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AT91 Sales Presentation 0102


Title: AT91 Sales Presentation 0102 Subject: Sales Overview Issue.2 Author: Paul Kyprianides 07798 866381 Last modified by: all_users Created Date – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: AT91 Sales Presentation 0102

AT91RM9200 Embedded Peripherals
External Bus Interface
  • Integrates three external memory controllers
  • Static Memory Controller, SDRAM Controller and
    Burst Flash Controller
  • Additional logic for SmartMedia and CompactFlash
  • Optimized external bus
  • 16 or 32-bit data bus
  • Up to 26-bit address bus, up to 64M Bytes
  • Up to 8 chip selects
  • Optimized pin multiplexing to reduce latencies on
    external memories

External Bus Interface
  • Block Diagram

External Bus Interface
  • Static Memory Controller
  • External memory mapping, 512M Bytes address space
  • Up to 8 chip select lines
  • 8 or 16-bit data bus
  • Byte write or Byte select lines
  • Remap of Boot Memory
  • Programmable wait state generation, Data float
    time, Setup time Read/Write, Hold time Read/Write
  • Compliant with LCD Module
  • External Wait Request

External Bus Interface
  • SDRAM Memory Controller
  • External memory mapping, 256M Bytes address space
  • Supports an SDRAM with two or four internal banks
  • Supports an SDRAM with 16 or 32-bit data path
  • Automatic refresh operation, refresh rate is
  • Supports self-refresh and low-power modes
  • Read or Write burst length of one location
  • Word, Half-word, Byte access
  • Multibank Ping-pong access
  • SDRAM power-up initialization by software
  • Refresh error interrupt

External Bus Interface
  • Burst Flash Controller
  • 16-bit data bus
  • Asynchronous or Burst mode read Byte, Half-word
    or Word accesses
  • Asynchronous mode Half-word write accesses
  • Programmable data access time
  • Programmable latency after output enable
  • Programmable Burst Flash clock rate
  • Two Burst Read Protocols Clock Control Address
    Advance or Signal Controlled
  • Multiplexed or Separate address and data buses

External Bus Interface
  • Compact Flash
  • I/O mode used for I/O peripherals like modems
  • Attribute memory mode (0 -gt 1FF) contains the
    card ID, manufacturer ID
  • Common memory mode allows to store data in
  • True IDE mode is not supported

Power Management Controller
  • PMC embeds and controls
  • One main oscillator providing a frequency range
    3 20 MHz
  • One slow clock oscillator (32768 Hz)
  • Two phase locked loops and dividers
  • Clock prescalers
  • PMC provides clocks to the whole system
  • Processor clock PCK typically MCK but switched
    off when entering idle mode.
  • Master clock MCK, it is available to the modules
    running permanently
  • USB clocks UHPCK and UDPCK at 48MHz

Power Management Controller
  • Four operating modes
  • Normal processor and peripheral clocks are
  • Idle processor clock is disabled, waiting for
    interrupt, Peripheral clocks are enabled
  • Slow processor and peripherals run at slow
  • Standby combination of slow clock mode and idle

Power Management Controller
  • Block Diagram

Advanced Interrupt Controller
  • AIC controls the interrupt lines of an ARM
  • Thirty-two individually maskable and vectored
    interrupt sources
  • Source 0 is reserved for the fast interrupt input
  • Source 1 is reserved for system peripherals (ST,
    RTC, PMC, DBGU )
  • Sources 2 to 31 control up to thirty embedded
    peripheral interrupts or external interrupts.
  • Programmable Edge-triggered or Level-sensitive
    internal sources
  • Programmable Positive/Negative Edge-triggered or
    High/Low Level-sensitive external sources
  • AIC enables/disables independently the thirty-two

Advanced Interrupt Controller
  • Eight-level priority controller
  • Handles priority of the interrupt sources 1 to
    31, the fast interrupt logic of the AIC has no
    priority controller
  • Higher priority interrupts can be served during
    service of lower priority interrupt

Advanced Interrupt Controller
  • Vectoring
  • One 32-bit vector register per interrupt source,
    fast interrupt included
  • Interrupt vector register reads the corresponding
    current interrupt vector (handler address)
  • Branch in one single instruction to the right

Advanced Interrupt Controller
  • Fast forcing
  • Redirects any normal interrupt source on the fast
    interrupt of the processor
  • Unlike IRQs and FIQs, fast forced interrupts
    arent cleared automatically
  • General interrupt mask
  • Prevents interrupts from reaching the processor
  • Processor can still be waken up even if the mask
    is set up
  • Provides processor synchronization on events
    without having to handle an interrupt

Advanced Interrupt Controller
  • Interrupt nesting
  • Handles a high priority interrupt during the
    service of a lower priority interrupt
  • Current priority interrupt is pushed in an
    8-level wide, embedded hardware stack
  • Protect mode
  • Allows to read the interrupt vector register
    without performing the associated automatic
    operations stacking and clearing
  • This is necessary when working with debug
  • Interrupt stacking is performed by writing to the
    interrupt vector register

Advanced Interrupt Controller
  • Spurious interrupt
  • Spurious vector is returned when the assertion of
    an interrupt does no longer exists when the IVR
    is read
  • Application Block Diagram

Peripheral Data Controller
  • PDC transfers data between on-chip serial
    peripherals and on- and off-chip memories.
  • On-chip serial peripherals UART, USART, SSC, SPI,
  • Using PDC avoids processor intervention and
    removes interrupt-handling overhead

Peripheral Data Controller
  • Two PDC Channels for Each peripheral
  • Receive Channel
  • Trigger RXRDY
  • End of Transfer ENDRX
  • Rx Buffer Full RXBUFF
  • Transmit Channel
  • Trigger TXRDY
  • End of Transfer ENDTX
  • Tx Buffer Empty TXBUFE

PDC Receive Channel
Size Byte
PDC Transmit Channel
Size Byte
Peripheral Data Controller
  • A PCD channels user interface is integrated in
    the memory space of each peripheral
  • A 32-bit memory pointer register
  • A 16-bit transfer count register
  • A 32-bit register for next memory pointer
  • A 16-bit register for next transfer count

Multimedia Card Interface
  • Supports MultiMediaCard specification version 2.2
  • Supports SD Memory Card specification version 1.0
  • MCI operates at a rate of up to master clock
    divided by 2
  • Supports PDC connection
  • Embedded power management to slow down clock when
    the bus is inactive
  • Supports up to sixteen slots (through
  • One slot for one MultiMediaCard Bus (up to 30
    cards) or one SD Memory Card
  • Support for stream, block and multi-block data
    read and write

Multimedia Card Interface
  • MultiMediaCard Bus
  • The MultiMediaCard communication is based on a
    7-pin interface (clock, command, one data and
    three power lines).

Multimedia Card Interface
  • SD Memory Card Bus
  • The SD Memory Card communication is based on a
    9-pin interface (clock, command, four data and
    three power lines).

  • Features
  • Programmable Baud Rate Generator
  • Parity, Framing and Overrun Error Detection
  • Line Break Generation and Detection
  • Automatic Echo, Local Loopback and Remote
    Loopback Channel Modes
  • Multi-drop Mode Address Detection and Generation
  • Interrupt Generation
  • 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9-bit Character Length
  • Protocol ISO7816 T0 and T1
  • Modem, Handshaking (Hardware and Software) and
    RS485 Signals
  • Infrared Data Association (IrDA) 115.2 Kbps
  • Two Dedicated Peripheral Data Controller Channels

  • Hardware Handshaking
  • ISO7816 Mode

  • IrDA Mode
  • RS485 Mode

Serial Peripheral Interface
  • Features
  • Serial Interface between CPU and External
  • Master or Slave Mode
  • Full duplex 3 wires synchronous transfer
  • MISO Master In Slave Out
  • MOSI Master Out Slave In
  • SPCK SPI Clock
  • Maximum SPI baud rate clock MCK/4
  • 4 External Slave chip selects
  • 8 to 16-bit Programmable Data Length
  • Mode Fault Detection in Master Mode
  • 2 Dedicated PDC Channels

Serial Peripheral Interface
  • Bus

Two Wire Interface
  • Features
  • Master Mode
  • Compatible with Standard Two-wire Serial Memory
  • One, Two or Three Bytes for Slave Address
  • Sequential Read/write Operations

Two Wire Interface
  • Bus

System Timer
  • Features
  • One Period Interval Timer (PIT)
  • 16-bit programmable counter
  • periodic interrupt, useful for OS
  • One Watchdog Timer (WD)
  • 16-bit programmable counter
  • maximum watchdog period of 256s with a typical
    slow clock of 32.768kHz
  • One Real Time Timer (RTT)
  • 20-bit free-running counter
  • count elapsed seconds
  • 1s increment with a typical slow clock of
  • count up to 1048576s (12 days)
  • Alarm to generate an interrupt

  • Features
  • Three 16-bit Timer/Counter channels
  • Wide range of functions
  • Frequency measurement
  • Event counting
  • Interval measurement
  • Pulse generation
  • Delay timing
  • Pulse Width Modulation
  • Clock inputs
  • 3 External and 5 Internal
  • Two configurable Input/Ouput signals
  • Internal interrupt signal

Real Time Clock
  • Features
  • Low power consumption
  • Complete time of day clock
  • Programmable periodic interrupts
  • Alarm
  • Five programmable fields Month, Date, Sec, Min
    and Hour
  • Y2K compliant
  • BCD Format

Ethernet MAC
  • Features
  • Compatible with IEEE Standard 802.3
  • 10 and 100 Mbits per Second Data Throughput
  • MII or RMII Interface to the Physical Layer
  • Register Interface to Address, Status and Control
  • DMA Interface
  • Interrupt Generation to Signal Receive and
    Transmit Completion
  • 28-byte Transmit and 28-byte Receive FIFOs
  • Automatic Pad and CRC Generation on Transmitted
  • Address Checking Logic to Recognize Four 48-bit
  • Supports Promiscuous Mode Where All Valid Frames
    are Copied to Memory
  • Supports Physical Layer Management through MDIO

USB Overview
  • USB is a master/slave protocol
  • Host side is complex ( 3 standards UHCI, OHCI,
  • Device side is supposed to be easy
  • In the embedded world some hosts (mini-hosts)
    only support some kind of devices (ex. AT43xxx).
  • Class drivers is a part of the USB success story
    most common devices can be plugged without
    specific drivers.
  • USB 2.0 specification supercedes USB 1.1
  • USB 2.0 LS ( ? USB1.1 at 1.5Mbps)
  • USB 2.0 FS ( ? USB 1.1 at 12Mbps)
  • USB 2.0 HS (480 Mbps)

USB Host Port
  • AT91RM9200 embeds a full OHCI Host controller
  • All OHCI drivers can run on the AT91RM9200
  • Very difficult to program in a standalone
  • AT91RM9200 OHCI host controller integrates a root
    hub with 2 downstream ports.
  • Port transceiver are embedded in the AT91RM9200
  • VBUS is provided by the PCB
  • Discrete components around the USB port are
    limited to few resistors, no external
  • AT91RM9200 OHCI host controller is one of the 4
    ASB bus masters.
  • Internal FIFOS warranty the bus latency and the
    AT91RM9200 has no external master which can hold
    the bus for a long time
  • The 12Mbps can be reached

USB Host Software Stacks
  • Linux and WIN CE provides
  • OHCI HCD driver
  • USBD Driver
  • Main class drivers Hub, HID, Mass storage,
  • Symbian and RTOS does not provides USB host stack
  • SW Ips provider are able to provide solutions for
  • Softconnex, Philog,
  • It is still possible to build a mini host from
    our full host

AT91RM9200 HC existing SW solutions
  • Linux solutions are available and integrated in
    the linux-2.4.21-rmk1 kernel
  • USB mouse or flash disk examples on the CDROM
  • WinCE solutions are existing but have not been
    tested/integrated by the AT91 SW application
  • Refer to Adeset
  • Softconnex solutions (USBLink) are exhaustive and
  • The stack is available with the Integrity demo
  • The AT91 SW application group validate the HC
    with UBSLink Nucleus
  • Philog has developed a solution for one of the
    AT91RM9200 lead customer.

USB Device Port
  • When a new device is plugged to a host, the host
    enumerates the device and automatically looks for
    a device driver. (Plug and Play)
  • 2 needs gt 2 philosophies
  • The device belongs to a standard class driver
    HID. Mass storage. In this case, no needs from a
    custom driver on the host but device firmware is
    more difficult.
  • The device defines its own protocol. In this
    case, a custom driver must be developed on the
    host side (PC driver). This could be a very
    difficult task but the device firmware can be
    very easy.
  • There is no standard in terms of HW for the
    device. There is no existing standard solutions
    in Linux or WinCE.

AT91RM9200 USB Device Port
  • USB transceiver embedded no need of external
    companion chip
  • USB 2.0 full speed compliant (12 Mbps)
  • A FIFO is associated with each endpoint
  • No DMA, packets can not be corrupted by the ASB
    bus latency
  • Two data banks per endpoint gt ping-pong

AT91RM9200 USB Device Port
  • AT91RM9200 USB device configuration
  • EP0 8 bytes control transfers
  • EP1, EP2 64 bytes bulk ISO Interrrupt
  • EP3 8 bytes bulk ISO Interrrupt transfers
  • EP4, EP5 256 bytes bulk ISO Interrrupt

USB device examples
  • Mass Storage device
  • The device exports one part of its file system
  • The host OS (W2k, XP, Linux) will use its default
    mass storage driver and mount the new disk in its
    file system
  • The device will require
  • A file system with the media driver (SDCard, MMC,
  • A mass storage driver (Philog, Softconnex, )
  • Nothing is provided for free in the AT91 library
  • A negociation is in progress to have a demo from
  • USB bulk device
  • The device communicates with the host through 2
    unidirectional pipes (bulk In and bulk out)
  • The host OS will search for a custom driver.
  • The device will require
  • A simple application build from the AT91 library

Serial Synchronous Controller
  • Features
  • 1 to 32-bit Programmable Data Length
  • Receiver and Transmitter Parts Able to Operate
    Synchronously or Independently, Each Part
    Interfacing with a Data Signal, a Clock Signal
    and a Frame Synchronization Signal
  • Provides Communication with External Devices in
    Master or Slave Mode
  • CODECs in Master or Slave Modes
  • DAC through Dedicated Serial Interface,
    Particularly the I2S
  • Time Division Multiplexed Buses
  • Magnetic Card Reader
  • Printer and Scanner Interface
  • SPI Used in Full or Half Duplex, in Master or
    Slave Modes with One Chip Select Only

Serial Synchronous Controller
  • Audio Application

Serial Synchronous Controller
  • Codec Application

Serial Synchronous Controller
  • Time Slot Application