increasing allergen exposure, but this does
    not necessarily lead to asthma
  • Small reductions in exposure will not necessarily
    lead to reduced incidence and/or symptoms
  • Indoor humidity is important

46
Health Effects
  • Fungi and bacteria
  • Dampness and mould-growth linked to self-reported
    respiratory conditions, but little convincing
    evidence for association between measured
    airborne fungi and respiratory disease
  • Insufficient data to relate exposure to
    (non-pathogenic) bacteria to health effects in
    the indoor environment

47
Health Effects
  • Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)
  • Sudden infant death syndrome
  • Lower respiratory tract illness
  • Middle ear disease
  • Asthma
  • 12 million children exposed to secondhand smoke
    in homes

48
Health Effects
  • Fine particles
  • Consistent evidence that exposure to small
    airborne particles (e.g. PM10) in ambient air can
    impact on human health mechanisms uncertain
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and
    Cardiovascular Disease patients and asthmatics
    probably at extra risk
  • Relative importance of indoor sources is unknown

49
Health Effects
  • Radon
  • Can cause lung cancer
  • Estimated that 7,000 to 30,000 Americans die each
    year from radon-induced lung cancer
  • Only smoking causes more lung cancer deaths
  • Smokers more at risk than non-smokers

50
Radon Risk Non-Smoker
Radon Level (pCI/L) If 1000 people who did not smoke were exposed to this level over a lifetime.. About X would get lung cancer This risk of cancer from radon exposure compares to What to do
20 8 Being killed in a violent crime Fix your home
10 4 Fix your home
8 3 10x risk of dying in a plane crash Fix your home
4 2 Risk of drowning Fix your home
2 lt1 Risk of dying in a home fire Fix your home
1.3 lt1 Average indoor radon level Fix your home
0.4 lt1 Average indoor radon level Fix your home
If you are a former smoker, your risk may be
higher
51
Radon Risk Smoker
Radon Level (pCI/L) If 1000 people who smoke were exposed to this level over a lifetime.. About X would get lung cancer This risk of cancer from radon exposure compares to What to do Stop smoking and
20 135 100x risk of drowning Fix your home
10 71 100x risk of dying in a home fire Fix your home
8 57 Fix your home
4 29 100x risk of dying in a plane crash Fix your home
2 15 2x the risk of dying in a car crash Fix your home
1.3 9 Average indoor radon level Fix your home
0.4 3 Average indoor radon level Fix your home
If you are a former smoker, your risk may be lower
52
Radon
  • 55 of our exposure to radiation comes from radon
  • colorless, tasteless, odorless gas
  • formed from the decay of uranium
  • found in nearly all soils
  • levels vary

53
(From http//www.epa.gov/iaq/radon/zonemap.html)
Zone pCi/L 1 gt4 2 2 - 4
3 lt2
54
Radon How it Enters Buildings
  • Cracks in solid floors
  • Construction joints
  • Cracks in walls
  • Gaps in suspended floors
  • Gaps around service pipes
  • Cavities inside walls
  • The water supply

http//www.epa.gov/iaq/radon/pubs/citguide.htmlho
wdoes
55
Radon Reducing the Risks
  • Sealing cracks in floors and walls
  • Simple systems using pipes and fans
  • More information http//www.epa.gov/iaq/radon/pub
    s/consguid.htmlreductiontech

56
  • Sick Building Syndrome (SBS)
  • vs
  • Building Related Illness (BRI)

57
Sick Building Syndrome
  • A persistent set of symptoms in gt 20 population
  • Causes(s) not known or recognizable
  • Complaints/Symptoms relieved after exiting
    building

58
Complaints/Symptoms
  • Headaches
  • Fatigue
  • Reduced Mentation
  • Irritability
  • Eye, nose or throat irritation
  • Dry Skin
  • Nasal Congestion
  • Difficulty Breathing
  • Nose Bleeds
  • Nausea

59
Building Related Illness
  • Clinically Recognized Disease
  • Exposure to indoor air pollutants
  • Recognizable Causes

60
Clinically Recognized Diseases
  • Pontiac Fever Legionella spp.
  • Legionnaire's Disease
  • Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis
  • Humidifier Fever
  • Asthma
  • Allergy
  • Respiratory Disease
  • Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

61
Ventilation
62
Movement of Air Into / Out of Homes
  • Amount of air available to dilute pollutants
  • important indicator of the likely contaminant
    concentration
  • Indoor air can mix with outside air by three
    mechanisms
  • infiltration
  • natural ventilation
  • forced ventilation

63
Movement of Air Into / Out of Homes
  • Infiltration
  • natural air exchange that occurs between a
    building and its environment when the doors and
    windows are closed
  • leakage through holes or openings in the building
    envelope
  • pressure induced
  • due to pressure differentials inside and outside
    of the building
  • especially important with cracks and other
    openings in wall

64
Movement of Air Into / Out of Homes
  • Infiltration
  • Temperature induced (stack effect)
  • driven by air movement through holes in floors,
    ceilings
  • in winter, warm air in a building wants to rise,
    exits through cracks in ceiling and draws in

65
Movement of Air Into / Out of Homes
  • Natural ventilation
  • air exchange that occurs when windows or doors
    are opened to increase air circulation
  • Forced ventilation
  • mechanical air handling systems used to induce
    air exchange using fans and blowers
  • Trade-offs
  • cut infiltration to decrease heating and cooling
    costs vs. indoor air quality problems

66
Movement of Air Into / Out of Homes
  • Infiltration rates
  • Influenced by
  • how fast wind is blowing, pressure differentials
  • temperature differential between inside and
    outside of house
  • location of leaks in building envelope

67
Air Pollution Prevention
68
Specific Air Pollution Treatment Technology
  • Traditional
  • Move factory to remote location
  • Build taller smokestack so wind blows pollution
    elsewhere
  • New
  • Biofiltration vapors pumped through soil where
    microbes degrade
  • High-energy destruction high-voltage electricity
  • Membrane separation diffusion of organic vapors
    through membrane
  • Oxidation High temperature combustor

69
Absorption
70
Adsorption
71
Combustion
72
Cyclone
73
Filtration
74
Electrostatic Precipitator
75
Liquid Scrubber
76
Sulfur Dioxide Control
http//www.apt.lanl.gov/projects/cctc/factsheets/p
uair/adflugasdemo.html
77
Air Pollution Results
78
(No Transcript)
79
Comparison of 1970 and 1999 Emissions
80
(No Transcript)
81
(No Transcript)
82
(No Transcript)
83
Number of People Living in Counties with Air
Quality Concentrations Above the Level of the
National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) in
1999
84
Trends in Sulfur Dioxide Emissions Following
Implementation of Phase I of the Acid Rain
Program Total State-level Utility SO2 (1980,
1990, 1999)
85
FiftyYearsofAirPollution
Figures are in millions of metric tons per year
86
MobileSourcesThe LastTen Years
VOCs CO NOx PM10 SOx Lead
-3
-8
-10
-24
-29
  • Percent reductions shown are based on estimates
    of tons/year from mobile sources over the 1981 -
    1990 time period

-85
87
Who isAffected byAir Pollution?
63
Over 74 million people are subjected to high
levels of at least one of these pollutants
22
19
9
5
1
Ozone CO NO2 PM10 SO2 Lead
  • Millions of people living in counties with air
    quality that exceeds each NAAQS (1990 data)

88
Milestonesin theControlofAutomotiveEmissions
  • 1952 - Autos linked to air pollution
  • 1963 - Original CAA, PCV valves
  • 1968 - HC CO exhaust controls
  • 1970 - CAA amendments, EPA formed
  • 1971 - Evaporative controls
  • 1972 - First I/M Program
  • 1973 - NOx exhaust controls
  • 1975 - First catalytic converters
  • 1981 - New cars meet statutory limits
  • 1989 - Volatility limits on gasoline
  • 1990 - New CAA Amendments

89
  • 1987 Montreal Protocol CFC emissions should be
    reduced by 50 by the year 2000 (they had been
    increasing 3 per year.)
  • 1990 London amendments production of CFCs,
    CCl4, and halons should cease entirely by 2000.
  • 1992 Copenhagen agreements phase-out
    accelerated to 1996.

90
Goals of Kyoto Protocol
  • Reduction of greenhouse gases to below 1990
    levels
  • 5.2 world wide reduction on average by
    2008-2012
  • 6 for Canada by 2008-2012
  • When sufficient countries ratify the Protocol (at
    least 55 countries comprising at least 55 of
    emissions), Protocol comes into effect
  • USA - 25 of emissions

91
Kyoto Emissions Agreement
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