Principles of Ecology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: Principles of Ecology


1
Principles of Ecology
  • Chapters 3, 4, 5, 6

2
What is Ecology?
  • Ecology is the study of interactions between
    organisms and their environment.

3
Components of the Biosphere
  • Biosphere portion of the Earth supporting life
  • Within the biosphere you
  • have the following
  • factors
  • A. Biotic factors
  • All organisms inhabiting the environment
  • 2. The living things in the environment!
  • B. Abiotic factors
  • Nonliving parts of the environment
  • Can determine which species will survive
    examples rainfall, temperature, light, soil

Rain, Rain Go Away
4
C. Levels of Biological Organization
  • 1. Species a group of organisms that can breed
    and produce
  • fertile offspring!
  • 2. Populations
  • a. A group of organisms of the
  • same species living together
  • b. Must compete for resources

5
Levels of Biological Organization
  • 3. Community
  • Several populations that interact
  • Changes in one population will cause changes in
    the others
  • 4. Ecosystem
  • a. Interactions between populations and their
    surroundings
  • 2 main types
  • 1. Terrestrial land
    2. Aquatic fresh or salt water

6
D. Niche vs. Habitat
  • 1. Niche The role an organism plays in the
    environment (Its job in the
    community)
  • Habitat Place where an organism lives

Habitat of the earthworm SOIL Niche To
aerate (break-up) the soil.
7
Types of Feeding Relationships
  • Autotrophs a. Self-feeders,
    produce their own food
    b. Example plants, algae
  • Heterotrophs a. Depend on other
    organisms for food
    Herbivore eats only plants Carnivore eats
    only meat Omnivore eats both

8
  • Decomposers
  • a. Break down and absorb nutrients from dead
    organisms
  • b. Example mushrooms, bacteria

bacteria
fungus
mushroom
earthworms
9
4. Symbiosis - close, permanent relationship
between organisms a. Three major types 1.
Commensalism 2. Mutualism 3. Parasitism
2) Friend alga cell is prepared to greet Mr.
Fungus
1) Mr. Fungus is ready to greet our friend the
alga
3) The Lichen is created between the fungus and
the alga
10
1. Commensalism a. Relationship in which one
species benefits and the other is not
affected b. Example remoras that live
on/around a sharks mouth
Remora on a Ray
11
tickbirds
  • 2. Mutualism
  • a. Both species benefit b. Example tickbirds
    eat parasites off of a rhino
  • 3. Parasitism
  • a. One organism benefits and the other
    is harmed b. Example tapeworm
    living inside a persons intestine

oxpeckers
12
  • Energy pyramids show decreasing amounts of
    energy, biomass, and number of individuals as you
    move up the pyramid

There is no limit to the number of levels that a
food chain can support. Only 10 of the energy
from one level is transferred to organisms at the
next level. The remaining energy is released
into the environment as heat.
13
Food Chains and Food Webs
  • Food Chains
  • a. Model showing movement of energy
    through the ecosystem
  • b. Uses arrows to show what eats what

Food Chain
Grass ? Cow ? Human
14
  • Food Web
  • a. More complicated than a food chain
  • b. Shows more than one food source for each
    organism
  • c. More realistic view of energy transfer

15
Quiz 1
  • Your house is an example of a(n) ___.
  • a. biotic factor b. habitat
    c. niche
  • Trees, mosses and shrubs are all examples of what
    type of factor?
  • a. abiotic b. biotic c.
    commensalism
  • The study of interactions between organisms and
    their environments is called ?
  • a. botany b. cytology c.
    ecology
  • If you work at McDonalds, that is an example of
    your?
  • a. habitat b. niche c.
    community
  • A group of deer that live in a forest is an
    example of a?
  • a. biosphere b. community c.
    population
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Principles of Ecology

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Principles of Ecology Chapters 3, 4, 5, & 6 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Principles of Ecology


1
Principles of Ecology
  • Chapters 3, 4, 5, 6

2
What is Ecology?
  • Ecology is the study of interactions between
    organisms and their environment.

3
Components of the Biosphere
  • Biosphere portion of the Earth supporting life
  • Within the biosphere you
  • have the following
  • factors
  • A. Biotic factors
  • All organisms inhabiting the environment
  • 2. The living things in the environment!
  • B. Abiotic factors
  • Nonliving parts of the environment
  • Can determine which species will survive
    examples rainfall, temperature, light, soil

Rain, Rain Go Away
4
C. Levels of Biological Organization
  • 1. Species a group of organisms that can breed
    and produce
  • fertile offspring!
  • 2. Populations
  • a. A group of organisms of the
  • same species living together
  • b. Must compete for resources

5
Levels of Biological Organization
  • 3. Community
  • Several populations that interact
  • Changes in one population will cause changes in
    the others
  • 4. Ecosystem
  • a. Interactions between populations and their
    surroundings
  • 2 main types
  • 1. Terrestrial land
    2. Aquatic fresh or salt water

6
D. Niche vs. Habitat
  • 1. Niche The role an organism plays in the
    environment (Its job in the
    community)
  • Habitat Place where an organism lives

Habitat of the earthworm SOIL Niche To
aerate (break-up) the soil.
7
Types of Feeding Relationships
  • Autotrophs a. Self-feeders,
    produce their own food
    b. Example plants, algae
  • Heterotrophs a. Depend on other
    organisms for food
    Herbivore eats only plants Carnivore eats
    only meat Omnivore eats both

8
  • Decomposers
  • a. Break down and absorb nutrients from dead
    organisms
  • b. Example mushrooms, bacteria

bacteria
fungus
mushroom
earthworms
9
4. Symbiosis - close, permanent relationship
between organisms a. Three major types 1.
Commensalism 2. Mutualism 3. Parasitism
2) Friend alga cell is prepared to greet Mr.
Fungus
1) Mr. Fungus is ready to greet our friend the
alga
3) The Lichen is created between the fungus and
the alga
10
1. Commensalism a. Relationship in which one
species benefits and the other is not
affected b. Example remoras that live
on/around a sharks mouth
Remora on a Ray
11
tickbirds
  • 2. Mutualism
  • a. Both species benefit b. Example tickbirds
    eat parasites off of a rhino
  • 3. Parasitism
  • a. One organism benefits and the other
    is harmed b. Example tapeworm
    living inside a persons intestine

oxpeckers
12
  • Energy pyramids show decreasing amounts of
    energy, biomass, and number of individuals as you
    move up the pyramid

There is no limit to the number of levels that a
food chain can support. Only 10 of the energy
from one level is transferred to organisms at the
next level. The remaining energy is released
into the environment as heat.
13
Food Chains and Food Webs
  • Food Chains
  • a. Model showing movement of energy
    through the ecosystem
  • b. Uses arrows to show what eats what

Food Chain
Grass ? Cow ? Human
14
  • Food Web
  • a. More complicated than a food chain
  • b. Shows more than one food source for each
    organism
  • c. More realistic view of energy transfer

15
Quiz 1
  • Your house is an example of a(n) ___.
  • a. biotic factor b. habitat
    c. niche
  • Trees, mosses and shrubs are all examples of what
    type of factor?
  • a. abiotic b. biotic c.
    commensalism
  • The study of interactions between organisms and
    their environments is called ?
  • a. botany b. cytology c.
    ecology
  • If you work at McDonalds, that is an example of
    your?
  • a. habitat b. niche c.
    community
  • A group of deer that live in a forest is an
    example of a?
  • a. biosphere b. community c.
    population
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