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Ecology

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Ecology Human limits? World Resources Renewable Nonrenewable Renewable Resources A resource that can be continually reproduced Capable of being replaced by ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ecology


1
Ecology
2
Keep this in mind
3
In California
  • LOS ANGELES, Oct. 31 A 10-year-old boy admitted
    that he accidentally started one of the largest
    of last weeks Southern California wildfires
    while playing with matches, enforcement officials
    say.
  • Fanned by high winds and hot, dry weather, it
    spread quickly, driving 15,000 people from their
    homes, destroying 21 houses and 22 other
    buildings, injuring three people and blackening
    more than 38,000 acres

4
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5
In Iceland
  • Volcano in Iceland erupted twice in one month.
    The volcano has erupted for the second time in
    less than a month, melting ice, shooting smoke
    and steam into the air and forcing hundreds of
    people to flee rising floodwaters. The volcanic
    ash has forced the cancellation of many flights
    and disrupted air traffic across.

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9
SUCCESSION
  • What happens to an area after a disturbance?
  • A predictable set of stages begins to change the
    area
  • The changes are plant based referred to as
    ecological succession.
  • What does it mean if you call someone a
    successor?
  • EXAMPLE The prince is the kings successor.

10
Ecological Succession
  • Natural, gradual changes in the types of plant
    species that occupy an area
  • You have studied pond succession!

11
Primary Succession
  • occurs on an area of newly exposed rock, sand,
    lava or any area that has not been occupied
    previously by a living (biotic) community

12
Secondary Succession
  • takes place where a community has been removed,
    i.e. a plowed field, clearcut forest, forest
    fire

13
  • Complete the Succession WS
  • What is a pioneer species?
  • What is a climax community?

14
Do Now
  • What type of succession would occur on this land?
  • If a fire occurred 100 years into succession of
    this land what type of succession would occur?
  • HAND IN!

15
Population
  • Populations are dynamic!
  • 3 important characteristics of populations
    geographic distribution, density and growth rate

16
What is density?
  • 1. 2.
  • 3. 4.

17
Nutrients can limit plant growth
  • Plant life grows best when all nutrients are
    present
  • Not present?
  • Limited nutrient
  • Animals have limiting factors that affect growth
    as well
  • Density-dependent factors
  • Density-independent factors

18
Factors that influence density
  • Other Limiting Factors
  • environmental influences that prevent species
    from obtaining a high population generally
    populations decrease in size
  • Two categories
  • Density-dependent limited factors
  • Density-independent limited factors

19
Density-dependent factor
  • Density-dependent factors- affects populations
    due to their size
  • Example- predation

20
Density-independent factors
  • Density-independent factors- affects all
    populations in similar ways, regardless of
    population size
  • Example- hurricane

21
Density-dependent or density-independent?
  • Competition
  • Earthquake
  • Flood
  • Parasitism
  • Disease
  • Seasonal cycles
  • Available mates

22
Do Now
  • Define population density.
  • Label each factor as d.dependent or
    d.independent
  • Territory (available space)
  • Food
  • tornado

23
Population Growth
  • Three factors affect population size
  • Number of births
  • Number of deaths
  • Number of individuals that enter or leave the
    population
  • Immigration movement of individuals into an area
  • Emigration movement of individuals out of a
    population

24
Population
  • Exponential Growth (J-shaped graph)
  • Logistic Growth (S-shaped graph)

25
Exponential Growth
  • Under ideal conditions with unlimited resources,
    a population will grow
  • Industrial revolution 1820-1870
  • Current population 6 billion

26
Exponential growth faces problems
  • Exponential growth does not continue in natural
    populations for very long
  • As resources become less available, the growth of
    a population slows or stops

27
Logistic Growth
  • Acceleration, high growth period, deceleration,
    fairly steady state

28
Carrying capacity
  • the number of individuals who can be supported in
    a given area within natural resource limits
  • Carrying capacity- K

29
Carrying capacity

30
Patterns of Population Growth
  • Human population cannot keep growing
    exponentially forever because Earth and its
    resources are limited
  • Study of human population is demography
  • Birthrate, death rates and the age structure of a
    population help predict population increases and
    decreases of countries
  • Age-structured diagrams

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32
Population pyramid
  • Birth vs death rate within a population

33
US population pyramid
34
Human limits?

35
World Resources
  • Renewable
  • Nonrenewable

36
Renewable Resources
  • A resource that can be continually reproduced
  • Capable of being replaced by- natural
    ecological cycles or- sound management practices
  • humans need to think of "renewable"
    asreplenishable only in the right
    circumstancesand within the laws of the balance
    of nature

37
Do NOT Think
  • "Oh well, it's renewable so we can use as much as
    we want"
  • "It's OK to log these forests- trees grow back
  • "Industries can pull all the water they want from
    the Great Lakes, without limitation.  After all,
    water is a renewable resource, like air."

38
  • Renewable" resources become non-renewable due to
    mis-management by humans and pollution of the
    environment by humans.
  • What are examples of renewable resources?
  • trees, wildlife, oxygen, and fresh water

39
Nonrenewable Resources
  • A resource that cannot reproduce
  • Once the resource is used up- it is gone
  • Humans are using up natural resources at a great
    rateand at a great cost to the health of the
    natural environmentand life on Earth.
  • What do humans use A LOT of? (think carbon cycle)

40
Nonrenewable Resources
  • Fossil fuels- oil, natural gas, coal
  • How do they form?
  • How long does it take for these resources to form?

41
The world at night from space
42
Human Impact
  • Acid Rain
  • What it is, where does it come from and what
    damage can it cause?

43
What is acid rain?
  • Acid rain is rain that is lower on the pH scale
    than normal rain water
  • Acid rain carries the chemicals sulphur dioxide
    and nitrogen oxide
  • pH may vary 5.5 to 3.0 (normal water is 7-5.6)
  • (ocean water 7-8)

44
Acid rain cycle
45
Damage from acid rain
  • Lakes and streams are normally acidic, acid rain
    can make them so acidic that it damages animal
    and plant life.
  • Acid rain can cause a mass killing to trees.
  • Area's can become very hazy and foggy due to acid
    rain
  • linked to breathing and lung problems in
    children, and people who have asthma.
  • Stone buildings and monuments are targets of
    damage from acid rain.

46
Damage of acid rain
  • Acid "rain" isn't just rain acid snow, acid fog
    or mist, acid gas, and acid dust all have the
    same effect as acid rain.

47
So much pollution!!! (dont write, just read)
  • 40 of Americas rivers and 46 of Americas
    lakes are too polluted for fishing, swimming, or
    aquatic life
  • 1.2 trillion gallons of untreated sewage, storm
    water, and industrial waste are discharged into
    US waters annually.
  • Polluted drinking waters are a problem for about
    half of the worlds population. Each year there
    are about 250 million cases of water-based
    diseases, resulting in roughly 5 to 10 million
    deaths.
  • Each year, U.S. factories spew 3 million tons of
    toxic chemicals into the air, land, and water.
  • Every year, one American produces over 3,285
    pounds of hazardous waste.
  • Seventy-three different kinds of pesticides have
    been found in groundwater, which is potential
    drinking water
  • Over 80 of items in landfills can be recycled,
    but theyre not.

48
What should be recycled?
  • NOT GUM!!!
  • Plastic bottles, cans, paper, card board

49
Pollution
50
Biomagnification
  • Humans use of DDT (Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroetha
    ne)
  • insecticide and pesticide (world-wide use)
  • 30 years prior to its cancellation, a total of
    approximately 1,350,000,000 pounds of DDT was
    used domestically
  • DDT is a persistent, toxic chemical which easily
    collects in the food chain posing a proven hazard
    to non-target organisms such as fish and wildlife
    and otherwise upsetting the natural ecological
    balance

51
Biomagnification
  • Prime example of a non-target animal that was
    hurt by the use of DDT
  • The bald eagle-

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53
What can be done to help?
  • Recycle
  • Turn off electronics
  • Take shorter showers
  • Educate yourself!
  • ALTERNATIVE ENERGY ?

54
Alternative Energy
  • The Alternative Energy Institute (AEI) was formed
    in 1977 at West Texas State University, Texas,
    USA
  • Consequences are minimal
  • renewable and are thought to be "free" energy
    sources
  • lower carbon emissions, compared to conventional
    energy sources

55
Alternative Energy
  • These include
  • Biomass Energy,
  • Wind Energy,
  • Solar Energy,
  • Geothermal Energy,
  • Hydroelectric Energy sources

56
Alternative energy
57
Human Impact
  • What is the differences and similiarities
    between
  • Ozone layer depletion
  • Greenhouse effect
  • Global warming

58
Ozone layer
  • Affects earths climate
  • Gas that occurs naturally
  • vital role by shielding
  • humans and other life
  • from harmful ultraviolet
  • light from the Sun

59
Ozone depletion
  • chemicals, such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and
    hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs)
  • Depleted protective layer
  • International agreement to limit emissions

60
Greenhouse effect
  • Affects earths climate, especially temperature
  • Positive and natural occurrence
  • Greenhouse gases such as water vapor, carbon
    dioxide, ozone and methane
  • Greenhouse gases slow down the rate at which heat
    is released back into space
  • Too much of these gases is a bad thing!

61
Greenhouse effect
62
Global warming
  • Affects the earths climate
  • Especially temperature! Not only in the air but
    on land
  • Overabundance of greenhouse gases? higher
    temperature
  • Burning of fossil fuel, deforestation
  • Possible effects of global warming
  • Melting ice? results in water level rising
  • Stronger hurricanes
  • Ice age
  • More drastic weather cycles
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