Chemical%20and%20physical%20hazards%20in%20food - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Chemical%20and%20physical%20hazards%20in%20food

Description:

Title: Slide 1 Author: Admin Last modified by: quanghuy Created Date: 8/12/2013 6:57:21 AM Document presentation format: Custom Company: Microsoft Other titles – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:51
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 39
Provided by: Admi2635
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Chemical%20and%20physical%20hazards%20in%20food


1
Chemical and physical hazards in food
FS0401 1
2000
2
Perception of chemical hazards in food
FS0401 2
2000
3
Where chemical hazards arise in the food supply
Vehicle
emission
Crops
Processing
Agricultural
practices
Livestock Retail
Cooking
Landfills
Storage
Seafood
Industrial emissions and effluents
Distribution
FS0401 3 2000
4
Chemical hazards in food
- industrial and environmental contaminants
- biologically derived contaminants -
contaminants produced during processing
- improperly used agrochemicals - improperly
used additives
FS0401 4
2000
5
Contaminants of industrial and environmental
origin
Chemical
Associated food
Main source
Fish, animal fat Fish, animal fat Fish
Transformers By-product Chlor - alkali
PCBs
Dioxins Mercury Lead
Canned food, acidic foods, drinking water
Vehicle emission, smelting, paint, glazes,
solder
Grains, molluscs Fish, mushrooms
Sludge, smelting Accidental release Fertilizers

Cadmium
Radionuclides
Vegetables, drinking water
Nitrate / nitrite
FS0401 5 2000
6
Inherent plant food toxicants
Chemical
Associated Food
oxalates
rhubarb, tea, cocoa, spinach, beet
glycoalkaloids
green potato
cyanoglycosides
lima bean, cassava
phytohaemagglutinin red kidney beans and other
beans
various carcinogens spices and herbs
FS0401 6
2000
7
Mycotoxins
Chemical
Source
Associated Food
Aflatoxins
Aspergillus flavus and
corn, peanuts, tree nuts, milk
A. parasiticus
Trichothecenes
Mainly Fusarium
cereals and other foods
Ochratoxin A
Penicillium verrucosum
wheat, barley, corn
A. ochraceus
Ergot alkaloids Fumonisins
Claviceps purpurea Fusarium moniliforme
rye, barley, wheat corn
apples, pears cereals, oil, starch
Patulin
P. expansum
Zearalenone
Fusarium spp
FS0401 7 2000
8
Temperature range for growth of toxigenic
moulds
Aspergillus
Penicillium
Minimum
Optimum
Maximum
FS0401 8
2000
9
Minimum water activity for growth of toxigenic
moulds
Minimum Water Activity
Mould
Aspergillus ochraceus
0.78
Penicillium verrucosum
0.79
Aspergillus flavus
0.80
Fusarium moniliforme
0.87
Stachybotrys atra
0.94
FS0401 9
2000
10
Target organs of some mycotoxins
Mycotoxin
Target
Aflatoxin
liver
Ochratoxin A Trichothecenes Ergot alkaloids
kidney mucosa
peripheral vascular system
Zearalenone
uro-genital tract
FS0401 10 2000
11
Contaminants of biological origin
F
S0401 11
1999
12
Regulatory limits
for mycotoxins in foods
Mycotoxin
Limit (µg/kg)
Commodities
No. of Countries
Aflatoxins BG
0 - 50
corn, peanuts, other foods
48
animal feeds milk, dairy
0 - 1000
21
Aflatoxin M1 Ochratoxin A
0.05 - 1.0
17
1 - 300
rice, corn,
6
barley, beans, pork kidney
Deoxynivalenol Patulin
1000 - 4000
wheat
5
apple juice all foods
20 - 50
10
Zearalenone
30 - 1000
4
FS0401 12 2000
13
Risk assessment
for mycotoxin in foods
Mycotoxin
JECFA Benchmark
Aflatoxin B1
0.01 - 3 cancers per year per 100.000 people
per µg of aflatoxin B1 per kg bw/day
0.4 µg/kg bw/day
Patulin
0.1 µg/kg bw/day
Ochratoxin A
FS0401 13 2000
14
Regulatory limits for aflatoxins
in some Asian and Pacific countries
Country
Limit (µ/kg)
Commodity
Australia/New Zealand China
peanuts
15 (T) 5 (T)
other foods maize, peanut all
20 (B1)
30 (B1)
India Japan
rice
10 (B1)
other grains all
5 (B1)
35 (T)
Malaysia Philippines
coconuts, peanut products (export) all
20 (B1)
Absence (B1)
Singapore Sri Lanka Thailand
all all
30 (T)
20 (T)
B1 Aflatoxin B1
Limit of detection is around 10 mg/kg
T Total Aflatoxins
FS0401 14 2000
15
Other toxicants of biological origin
Toxicant
Source
Associated food
Ciguatera
dinoflagellates
tropical Fish
Shellfish toxins dinoflagellates
shellfish
paralytic neurotoxic diarrhoeic amnesic
cereals, honey fish, cheese
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids various toxic plants
Histamine spoilage bacteria
FS0401 15 2000
16
Contaminants produced during processing
- polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons -
heterocyclic amines, nitropyrenes -
nitrosamines
- ethyl carbamate (urethane) - chloropropanols

FS0401 16
2000
17
Improperly used agrochemicals
Insecticides
organochlorine insecticides
organophosphorus insecticides
carbamate insecticides
Animal Drugs
antimicrobials
growth promotants
anthelminthics
therapeutics
fumigants
fungicides
herbicides
fertilizers
plant growth regulators
rodenticides
nematocides
molluscicides
FS0401 17
2000
18
Food additives
anti-caking agents
release agents
antimicrobial agents
non-nutritive sweeteners
antioxidants
nutrient supplements
colours
nutritive sweeteners
curing and pickling agents
oxidising and reducing agents
emulsifiers
pH control agents
enzymes
propellants and gases
firming agents
sequestrants
flavour enhancers
solvents and vehicles
flavouring agents
stabilisers and thickeners
humectants
surface-active agents
leavening agents
texturizers
FS0401 18
2000
19
Other potential hazards
processing Aids
ion-exchange resins, filter aids enzyme
preparations
microorganisms
solvents, lubricants, release agents specific
function additives
food Contact Materials
utensils
working surfaces equipment
packaging Materials cleaning Agents
metal, plastic, paper, wood, etc.
detergents sanitisers
FS0401 19 2000
20
Improperly used additives
Adulterants
- borax
- boric acid
- formaldehyde - water
- unapproved colouring agents
FS0401 20
2000
21
Improper use of food additives
Illegal use in Indonesia
Pom Aceh - 2734 sauce bottles - Rhodamine B Red
drinks containing Rhodamine-B
Bogor
15
Djakarta
8
Rankasbitung
17
Pacet
17
Cikampek
24
Semarang
55 red drinks contained Rhodamine-B
31 food samples contained Rhodamine-B,
Methanyl yellow or orange-RN
FS0401 21
2000
22
Risk analysis of chemicals in foods
Risk
Characterisation
Hazard
Socio-economic/
Characterisation
Political
Assessment
End-point
Dose response
Risk-Benefit
Cost-Benefit
Risk
Hazard
Exposure
Communication
Identification
Assessment
Options
Regulatory
Level in food
Voluntary
Dietary intake
Non-intervention
Risk
Risk Management
Assessment
Monitoring and Evaluation
FS0401 22 2000
23
Monitoring points for chemical hazards
- point source
- environmental compartments - primary
production
- import / export
- production and processing
- wholesale outlets and markets -
biomonitoring
FS0401 23
2000
24
Criteria for establishing priorities
- severity of potential effects on health -
levels in individual foods and the diet - size
and susceptibility of the exposed
population
- significance in domestic and international
trade - nature and cost of management options
FS0401 24
2000
25
Chemical hazards in the home
- metal cookware contaminated with heavy metals
- ceramic or enamelled serving dishes with toxic
glazes
- leaded crystal used with acid foods - copper
pans and utensils
- miscellaneous home-use chemicals
FS0401 25
2000
26
Chemical hazards in food
Disease
and
Death
Exposure
FS0401 26
2000
27
Potential physical hazards
- glass
- slime or scum - metal
- bone - plastic
- stones and rocks
- capsules or crystals - pits or shell
- wood
- paper
- human and animal hair
FS0401 27
2000
28
Potential physical hazards
Distribution of complaints
of foreign objects in food
soft drinks
19
infant foods
16
bakery
14
chocolate and cocoa products
7
fruits
7
cereals
5
vegetables
4
fish
3
others
25
FS0401 28
2000
29
Potential physical hazards
Possible control meas-res
- vis-al inspection
- filters or sieves - metal detectors -
magnets
- separation by density
- personnel precautions (hair net, gloves)
FS0401 29
2000
30
Effect of thermal processing on nutrients
Vitamin B
Vitamin A
group Vitamin C Vitamin E
Freezing
-
M
M
-
Pasteurisation
L
L
M
L
Boiling
L
M to H
H
L
Microwaving
-
L
L
-
Baking/Roasting
L
L to M
M
L
Ultra High temperature
L
L
M
L
(UHT)
Canning
M
M to H
H
M
Comprises a number of water soluble, low
molecular weight compounds and includes Thiamine
(B1),
Riboflavin (B2), Niacin, Folate, B 6 and B12.
FS0401 30
2000
31
Effect of food processes on nutrients
Vitamin B
group Vitamin C Vitamin E M to H - -
Vitamin A
-
Milling
M L
L to M H M
Air drying
Freeze drying Salting
L M L
-
L L -
-
- - -
Aw reduction by sugars Fermentation
-
L L -
M -
- L -
Acid pH
(i.e. lt4.6)
- -
H
Additives
e.g. B1 - Thiamine
(e.g. sulphite)
-
L
-
L to M
Irradiation
Comprises a number of water soluble, low
molecular weight compounds and includes Thiamine
(B1),
Riboflavin (B2), Niacin, Folate, B 6 and B12.
FS0401 31
2000
32
Mineral loss during food processing
Loss may be due to - Physical removal
- Leaching into cooking water - Shrinkage
during cooking
FS0401 32
2000
33
Factors affecting mineral availability
Processes which may affect mineral availability
- Reducing or removing ingredients which inhibit
mineral absorption
- Fermentation and germination
- Heating (increases availability of some
minerals, decreases availability of others
- Addition of phosphates
FS0401 33
2000
34
Macronutrients
- Relatively stable to food processing
- Certain treatments physically remove
macronutrients from the food (e.g. milling)
- Heat treatments can denature proteins, or
cause fats to oxidise and degrade
- Certain treatments increase carbohydrate
levels (e.g. adding sugar as a preservative)
FS0401 34
2000
35
Effect of nutrient loss on diet
- If a food is a principal source of a particular
nutrient, it is important to minimise the
loss of this nutrient
- Processed foods sometimes retain more
nutrients than fresh foods
- Strategies to minimise overall nutrient
loss must look at each processing stage
FS0401 35
2000
36
Minimising nutrient losses
To reduce nutrient loss
- Reduce water in cooking
- Minimise the time between harvest and eating

- Ensure optimum storage
FS0401 36
2000
37
Free radicals and chronic disease
Free radicals cause oxidative stress
Increasing evidence that free radicals may be
responsible for and related to
- diabetes mellitus
- cardiovascular disease - atherosclerosis
- tropical diseases
FS0401 37
2000
38
Counteracting oxidative stress
Oxidative stress is counteracted by -
antioxidative enzymes
- non-enzymic antioxidants
(e.g. vitamins A, C, E and beta carotene)
FS0401 38
2000
About PowerShow.com