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Global Climate Change and Plant Diseases

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Title: Global Climate Change and Plant Diseases


1
Chapter 5
  • Global Climate Change and Plant Diseases

2
??????????
  •  2007?????????????????????????????????????????200
    7??????????,?????????21???,????????????,???????
    ???1.1?6.4?,???????0.180.59????,?????????????????
    ?????,????(??????)????????????????????????????????
    ???,????????????????????????,?????????????????????
    ????

3
  • ??2005?9??????????????????,???2005?9?21????????530
    .95?????,?????????????????????,???????????????????
    ?

4
??????????
  • ????????,??100?(1906??2005?)??????????0.74???,20??
    ?????1000?????100?,2005????????????379ppm(????????
    ???),?65????????

5
??????????
  • ??????,????????????????????????????
  • ?????GALVmed???????????,?????????????????????????
    ???,??????????????????????????????????????????

6
??????????
  • ?????????????????????????,???????????,????????,??
    ?????,??????,????????????????????????????????????,
    ??????????????????,???????????,??????????????????
    ???????????????????????????

7
  • ???2006?9?20???????,??????????????????????????????
    ?????????,?????????????????????????????

8
  • ????????????????????????,?????????,???????????????
    ?

9
  • 2006?12?,?????????????,???????????????????????,???
    ????,??????????????????????????????????

10
????????????????"??"
  •  ???????????????????????????????,??????????????
    ?????????????,??????????,????????????????????,???
    ?????????????,??????????????????

11
  • 1. Introduction .
  • 1.1 Pests and crop losses
  • 1.2 New diseases
  • 2. Impacts of global warming on pests .
  • 2.1 Northward expansion of the pests in USA
  • 2.2 Case studies in USA .
  • 2.2.1 Soybean Sudden Death Syndrome (SDS)
  • 2.2.2 Soybean aerial blight
  • 2.2.3 Corn gray leaf spot
  • 2.2.4 Soybean Cyst Nematodes (SCN) .
  • 2.3 Influence on number of generations of
    pests .
  • 3. Extreme weather and pest outbreak .
  • 3.1 Flood and pest outbreak .
  • 3.2 Drought and pest outbreak .
  • 3.3 Warmer winter and pest outbreak ..
  • 3.4 Weather and pest spread .
  • 4. El Nino and pest outbreak .
  • 4.1 viral diseases ...
  • 4.2 Rusts

12
C02????????
  • 20??80???90???,??????(Global warming)??????,??????
    ????CO2???????????????????????,???????????????????
    ?????????CO2??????????????,??,??CO2???????????????

13
  • CO2?????????????
  • CO2????1800?????30(Barron, 1995),CO2?????????????
    0.5?????CO2??????1,?20???,?????????1-3.5?(Kerr,
    1995)?

14
  • ????,?????,???????(Barron,1995)?
  • C02????????????????????????????(Goudriam
    and Zadoks, 1995)
  • ?????????,???????????????????????????(Idso,
    1994).
  • ??????????????????????,????CO2????????????????????
    ????????

15
  • ????CO2???????????????????????
  • CO2?????,?????????????????,?????????(Manning,
    1995)

16
?????????
  • ???????????
  • ????(CO2)???????????????
  • ??????????????????????????????????????????????
    ?????????(Parry, 1992)
  • ?????????????????????????,????????????????
  • ????????????????,?????????????????????????(Boay,
    1991)

17
??????B-???????
  • ??
  • ?????????30????17-40,??????????(Hough, 1990)
  • ???????,????????????B?????(Lubin, 1995)
  • ????????????????????????????????B??????????
  • ???????????(????)
  • ???B??????????(??)

18
?1
  • ????????(Septoria tritici)?????????(S.nodorum)????
    ??????B?????,S.nodorum?S. tritici??????(Paul,et
    al 1995) ?

19
?2
  • ????(UV-B)????????(Finckh, Chavez, Dai, and Teng,
    1995)?

20
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21
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22
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23
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24
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25
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26
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27
?????????????????? (Yang and Scherm 1997)
28
???????????????
  • ?????????,????????????,??????????????????????

Iowa State
29
  • ??????????????????????

30
?????????????????????
  • Yang, X.B., and Scherm, H. 1997. El Niño and
    infectious diseases. Science 275739-740.
  • Rosenzeig, Iglesian, Yang, Epstein, Chivian,
    2002. Climate change and extreme weather events
    implication for food production and plant
    diseases and pests. GCHH 290-103
  • (Chivian shared 1985 Nobel Peace Prize. Results
    were presented at US Capital Hill)

31
  • ???????????????

Statistical patterns of disease distribution in
continental scale Yang and Feng, 2001,
Phytopathology 91765-769.
32
Y -3760 143X , R 0.62
??????????????????
??Rapoport??
33
  • ???????

?????????????????????? Yang and Feng, 2001,
Phytopathology 91765-769.
34
????????????
  • ??????????????????????????????????????,??????,????
    ????????????????????
  • 1)?????????(?2)(???,??,2001)
  • 2)???????????????(Workneh and Yang)(?3)???,???????
    ?????????????????,????????????,?????????????,?????
    ????????????????????????,??????????????????????,??
    ????????????????

35
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36
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37
??????????
  • ????????,?????????????????(???,1964),????????????,
    ????????????????(???,??,2001)????????????????????,
    ???????????????????(??4)???????????????,??????????
    ?????,???????????????,????????????????????????,???
    ????,??????????????????????????????????????4
    ????????????????

38
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39
  • ?????????,??????????????,????????????????????????,
    ??????????????????,???????????????,???GIS?????????
    ??,???????1970????????????????1970???,????????????
    ??1970?(Rosenweig?,2000)????????????????
  • ????????????????,???????????,????????????,????????
    ?????????????
  • ???????????????,?????????????????????,????????????
    ,??????????????????

40
?????
  • ?????????????????????????,?????????????
  • ??????????????,???????????????????
  • ???????????????????,????????

41
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42
Reference
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