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CarEcology: New Technological and Ecological Standards in Automotive Engineering Module 4. Green Fuels

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Title: CarEcology: New Technological and Ecological Standards in Automotive Engineering Module 4. Green Fuels


1
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering
Green Fuels The effects of ethanol on internal
combustion engines Merkouris
GogosTechnological Educational Institute of
ThessalonikiDepartment of Vehicles
Antwerp, October 2009
2
  • Green Fuels The effects of ethanol on internal
    combustion engines
  • Biofuels - Introduction
  • Bioethanol production
  • Ethanol use in petrol fuelled vehicles
  • Ethanol use in Diesel fuelled vehicles
  • Study on the effects of ethanol

CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
3
Green Fuels The effects of ethanol on internal
combustion engines Biofuels
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
4
Why Green Fuels ?
  • Crude oil reserves are rapidly diminishing
  • ? Crude oil prices increase
  • Greenhouse effect
  • enhancement due to human activity
  • ? GHG emissions
  • ? Deforestation

CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
5
The final countdown
Projected World Crude Oil Production
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
6
The end of cheap oil
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
7
Atmospheric CO2 increase
For 10000 years the concentration of CO2 in the
atmosphere was fixed at 280 ppm.
World Resources Institute, 2007
Since the industrial revolution, CO2 increased by
36. Between 2000 and 2007, atmospheric CO2
concentration grew by an average of 2 ppm per
year.
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
8
The greenhouse effect
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
9
The enhanced greenhouse effect
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
10
The Carbon Cycle
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
11
Land-Use Change
UNFCCC, 2008
Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for Brazil in CO2
equivalent
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
12
Green Fuels The effects of ethanol on internal
combustion engines Bioethanol Production
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
13
Bioethanol Production Paths
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
14
Bioethanol Production Paths
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
15
Ethanol production process
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
16
Energy Balance of Ethanol
1/2
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
17
Energy Balance of Ethanol
2/2
Macedo et al., 2004, USDA, 2001, 2002 DTI 2003
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
18
Production cost (2006)
Worldwatch Institute, 2006
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
19
Bioethanol GHG emissions
Reduction in GHG emissions compared to petrol
The percent change in GHGs for corn ethanol can
range from 54 decrease for a biomass-fired dry
mill plant to a 4 increase for a
coal-fired wet mill plant (EPA, 2007)
Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Sugarcane ethanol
U.S. DoE, 2007
Cellulosic ethanol
Fuel
Corn ethanol
Petrol
Fossil fuels
Current Average
Natural Gas
Biomass
Biomass
Biomass
Energy used
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
20
Bioethanol production 2007
F.O.Licht, 2008
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
21
Bio-fuels consumption in EU in 2007
Other
Bioethanol
Biodiesel
EurObservER, 2008
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
22
Bioethanol production in EU in 2008
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
23
2003/30/EC Directive
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
24
Bioethanol production in Europe
Strube-Dieckman, 2007
Feedstock shares
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
25
Green Fuels The effects of ethanol on internal
combustion engines Ethanol use in petrol fuelled
vehicles
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
26
Ethanol is not a new idea!
1826 Samuel Morey 1860 Nicholas Otto 1896 Henry
Ford Quadricycle 1908 Ford Model T 1920s Petrol
is the fuel of choice 1945 End of WWII 1973 Oil
Crisis 1975 Brazil Proalcohol programme 2003 EU
Directive 2003/30 promotes the use of Bio-Fuels
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
27
Properties
Property Comment Vapour density Ethanol
vapour, like petrol vapour, is denser than
air and tends to settle in low areas.
However, ethanol vapour disperses rapidly. Water
Solubility Fuel ethanol will mix with water,
but at high enough concentrations of
water, ethanol will separate from
petrol. Flame visibility The flame of
ethanol/petrol blends is less bright than
the flame of petrol flame but it is visible in
the daylight.
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
28
Properties
Property Comment Specific gravity Pure
ethanol and ethanol/petrol blends are
heavier than petrol. Toxicity Ethanol is
less toxic than petrol or methanol.
Carcinogenic compounds are not present in pure
ethanol however, because petrol is used in
the blend, E85 is considered potentially
carcinogenic.
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
29
Ethanol properties effecting IC engines
  • oxygen content
  • octane rating
  • energy density (heating value)
  • water solubility
  • latent heat of vaporization
  • ratio of product gases to reactants
  • blending with petrol
  • volatility
  • flame temperature and laminar flame speed
  • materials compatibility

CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
30
Oxygen content
1/2
Alcohols, unlike petroleum-based products,
contain a significant amount of oxygen as a basic
component in their molecular structure
Ethanol C2H5OH
Composition by weight Composition by weight Composition by weight Composition by weight
Ethanol Petrol Diesel
Carbon 52.2 85-88 84-87
Hydrogen 13.1 12-15 13-16
Oxygen 34.7 0 0
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
31
Oxygen content
2/2
  • allows leaner fuel/air ratios
  • more complete combustion
  • (less CO emissions)

C2H5OH 3 O2 ? 3 H2O 2 CO2
Stoichiometric A/F ratios Stoichiometric A/F ratios Stoichiometric A/F ratios Stoichiometric A/F ratios
Petrol Diesel Ethanol E85
14.7 14.6 9.0 9.7
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
32
Octane rating
1/2
  • Higher than petrol ? reduces engine knock
  • Allows higher compression rates ? engine power
    increases

CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
33
Octane rating
2/2
Base petrol octane increase with ethanol blending
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
34
Energy density
1/2
  • lower energy density than petrol
  • Ethanol 26750 kJ/kg
  • Petrol 43000 kJ/kg
  • contains about 35 less energy
  • fewer km per litre
  • need for larger fuel tanks
  • or more frequent refuelling

CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
35
Energy density
2/2
For blends with ethanol concentration up to 60
the energy losses (20) can be compensated by
engine improvements
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
36
Water solubility
1/4
  • low molecular mass
  • Ethanol 46.07 g
  • Petrol 100-105 g
  • Diesel 200 g approx.
  • 100 soluble in water
  • highly polar compound
  • If a small amount of water is present
  • in an ethanol/petrol blend,
  • the phases of the liquids are separated

C2H5OH
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
37
Water solubility
2/4
Phase separation in an underground tank
Tanknology, Inc.
???ast???? ?.?.?. ?? S??d??, ???µß???? 2008
38
Water solubility
3/4
  • Blend
  • 30 Alcohol
  • 65 Petrol
  • 5 Water
  • At temperatures
  • below 20 ºC
  • phase separation
  • is observed

For smaller fractions of ethanol, much smaller
quantities of water are required to cause phase
separation
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
39
Water solubility
4/4
Less than a teaspoon (5ml) per litre
15 ºC
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
40
Implications of phase separation
Phase separation of blends can lead to fuel line
freezing or poor drivability. In flexible fuel
vehicles (FFVs), the presence of water in the
fuel mixture can cause the optical fuel sensor to
malfunction, which could lead to drivability
problems. This problem can be effectively
controlled by the use of chemical additives.
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
41
Latent heat of vaporization
  • much higher than petrol
  • Ethanol 842-930 kJ/kg
  • Petrol 330-400 kJ/kg
  • increases engine power
  • increases the efficiency of the engine
  • cold start problems

CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
42
Ratio of product gases to reactants
  • higher than petrol H/C ratio
  • Ethanol 0.25 w/w
  • Petrol 0.15 w/w
  • ethanol produces a greater volume of gases per
    energy unit combusted
  • higher mean cylinder pressures
  • produces about 7 more work (Bailey, 1996)

CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
43
Blending with petrol
Volume expansion for ethanol-petrol blends The
output volume is greater than the sum of the
volumes of the two liquids
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
44
Volatility
Ethanol RVP15-17 kPa Petrol RVP50-100
kPa Blends with low ethanol percentage have
higher volatility than petrol! Environmental
impacts
Furey, 1985
Effect of ethanol concentration on Reid vapour
pressure
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
45
Volatility of ethanol/petrol blends
  • High volatility values contribute to the
    formation of too much vapour which can cause a
    decrease in fuel flow to the engine
  • The symptoms can be loss of power or even the
    engine stopping

CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
46
Flame temperature
  • slightly lower than petrol
  • Ethanol 1930 ºC
  • Petrol 1977 ºC
  • higher thermal efficiency
  • (reduced heat losses from the engine)
  • lower NOx emissions

CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
47
Laminar flame speed
Brusstar Bakenhus, 2005
The laminar flame speed of ethanol is higher than
petrol for any Fuel-Air Equivalence ratio
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
48
Performance (of optimized ethanol engines)
  • Higher fuel and tank weight
  • 1 loss of the transport efficiency
  • Greater volume of combustion gas products
  • 7 gain compared with petrol,
  • 1 compared with Diesel fuel
  • Higher octane rating
  • 6 to 10 gain against petrol
  • no difference against Diesel.

CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
49
Performance
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
50
Performance
Brake torque and brake power
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
51
Performance
Fuel consumption
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
52
Performance
Drivability
  • cold start problems
  • due to the higher vaporization energy of the
    blends
  • hot start problems
  • due to vapour locking conditions caused by the
    increased volatility of ethanol blends
  • under normal temperature conditions
  • these drawbacks do not occur

CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
53
Performance of ethanol blends
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
54
Important design parameters
  • compression ratio
  • increasing CR increases fuel economy
  • tendency to knock higher NOx emissions
  • combustion chamber design
  • centrally located spark plug, 4-5 valves,
  • high turbulence swirl etc.
  • valve timing
  • higher valve overlap (performance at high
    speeds)
  • smaller valve overlap (lower emissions at idle)
  • fuel management
  • fuel injection has shown favorable results over
    carburetion when used in an alcohol burning
    engine

CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
55
Key operating parameters
  • equivalence ratio (1/?)
  • lower equivalence ratio (lean burn conditions)
  • better thermal efficiency
  • lower HC CO emissions
  • higher NOx emissions
  • spark advance
  • the influence of ignition timing on fuel
    consumption
  • is opposite to the influence on pollutant
    emissions
  • exhaust gas recirculation
  • increasing amount of EGR decreases NOx emissions
  • but increases HC emissions and fuel consumption

CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
56
Performance
Petrol E85
Power bhp 150 180
Torque Nm 240 280
0-100 km/h s 9.8 8.5
80-120 km/h 5th gear s 14.9 12.6
Saab 9-5 2.0lt BioPower
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
57
Exhaust emissions
  • Regulated emissions
  • CO
  • HC
  • NOx

? ? ?? (depends on the ethanol concentration)
  • Greenhouse Gas
  • CO2

?
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
58
Exhaust emissions
  • Unregulated emissions
  • methanol ethanol
  • formaldehyde
  • acetaldehyde
  • methyl ethyl nitrite
  • benzene
  • toluene
  • particulate matter

? ? ? ? ? ? ?
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
59
Exhaust emissions
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
60
Exhaust emissions
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
61
Exhaust emissions
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
62
Exhaust emissions
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
63
Exhaust emissions
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
64
Evaporative emissions
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) from petrol
fuelled vehicles in W. Europe
Brusstar Bakenhus, 2005
  • Ethanol/petrol blends
  • VOC emissions increase due to the higher Reid
    vapour pressure
  • Higher permeability due to the smaller molecule
    of ethanol
  • Commingling effect

CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
65
Material compatibility
Ethanol is more corrosive than petrol Materials
that are degraded by high concentration ethanol
blends Metallic brass aluminum lead-plated
steel Non metallic natural rubber polyurethane
cork leather PVC polyamides certain
plastics
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
66
Material compatibility
Compatible materials that should be
used Metallic hard anodized aluminum steel
stainless steel black iron bronze Non
metallic polymer compounds neoprene
rubber fiberglass thermoplastics polypropyle
ne Teflon
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
67
Necessary modifications for Otto engines
Not Necessary
Probably Necessary
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
68
Engine deposits
1.3L mpi 3spd Autom. 1996 125 811 km
1.6L mpi 4spd Automatic 1997 85 060 km
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
69
Engine deposits
1997 Toyota Hilux 2.4L Carburetor 115 418 km
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
70
Fuel system performance
1997 Toyota Hilux 2.4L Carburetor 115 418
km Fuel Filter blocked after E5 for 20000 km and
E10 for 10000 km
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
71
Auto Manufacturer Warranty Excerpts
BMW Fuels containing up to and including 10
ethanol or other oxygenates with up to 2.8
oxygen by weight (i.e. 15 MTBE or 3 methanol)
plus an equivalent amount of co-solvent) will not
void the applicable warranties with respect to
defects in materials or workmanship. Honda
ETHANOL (ethyl or grain alcohol) - You may use
petrol containing up to 10 percent ethanol by
volume. Hyundai Gasohol (a mixture of 90
unleaded petrol and 10 ethanol or grain alcohol)
may be used in your Hyundai. Mazda Petrol
blended with oxygenates such as alcohol or ether
compounds are generally referred to as oxygenated
fuels. The common petrol blend that can be used
with your vehicle is ethanol blended at no more
than 10.
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
72
Auto Manufacturer Warranty Excerpts
Mercedes Unleaded petrol containing oxygenates
such as Ethanol, IPA, IBA, and TBA can be used
provided the ratio of any one of these oxygenates
to petrol does not exceed 10, MTBE not to exceed
15. Toyota Toyota allows the use of oxygenate
blended petrol where the oxygenate content is up
to 10 ethanol or 15 MTBE. If you use gasohol
in your Toyota, be sure that it has an octane
rating no lower than 87. VW/Audi Use of petrol
containing alcohol or MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl
ether) You may use unleaded petrol blended with
alcohol or MTBE (commonly referred to as
oxygenates) if the blended mixture meets the
following criteria Blend of petrol and ethanol
(grain alcohol or ethyl alcohol) -Antiknock
index must be 87 AKI or higher. -Blend must not
contain more than 10 ethanol.
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
73
Green Fuels The effects of ethanol on internal
combustion engines Ethanol use in Diesel fuelled
vehicles
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
74
e-Diesel
  • Blending Diesel fuel with ethanol is a relatively
    new idea compared to the petrol-ethanol blends.
  • These blends are referred as e-Diesel and there
    has been growing interest since the early 1980s.
  • The main reasons for using such blends are
    reduced dependence on petroleum and a reduction
    of some specific exhaust emissions.
  • Usually, the ethanol concentration is between 10
    and 15.

CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
75
e-Diesel
  • Points to be considered for Diesel-ethanol
    blends
  • Diesel and ethanol do not mix at temperatures
    below 10ºC. In order to overcome this drawback,
    emulsifiers or solvents are used in the blend.
  • Higher risk of fire or explosion than with Diesel
    on its own. (use of flame arresters, electrical
    grounding of the tanks, common grounding of the
    vehicle and the fuel pump during refueling and
    use of intrinsically safe level detectors in the
    fuel tanks).

CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
76
e-Diesel
  1. e-Diesel has lower viscosity and lubricity (might
    have negative effects on C.I. internal combustion
    engines) but the research indicates that e-Diesel
    meets Diesel specifications The corrosiveness of
    e-Diesel is similar to pure Diesel and has the
    same effects on the engine components.
  2. Ethanol has cetane number 8, which compared to
    the cetane number for Diesel (around 50) is very
    low. Therefore, because ethanol-Diesel blends
    have a decreased tendency to auto ignite, cetane
    enhancing additives must be used.

CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
77
e-Diesel
  • e-Diesel decreases engine power. Studies show
    that for ethanol percentages of between 10-15,
    there is a reduction in power of 4-10.
  • The effects on exhaust emissions are similar to
    the petrol blends.
  • ? Reduction of CO 20 - 30
  • ? Reduction of particulate matter 20 - 40
  • ? No difference in NOx emissions
  • ? Increase of HC emissions

CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
78
Flash point
NREL, 2003
At common ambient temperatures, the vapor in a
storage tank or vehicle fuel tank containing
e-Diesel is flammable or explosive. The
classification of the fuel needs to be changed
from Class II (fuel) to Class I (flammable).
Thus, the current diesel fuel infrastructure
could not be used to handle e-Diesel.
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
79
Green Fuels The effects of ethanol on internal
combustion engines Study on the effects of
ethanol
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
80
Ethanol Lab tests
Location TEI of Thessaloniki, Vehicles Dept.,
I.C.E. II Lab Test Vehicle Ford Escort 1.3 L
Carburetor (no cat.) Test Fuels Petrol New
Super (E0), E10, E20, E50 Chassis dynamometer
data Brake Torque Brake Power Revolutions
per minute Atmospheric pressure and air
temperature Gas analyzer data Carbon dioxide
(CO2) Carbon monoxide (CO) Hydrocarbons
(HC) Oxygen (O2) Nitrogen oxides
(NOx) Balance data Fuel consumption Calculated
values Combustion chamber pressure Lambda
(?) Specific fuel consumption
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
81
Lab tests
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
82
Power
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
83
Torque
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
84
Lambda
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
85
Specific fuel consumption
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
86
Fuel consumption
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
87
Carbon Dioxide
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
88
Carbon Monoxide
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
89
Hydrocarbons
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
90
Nitrogen Oxides
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
91
Lambda
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
92
Lambda influence
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
93
Lambda influence
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
94
Ignition timing effect on torque
Ignition timing effect on torque
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
95
Ignition timing effect on sfc
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
96
Ignition timing effect on CO
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
97
Ignition timing effect on HC
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
98
Ignition timing effect on NOX
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
99
Ethanol production facility
Video Tour of an Ethanol PlantSource Midwest
Grain Producers
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
100
Ethanol in racing
Ethanol becomes fuel of choice for Indy Racing
League Source www.fueleconomy.gov
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
101
Ethanol in racing
Team Nasamax Le Mans 2004
Ethanol Hemelgarn Racing Team 2005 Indy Car series
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
102
Biofuels Panacea or Chimera?
Biofuels represent simply the first step on a
clean technology development trajectory
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
103
Thanks for your attention!
CarEcology New Technological and Ecological
Standards in Automotive Engineering Antwerp,
October 2009
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