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Fluency: Reading Better and Faster

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Fluency: Reading Better and Faster Presented by Cherry Carl When children are allowed to reread familiar material, they are being allowed to learn to be readers, to ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Fluency: Reading Better and Faster


1
Fluency Reading Better and Faster
  • Presented by Cherry Carl

2
When children are allowed to reread familiar
material, they are being allowed to learn to be
readers, to read in ways which draw on all their
language resources and knowledge of the world, to
put this very complex recall and sequencing
behavior into a fluent rendering of the text.
The orchestration of these complex behaviors
cannot be achieved on a hard book.Clay, M.
(1991) Becoming Literate The construction of
inner control (p. 184)
3
Why Reading Fluency?
  • A fluent reader decodes text automatically, and
    therefore can devote his /her attention to
    comprehending what is read.
  • Laberge Samuels

4
  • Achieving fluency is recognized as an important
    aspect of proficient reading, but it remains a
    neglected goal of reading instruction.
  • Richard Allington

5
  • With greater fluency, readers can concentrate on
    comprehending what they read, develop greater
  • self-confidence, and enjoy reading more.
  • Gillet Temple

6
  • If we provide diverse learners with the tools and
    strategies for achieving automatic and fluent
    word recognition, we increase their chances for
    successful reading experiences.
  • Chard, Simmons, Kameenui

7
Why Be Concerned?
  • Fluency may be almost a necessary condition for
    good comprehension and enjoyable reading
    experiences.
  • Source Nathan and Stanovich

8
Fluency Awareness
  • While many teachers do activities that develop
    fluency, it is not often a focus of literacy
    lessons.
  • Reading instruction usually focuses on decoding
    and comprehension.
  • Without intervention, somechildren fall further
    andfurther behind in school.

9
What is Reading Fluency?
  • Fluency is often defined as the rate (words per
    minute)and accuracy (number of words correctly
    identified) with which students perform reading
    tasks.
  • Accurate reading has few or no omissions,
    mispronunciations, substitutions,insertions or
    reversals of word order.

10
What is Reading Fluency? (cont.)
  • An additional dimension to fluency is known as
    prosody, or the rhythms and tones of spoken
    language. Students who read with expression are
    able to segment text into meaningful units,
    marking phrase and sentenceboundaries with
    pauses, vowel lengthening and changes in
    pitchand emphasis.

11
Foundation for Fluency
  • A solid base of phonological knowledge
  • Automatic word recognition
  • The ability to apply phonic, morphemic, and
    contextual analysis skills to recognize
    unfamiliar words
  • The ability to segment text into meaningful
    syntactic chunks
  • Extensive practice with materialsthat are easy
    to read

12
Who Is At Risk?
  • By second grade, fluent reading is generally
    expected, yet a great deal of foundation building
    must occur in order to make it happen.
  • Students in the upper grades who readaloud word
    by word or with littleattention to commas or
    periodsrequire intervention.

13
Recognizing At-Risk Readers
  • At-Risk Readers
  • sound halting when they read
  • are word focused
  • ignore punctuation
  • have no expression
  • have limited or no comprehension

14
What Are the Consequences?
  • Since school reading tasks are difficult, at-risk
    students often fail to complete their work.
  • At-risk students lose interest in school since
    reading is prerequisite for success.
  • At-risk students never or rarely readfor
    pleasure.
  • The lack of progress impacts vocabularyknowledge
    and general learning.
  • Many at-risk students developself-esteem issues
    and lackconfidence.

15
Effective Instructional Practices
  • Repeated oral reading students read a passage
    orally several times, with explicit guidance and
    feedback from a fluent reader and
  • Independent silent readingstudents read
    extensively on their own, both inand out of the
    classroom, withminimal guidance and feedback.
  • Teacher modeling
  • Practice, practice, practice!

16
Oral Reading Techniques
  • Taking Turns
  • Preread, Review and Reread
  • Choral Reading
  • Plays
  • Relaxed Paired Reading
  • Puppet Plays
  • Cross-Age or Buddy Reading
  • Audio Tape

17
More Oral Reading Techniques
  • The Neurological-Impress Method
  • Dyad Reading
  • Group-Assisted Reading
  • Echo Reading or Imitative Reading
  • Repeated Readings
  • Paired Repeated Reading
  • Precision Reading
  • Readers Theater
  • Shared Book Experience

18
Even More Oral Reading Techniques
  • Simultaneous Oral Reading
  • Alternate Oral Reading (my turn, your turn)
  • Fluency-Oriented Reading Instruction (FORI)
  • Peer Assisted Learning (PALS)
  • Tape Assisted Reading
  • Power Reading
  • Poetry Parties

19
Measuring Growth in Fluency
  • One of the best ways to assess student fluency is
    to simply listen to them read. Teachers need to
    trust their ears many have been listening to
    children read for years and they know what good
    reading sounds like.
  • For more formal assessments, try a Qualitative
    Rubric and a one-minuteReading Fluency
    Probe.

20
Norms for Reading Fluency
21
Looking at California Standards
  • First Grade
  • Students understand the basic features of
    reading. They select letter patterns and know how
    to translate them into spoken language by using
    phonics, syllabication,and word parts. They
    apply this knowledgeto achieve fluent oral and
    silent reading.
  • 1.16 Read aloud with fluencyin a manner that
    sounds likenatural speech.

22
Looking at California Standards
  • Second grade
  • Students understand the basic features of
    reading. They select letter patterns and know how
    to translate them into spoken language by using
    phonics, syllabication, and word parts. They
    apply this knowledge to achieve fluent oral and
    silent reading.
  • 1.6 Read aloud fluently and accuratelyand with
    appropriate intonationand expression.

23
Looking at California Standards
  • Third Grade
  • Students understand the basic features of
    reading. They select letter patterns and know how
    to translate them into spoken language by using
    phonics, syllabication, and word parts. They
    apply this knowledgeto achieve fluent oral and
    silent reading.
  • 1.3 Read aloud narrative and expositorytext
    fluently and accurately and withappropriate
    pacing, intonation,and expression.

24
Readers Theater Resources
  • Plays Around the Year, by Liza Charlesworth
    (Scholastic, 1994). A year's worth of seasonal
    plays suitable for kids in grades 13. 
  • Reader's Theatre for Beginning Readers, by
    Suzanne Barchers (Teachers Ideas Press,
    1993).Scripts based on folktales and fables.

25
More Readers Theater Resources
  • Reader's Theater Scripts of the
    Monthwww.lisablau.comA complete archive,
    available for free downloads. 
  • The Reading Ladywww.readinglady.comA number of
    free scripts ( manybased on popular books)
    available in Microsoft Word and Adobe formats.

26
References and Resources
  • Building Fluency Lessons and Strategies for
    Reading Success by Wiley Blevins, Scholastic,
    2002.
  • The Fluent Reader Oral Reading Strategies for
    Building Word Recognition, Fluency, and
    ComprehensionTimothy V. Raskinski, Scholastic.
    2003

27
More References and Resources
  • From Phonics to Fluency Effective Teaching of
    Decoding and Reading Fluency in the Elementary
    School. by Timothy V. Raskinski, Allyn Bacon,
    2000.

28
The hard facts about fluency
  • Children vary in the amount of practice that is
    required for fluency and automaticity in reading
    to occur. Some youngsters can read a word only
    once to recognize it again with greater speed
    others need 20 or more exposures. The average
    child needs between fourand 14 exposures to
    automatize the recognition of a new word.
  • G. Reid Lyon (1997)
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