OPERATING MANUAL CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITY SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN SCHOOL EDUCATION DEPARTMENT GOVERNMENT OF WEST BENGAL - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: OPERATING MANUAL CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITY SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN SCHOOL EDUCATION DEPARTMENT GOVERNMENT OF WEST BENGAL


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OPERATING MANUAL CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITY SARVA
SHIKSHA ABHIYANSCHOOL EDUCATION
DEPARTMENTGOVERNMENT OF WEST BENGAL
2
SIMPLE GUIDELINE AND SUGGESTIONS FOR PEOPLE
CONSTRUCTING SCHOOL BUILDINGS
  • Dr. B.B. Niyogi
  • Chief Engineering Advisor
  • School Education Department
  • Government of West Bengal

3
  • 1. a. First Consideration
  • Budget
  • One should start construction with a budget for
    instance, you could a budget based on an area
    that you have available for construction say _at_
    Rs. 500/- per sqft poor planning needs to major
    over run tropically to major expenses cost of
    land and cost of construction.
  • Selection of a Plot
  • The critical decision before starting
    construction is to decide the location and size
    of plot.
  • Size of the Plot
  • Size of the plot should be depending on size
    of the building and the length-breadth ration of
    the plot should not exceed 12.

4
  •  
  • Legal Aspect
  • Utmost care should be taken with respect to all
    transactions involving land. After having
    ascertaining the bonafides of the land, it would
    be advisable to appoint a good lawyer to ensure
    clear title of the land.

5
  • b. Assistance that to be taken A Check List 
  • Check List
  • 1. Architect/Engineer
  • 2. Contractor
  • 3. Painter
  • 4. Electrician
  • 5. Carpenter
  • 6. Mason
  • 7. Plumber
  • 8. Supplier of Building Materials
  • 9. Neighbours
  • 10. Guardian and VEC Member

6
  • 1. Architecture/Engineer
  • Please make sure that choose a reputed
    Architect/Engineer from near by area where school
    is being constructed
  • 2. Contractor
  • The contractor is responsible for arranging and
    supervising the workmen for different activities
    of construction. Contractors are generally paid
    either on per square foot basis or in terms of
    labour employed. It goes without saying that the
    reliability of your contractor defines the
    quality and durability of the construction.

7
  • 3. Carpenter
  • The carpenter handles any woodwork the
    making of doors and windows, frames for grills
    and related fittings and furniture for the house.
  • 4. Painter
  • After completing the construction
    process, the painter can correct any minor
    detects and paint the house to achieve the
    desired look. Information on painters is
    available at paint stores or you could get a
    recommendation from an acquaintance who has
    recently painted their building.
  • 5. Electrician
  • All of the electrical layout and wiring
    is designed and completed by the electrician.
    Please ensure that only licensed electricians are
    employed for this activity. Electricians can
    normally be contacted at electrical equipment
    shops in the area.

8
  • 6. Mason
  • Laying concrete and bricks, maintaining
    proper even levels and surface layouts
    implementation issues like these are the
    responsibility of the mason.
  •  
  • 7. Plumber
  • Water supply, sanitation and waste
    disposal are important elements for any house.
    The plumber will help you design the best
    location and layouts for these. He will also help
    you install sanitary ware and pipes. For
    references, ask at sanitary ware and hardware
    stores.

9
  • 8. Building Material Suppliers
  • Purchasing all building materials from
    authorized dealers of reputed companies is one
    way of ensuring a durable, long-lasting home. It
    is advisable to check specifications prior to
    purchase. Looking for low-cost options may lead
    to substandard results in construction.
  •  
  • 9. Neighbours
  • Some useful tips can be picked up from people
    who have recently completed constructing their
    own homes. These tips could help in avoiding
    pitfalls, and lead to major savings in time and
    cost.

10
  • There are two types of rate contracts for
    construction
  • A turnkey rate contract, which includes cost of
    construction, labour and cost of building
    materials.
  • Labour contract rate, which excludes cost of
    materials.
  •  
  • In practice, people who are able to devote time
    to the construction process opt for option 2. If,
    however, option 1 is chosen, please ensure that
    both the quality and quantity of materials to be
    used is discussed beforehand.

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  • Some Tips for saving Time and Money
  • Understand the present and future needs of your
    school.
  • Ensure that the construction plan, working
    drawing and the estimated costs are in place
    before starting construction.
  • Ensure maximum natural light in all the rooms by
    providing adequate number of windows and
    ventilators.
  • Avoid non-standard size doors and windows or
    eliminate them altogether, if not necessary.
  • Use materials available locally.

Contd.
12
  • Plan for regular supply of materials
    beforehand. This avoids delays in construction.
  • Maintain minimal stocks of construction
    materials at the site.
  • Stock all the raw materials properly so that
    they are safe.
  • Fixtures and fittings should be chosen for
    durability rather than just appearance.
  • Electrical points need to be minimized.
  • If air-conditioning is to be used, plan the
    location in advance.

13
  • Table showing Material required to Construct 1
    cum of Concrete Work

Concrete Mixture Ratio of Cement and Coarse Aggregates Water Cement Ratio (W/C) Water (Litres per 50 kg Bag of Cement) Cement (No. of 50 kg Bags) Sand (cum) Coarse Aggregates (cum)
112 0.30 15 11.2 0.40 0.80
11.53 0.42 21 8.0 042 0.83
124 0.55 27.5 6.2 0.43 0.87
136 0.75 37 4.4 0.45 0.90
148 0.95 47.5 3.3 0.46 0.93
14
  • Table showing Material required to Construct 1
    cum of Brick Mortar

Cement Sand Mix Ratio Cement (No. of 50 kg Bags) Sand (cum)
13 2.6 0.267
14 1.9 0.275
16 1.4 0.299
16 1.1 0.308
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  • Table showing Material required to Construct 12
    mm Plaster for 100 sqm

Cement Sand Mix Ratio Cement (No. of 50 kg Bags) Sand (cum)
12 21 1.4
13 15 1.5
14 12 1.6
16 9 1.8
16
  • Sand
  • Procedures for Identifying Good Quality Sand
  • Good quality sand can be identified easily by
    taking a handful and closing your fist around it.
    Any form of contamination like mud will stick to
    your palm. The presence of clay, grit, pebbles or
    dirt could be harmful in construction. They need
    to be screened or sieved from the sand before
    use.
  • A slightly more scientific method could be to
    fill half a glass tumbler with sand, add water
    into the tumbler and stir. Any form of
    contamination could result in the water turning
    muddy. As a rule, if the content of mud or dust
    exceeds 4 of the total quantity of sand, the
    sand would be washed clean before use. In short,
    sand should not contain clay, dirt, mica or sea
    shells.

17
  • Wet Sand and Associated Problems
  • Sand should not contain water. Generally, if
    the sand contains about 5 of water, then use 25
    additional quantity of sand for construction.
    Sometimes construction labourers add too much
    water which is detrimental to durable
    construction.

18
  • Bricks and their Selection
  • Bricks can be tested just by observation.
    Visually they should be in the correct shape with
    sharp corners. A uniform colour also ensures good
    quality. One test is to break a brick, it should
    not scatter into small pieces. Another process of
    testing is to strike two bricks against each
    other. Good quality bricks produce a ringing
    sound when struck with each other. Also, a good
    brick when dropped from a height of about a meter
    should not break. Another practical test is to
    soak a brick in water for about 24 hours. The
    weight of the brick before and after soaking
    should be checked. If the brick shows an
    additional weight of more than 15 after soaking,
    it should be rejected. For example, a dry brick
    weighing 2 kg should not weigh more than 2.3 kg
    after being soaked in water for 24 hours.

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  • Steel Rods (Reinforcement Bars)
  • Concrete has good compressive strength.
    However, it does not withstand tensile or bending
    stresses. To overcome this, reinforcement bars
    (steel rods) are placed inside the concrete to
    provide the necessary strength. Hence, the term
    Reinforced Concrete Cement.
  • We suggest that only BIS certified steel bars
    should be used for RCC construction. It is
    essential to ensure when purchasing them that no
    rust is visible on the bars. The steel bars are
    normally fixed in pre-designed formats. So, be
    careful that all design requirements are strictly
    adhered to.
  • Cover Block
  • Use of cover blocks are highly recommended to
    ensure that adequate concrete covers the steel
    bars. Cover blocks are normally made using mortar
    and should be of a thickness of 2 inch for
    footing, 1.5 inch for columns and ½ to ¾ inch for
    slab and beam structures.

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  • Stone Gravel/Coarse Aggregates
  • Coarse aggregates are normally small pieces of
    stone which give concrete its strength. The two
    most commonly used sizes are ¾ inch or 20 mm and
    ½ inch or 12 mm. At times both are used together
    in the ratio of 6040 or even up to 7030.
  • While selecting the coarse aggregate, the
    following points should be kept in mind
  • Coarse aggregate should be solid, in the shape of
    a cube and free from dirt.
  • Any form of contamination should be immediately
    removed.
  • The right proportion of large and small size
    pieces should be selected. This is to ensure that
    the space between the large stonechips is filled
    in by the smaller pieces.

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  • Water
  • Water should be free of all contamination when
    used in construction. Salty water or sea water
    should never be used for making RCC. It is
    advisable to use potable/drinkable water, as far
    as possible.
  • Addition of excess water is detrimental to
    concrete. A low water to cement ratio makes the
    construction strong and durable.
  • It is always useful to have containers of five
    or ten liters of water handy while carrying out
    construction. One bag of cement normally requires
    25 liters of water.

22
  • Test of Quantity of Water
  • As a general rule, after mixing the water with
    cement and other ingredients, a ball of concrete
    mix should be made. If this ball is thrown up in
    the air to a height of a meter, it should not
    break or crumble as this is an indication of
    excess water content. It would then be advisable
    to reduce water content in the mix immediately.

23
  • What to Look for when you buy Cement
  • It is advisable to purchase only well known
    brands of cement from reliable sources. A few
    rupees extra is money well spent as an inferior
    quality cement could lead to significantly higher
    cost later. Remember that cement once used cannot
    be replaced or improved in the same way as you
    can do with tiles and other such work. Besides,
    the cost of cement is only a small percentage
    compared to the total cost of construction. As a
    rule, cement should constitute only 10-14 of
    the total construction cost. For example, if the
    total expenditure is about Rs.5 lakh, the cost of
    cement is likely to be 10 to 14 percent, which is
    around 500 bags. At a premium of five rupees per
    bag for good quality cement, the cost of cement
    will increase by about Rs.2500/-, which is quite
    insignificant when compared to the total budget
    of Rs.5 lakh.

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Type Features Use
Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) It is prepared by grinding clinker along with gypsum. This is available in several grades like 33, 43 and 53. Can be used for all normal works.
Blended/Composite Cement High quality clinker is inter-ground with gypsum and a performance enhancing bonding material like slag or poggolana. Comprises Portland Slag Cement (PSC) or fly ash based Portland Poggolana Cement (PPC) Can be used in all general constructions such as concreting, brick joining, plaster and special constructions. It gives concrete better long-term strength and durability.
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  • Proper usage of Cement
  • An optimum quantity of cement must be used for
    any construction. It is a myth that high grade
    cements can be used in lower quantities. If lower
    quantities of cements are used, then an
    additional quantity of water is required. This
    would mean a distorted water to cement ratio, and
    the result would reduce the strength and
    durability of the concrete.
  • A common misunderstanding is that high grade
    cements result in better results. The grade of
    cement only indicates its compressive strength
    after a period of 28 days. However, blended
    cement continues to increase in strength beyond
    that period. Therefore, with the long term
    objective of a lasting home, blended or composite
    cements are usually preferred. Yet another
    misconception is that quick seeking cement should
    be used. It is advisable to allow all concrete
    structures the requisite time for setting.

26
  • Ask the mason or contractor to be patient if
    they complain about the time it takes to set.
    Slower setting cement does not necessarily mean
    that it will not provide long-term strength.
  • Some people believe that the colour of cement
    determines its quality. This is totally untrue.
    The colour of the cement is determined by the
    quantity of the raw materials used in its
    manufacture.

27
  • Some Additional Tips
  • If you have doubts about the quality of cement,
    the first step would be to consult the
    manufacturer. However, this simple test will also
    suffice. Make a paste of a cement with one-fourth
    the quantity of water and make cubes or blocks of
    50x50x20 mm size. Leave aside the cubes/blocks
    for a day. Test them to see how easily they
    break. If the cement is of good quality, the
    blocks will not crumble if you try to crush it
    with your fingers.
  • Cement is known to react with water and,
    therefore, protection from moisture is of
    paramount importance. It would be best to store
    the cement bags in an enclosed godown. Ideally,
    the bags should also be placed on a platform at
    least 6 inches above floor level, leaving a gap
    away from the walls. Normally, each stack should
    not have more than 15 bags. A first in first
    out process should be followed. Cement should
    always be used within 23 months of its
    manufacture.

28
  • Formwork (Shuttering)
  • This is the temporary formwork meant to
    support your construction while the concrete work
    is in progress. It comprises of wood props,
    plywood and steel plates. A good formwork should
    be strong, solid and without any gaps so that
    water leakage through through the joint or any
    gap is almost minimum. 24 gauge micron polythene
    sheet should be used to prevent any water
    leakage. Apply a layer of releasing agent (like
    diesel or grease mix) to the formwork where the
    concrete is to be poured. This enables it to be
    removed with ease and ensures a smooth finish.

29
  • Concrete Work
  • For RCC work, the ingredients of concrete
    should be in the ratio of 11.53 (cement one
    part, sand 1.5 parts and coarse aggregates 3
    parts). All of these items are measured by volume
    and are best measured using a container of wood
    or steel. Traditionally, the size of this
    container would be 350x250x400 mm, which holds 35
    litres. While preparing the mixture, 25 litres of
    water must be added per bag of cement. If the mix
    is prepared in a machine, it should be mixed for
    at least 2 minutes so that the mixture blends
    well with the water. If you are mixing by hand,
    then it is advisable to prepare a dry mix of
    cement and sand in a tray. After blending, when
    the colour appears uniform, the coarse aggregate
    may be added and then finally add the water.

30
  • The concrete mix should be cast before it
    begins to set. Normally, concreting should be
    completed within 30 minutes to an hour. In case
    of any delay, do not add any more water just to
    improve its flowing consistency. The casting of
    concrete should be done continuously, i.e., layer
    over layer. The mixture should be poured from a
    maximum height of 1.5 metres. This avoids the
    ingredients separating. The mixture must then be
    properly compacted. It is best to complete this
    task with a needle vibrator. If this is
    unavailable, an iron rod could be substituted.
    This is done to ensure that there are no air
    bubbles in the concrete, as this would weaken it.

31
  • Brickwork
  • The following mortars are suggested -
  • for a 4 inch wall (divider walls in the middle
    of the house)
  • cementsand 14
  • for a 9 inch wall (outer walls)
  • cementsand 16

32
  • Before beginning work, ensure that the bricks
    have been soaked in water for 8 hours. Do not use
    completely wet bricks as the cement mixture will
    not stick properly.
  • After joining the bricks, the correct cutting or
    raking of the mortar is essential. This helps the
    adhesion of the plaster. The thickness of the
    brick joints should not be more than 1 cm. The
    vertical joints should never be continuous.
  • It is best not to lay bricks higher than 5
    feet at a time, as the mortar should given
    adequate time to set. The task of joining should
    begin from 2 corners (3-4 layers). The parts in
    between should be filled within the leftover
    frames. The line level and plumb need to be
    continuously checked.
  • Curing must be done for at least 10 days.
  • In this context, please read the section on
    the quality of bricks carefully.

33
  • Plastering
  • Plaster is the skin of your house. Just as our
    skin gives shape and texture to our body, and
    protects your house from damage caused by salts,
    acid and rain. It also makes your house look
    beautiful. Therefore, it is important to pay
    close attention to it.
  • Ensure that the wall is slightly wet before
    starting the plastering. Dry walls adsorb water
    from the plaster and this will cause the plaster,
    in time, to fall off.
  • Check that the mason has not prepared the mix
    for the whole day. The mix must be prepared only
    in small quantities as much as will be used in
    an hour. Your mason can, however, keep a large
    quantity of dry mix ready.

34
  • The usual mix proportion is
  • 15 to 16 for internal plaster
  • 14 to 15 for external plaster
  • 13 to 14 for the ceiling
  • However, if the sand particles are very fine,
    14 ratio mix is suitable for all three areas.
  • Use wooden float for finishing as steel floats
    can sometimes cause small cracks.
  • Curing should be done for 1014 days.

35
  • Curing
  • The process of maintaining moisture in the
    concrete is called curing. Concrete begins to dry
    after casting. So, the parts exposed to the
    environment should be cured to ensure that the
    concrete surface is never dry. This needs to be
    done continuously, till the mandated period of
    curing. Usually, 10-14 days of curing is
    considered optimal. It is best to make small
    curing ponds or bunds on flat or horizontal
    surfaces. For vertical surfaces, you may wrap
    jute or hessian cloth on the surface and then
    pour water onto it. This helps keep the surface
    wet for longer periods.

36
  • Electrical Works
  • Select electrical goods for your house
    carefully (these must be ISI marked).
  •  Make provisions for switch boards at the
    beginning of construction, or it will clash with
    the décor of your house later on.
  •  Make proper arrangements for earthing in your
    house and have it checked regularly.
  • Do not make several temporary connections from
    one point.

37
Avoid using too many joints in the electrical
wiring. Use good quality wires and insulation
material. To protect your electric equipment,
use a fuse on every power board. Do not use
extension boards for permanent connections.
Keep the power supply cord safe from water, heat
and oil. Keep electrical materials away from
children. Note Use electricity with restraint.
Have your connections, wiring etc. checked
regularly. Get your electric work done only from
a registered or license-holding electrical
contractor.
38
  • Plumbing
  •   Use good quality ISI marked GI pipes and
    fittings for the water supply.
  •   PVC pipes for sewage discharge are both
    durable and convenient.
  • The joints of pipes and fittings must be
    leak-proof. They should be double checked before
    laying the tiles.

39
  • Painting
  • Painting provides protection to the walls of
    your house as well as so much more. It is said
    that the colours of your house reflect your
    personality. The painting work is broken up into
    three parts
  • 1.      Pre-painting Work
  • 2.      Surface Preparation
  • 3.      Painting
  • Painting your Interiors step by step
  • Clean the surface thoroughly with sand-paper.
  • Then apply a coat of good quality primer. If
    required, apply a second coat.
  • Once the primer has dried, apply one or two
    coats of acrylic-based putty.
  • Apply a further coat, or two or three coats.
    Thinner should be used as per requirement.

40
  • Here are some Suggestions to make the Painting
    Work Easy
  • If there is any dampness or cracks or other
    damages on your walls, have these repaired first.
  • Select in advance the shades and colour schemes
    you wish to have on your walls. You can get help
    choosing the colours from catalogues, displays
    and show-rooms of well-known companies.
  • Find out the entire product range of the
    company so you can select the colour that suits
    your needs.
  • Choose light colours for outer walls. This will
    keep interior temperatures low.
  • Also use light colours on internal walls where
    a lot of natural light is reflected.

41
  • An Account of Expenditure Material

Sand Sand Sand Sand Sand Sand Sand
Sl. No. Date Supplier Quantity Rate per cft Expenditure Remarks







Total Total Total Total
42
Steel Steel Steel Steel Steel Steel Steel Steel
Sl. No. Date Supplier Dia. of Steel Rods (in mm) Quantity Rate (Rs./Quintal) Expenditure Remarks






Total Total Total Total
43
Gravel Gravel Gravel Gravel Gravel Gravel Gravel Gravel Gravel
Sl. No. Date Supplier Quantity of Gravels Quantity of Gravels Quantity of Gravels Rate/cft Expenditure Remarks
Sl. No. Date Supplier ½ ¾ 5/4 Rate/cft Expenditure Remarks





Total Total Total Total Total Total
44
Bricks Bricks Bricks Bricks Bricks Bricks Bricks
Sl. No. Date Supplier Quantity Cost/1000 Expenditure Remarks






Total Total Total
45
Cement Cement Cement Cement Cement Cement Cement Cement
Sl. No. Date Supplier Cement Brand No. of Bags Rate/Bag Expenditure Remarks






Total Total Total Total
46
Other Expenses Other Expenses Other Expenses Other Expenses Other Expenses
Sl. No. Date Material Expenditure Remarks







Total Total
47
Expenditure Labour
Labour Payments Labour Payments Labour Payments Labour Payments Labour Payments Labour Payments Labour Payments
Sl. No. Date Contractor No. of Labourers No. of Labourers Expenditure Remarks
Sl. No. Date Contractor Chief Mason/Skilled Labour Labour Charges Expenditure Remarks




Total Total Total
48
ACR Cost of Construction as a Percentage
Sl. No. Item of Expenditure
1. Foundation Soil 1-3
2. Foundation (MarkingDigging) 2-4
3. Foundation Structure 6-8
4. Cement 10-14
5. Sand 3-5
6. Stone Aggregate 4-6
7. Water 0-2
8. Steel Rod 3-6
9. Shuttering 2-4
10. Brick 8-10
Contd.
49
Sl. No. Item of Expenditure
11. Flooring 3-7
12. Door Window 5-8
13. Concrete Contractor Labour 6-10
14. Design Fee 2-3
15. Electric Work 4-6
16. Plumbing/Sanitation 4-6
17. Painting 6-10
18. Boundary Wall 1-3
19. Labour except Concrete Work 8-12
Average Expenditure (78127)/2 103 (Approx.) Average Expenditure (78127)/2 103 (Approx.) Average Expenditure (78127)/2 103 (Approx.)
50
Unit Cost of Building(per square feet area)
Sl. No. Item Rate/sqft
1. Roof Rs.120.00
2. Brickwork Rs.100.00
3. Plastering Rs.75.00
4. Chaja Lintel Rs.20.00
5. Door Window Rs.70.00
6. Pipeline Bathroom Rs.40.00
7. Electric Rs.40.00
8. White Wash Colour Wash Rs.10.00 Rs.30.00
9. Boundary Wall Rs.60.00
10. Flooring (net cement) Rs.25.00
51
1. Calculation for Roof
  • Sample (100 sqft roof area)
  • Cement 7 bags Rs.1,750/-
  • Stonechips 33 cft Rs.1,320/-
  • Sand Rs.300/-
  • Reinforcement Rs.5,000/-
  • Labour Rs.3,500/-
  • Total Rs.11,870/-

52
2. Calculation for Brickwork
  • Sample (1000 sqft plinth area)
  • a) Brick 4000 upto plinth
  • 8000 plinth to roof
  • Total 12000 Nos. _at_ Rs.6.00/piece
  • Rs.72,000/-
  • b) Mortar 54 bag cement Rs.13,000/-
  • 400 cft sand Rs.6,000/-
  • c) Labour Rs.9,000/-
  • Total Rs.(72,000/- Rs.13,000/-
  • 6,000/- 9,000/-)
  • Rs.1,00,000/- (approx)

53
3. Calculation for PlasteringSample (1000 sqft
plinth area) a) Inside 100 bags b) Outside
60 bag Rs.40,000/-c) Sand
Rs.18,000/-d) Labour Rs.17,000/- Total
75,000/-4. Calculation for Chaja Lintel a)
Reinforcement 200 nos. Rs.10,000/-b) Cement
20 bag Rs.5,000/- c) Stonechips 100 cft
Rs.4,000/- d) Sand 70 cft Rs.1,000/-
Total Rs.20,000/-
54
5. Calculation for Door Windowa) Door
Rs.4,000/-b) Window Rs.3,000/-
Total 7,000/-6. Calculation for Pipeline
Bathroom a) Pipeline Rs.20,000/-b) Bathroom
Rs.20,000/- Total Rs.40,000/-7. Calculation
for White Wash Colour Wash a) White Wash
Rs.10,000/-b) Colour Wash Rs.30,000/- Hence,
Rs.10/- Rs.30/- per sqft respectively.
55
5. Calculation for Flooringa) Mozaic (Gray
colour) Rs.45/- per sqft b) Mozaic (with
white cement) Rs.60/- per sqft c) Marble
(2-0 x 2-0) Slab Rs.(70/- 20/-)
Rs.90/-
per sqftd) Marble Large Slab (Dugri) Rs.(120/-
30/-)
Rs.150/-
Rs.(150/- 30/-) Rs.180/-
Rs.(180/-
30/-) Rs.210/-
56

Sl. No. Total Cost per sqft
1. Rs.120/-
2. Rs.100/-
3. Rs.75/-
4. Rs.20/-
5. Rs.70/-
6. Rs.(2020)/-
7. Rs.(2020)/-
8. Rs.(10/45 30)/-
9. Rs.(60/520)/-
10. Rs.(25/460)/-
57
Break-up of Materials and Labour Items
Sl. No. Description of Item Quantity Labour Water Charges (in Rs.) Material Charges Material Charges
Sl. No. Description of Item Quantity Labour Water Charges (in Rs.) Quantity Charges (in Rs.)
1. Earthwork in Excavation 21.29 cum 891.49
2. Sand Filling 19.63 cum 3228.35
3. BFS 60.6 sqm LS Bricks 1940 nos. 3880.00
4. PCC 3.57 cum LS Stonechips 5.6 cft 1392.30
4. PCC 3.57 cum LS Sand 55 cft 440.00
4. PCC 3.57 cum LS Cement 5 Bags 1000.00
Contd.
58
Sl. No. Description of Item Quantity Labour Water Charges (in Rs.) Material Charges Material Charges
Sl. No. Description of Item Quantity Labour Water Charges (in Rs.) Quantity Charges (in Rs.)
5. DPC 0.18 cum LS Stonechips 5.6 cft 72.80
5. DPC 0.18 cum LS Sand 2.8 cft 22.40
5. DPC 0.18 cum LS Cement 1.17 Bags 234.00
6. Brickworks 17 cum LS Bricks 6250 nos. 24000.00
6. Brickworks 17 cum LS Sand 175 cft 2000.00
6. Brickworks 17 cum LS Cement 34 Bags 8500.00
Contd.
59
Sl. No. Description of Item Quantity Labour Water Charges (in Rs.) Material Charges Material Charges
Sl. No. Description of Item Quantity Labour Water Charges (in Rs.) Quantity Charges (in Rs.)
7. Cement Concrete (124) 10 cum LS Stonechips 300 cft 10000.00
7. Cement Concrete (124) 10 cum LS Sand 150 cft 1800.00
7. Cement Concrete (124) 10 cum LS Cement 65 Bags 16500.00
8. Reinforcement 1.64 MT LS 64400.00
9. Hire Labour for Shuttering 141 sqm LS 18800.00
Contd.
60
Sl. No. Description of Item Quantity Labour Water Charges (in Rs.) Material Charges Material Charges
Sl. No. Description of Item Quantity Labour Water Charges (in Rs.) Quantity Charges (in Rs.)
10. A. Plastering (16) 36.12 cum (20 mm th) LS Sand 614 cft 4912.00
10. A. Plastering (16) 36.12 cum (20 mm th) LS Cement 72 Bags 14400.00
10. B. Plastering (14) 3.47 cum LS Sand 573 cft 4584.00
10. B. Plastering (14) 3.47 cum LS Cement 7 Bags 1400.00
11. Cement Punning 0.03 cum 200.00
12. Wood Work 8.82 cft Local Wood 9456.00
Contd.
61
Sl. No. Description of Item Quantity Labour Water Charges (in Rs.) Material Charges Material Charges
Sl. No. Description of Item Quantity Labour Water Charges (in Rs.) Quantity Charges (in Rs.)
13. ASF 0.86 cum LS Stonechips 26 cft 338.00
13. ASF 0.86 cum LS Sand 13.5 cft 108.00
13. ASF 0.86 cum LS Cement 5.6 Bags 1120.00
14. White Washing 127.35 sqm LS 573.00
15. Colour Washing 87.9 sqm LS 879.00
16. Priming Coat 13.76 sqm LS 275.20
17. Painting 13.76 sqm LS 632.96
Contd.
62
Sl. No. Description of Item Quantity Labour Water Charges (in Rs.) Material Charges Material Charges
Sl. No. Description of Item Quantity Labour Water Charges (in Rs.) Quantity Charges (in Rs.)
18. MS Round 18.94 kg LS 646.42
19. Iron Butt Hinges 20 nos. LS 384.00
20. Anodized Aluminium 2 (each) LS 60.00
21. Iron Hasp Bolt 2 (each) LS 160.00
22. Iron Socked 4 (each) LS 130.00
23. Anodized Aluminium Barrel 2 (each) LS 102.00
24. MS Clamp 16 LS 240.00
Contd.
63
Sl. No. Description of Item Quantity Labour Water Charges (in Rs.) Material Charges Material Charges
Sl. No. Description of Item Quantity Labour Water Charges (in Rs.) Quantity Charges (in Rs.)
25. Supply Fitting 4 (each) LS 84.00
26. Ramp LS 1500.00
Total 4119.76 195226.08
N.B. The drawing and estimate should be treated
as reference. The area may vary as per site
condition (like land availability, local material
cost, labour charge, transportation cost etc.),
but the unit cost of construction should be kept
within Rs.2.00 lakh. The changed/modified plan
and estimate must be prepared and checked by
District Engineering Cell and vetted properly by
the concerned district authority before
implementation.
64
400 sqft Additional Class Room(Model Labour
Component)
Sl. No. Item No. of Days No. of Labour No. of Mistry
1. Earthwork in Excavation 2 4 1
2. Earth Ramming 2 2 -
3. BFS (75 mm) 1 2 1
4. 136 (Lean Concrete) 1 3 1
5. a) Reinforcement 1 2 2
5. b) Concrete (M20) 1 6 2
6. Foundation Brickwork (16) upto Plinth 2 4 2
7. Brickwork (16) upto Lintel 4 3 2
8. Lintel (M20) 3 2 2
9. Above Lintel Brickwork (16) 2 4 2
Contd.
65
Sl. No. Item No. of Days No. of Labour No. of Mistry
10. Roof Casting
10. a) Shuttering 2 2 2
10. b) Reinforcement 2 2 2
10. c) Concrete 1 8 3
11. Roof Casting
11. a) 1 1 1
11. b) 7 1 -
12. Plastering Inside 3 2 2
13. Plastering Outside 4 2 2
14. Flooring
14. a) Soling 1 2 1
14. b) Casting 1 2 2
14. c) Polishing 2 2 2
Contd.
66
Sl. No. Item No. of Days No. of Labour No. of Mistry
15. Door Window
15. a) Frame (Fitting) 1 1 2
15. b) Panel 7 2 2
16. Colour Washing Inside 2 1 1
17. Colour Washing Outside 2 1 1
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Title: OPERATING MANUAL CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITY SARVA SHIKSHA ABHIYAN SCHOOL EDUCATION DEPARTMENT GOVERNMENT OF WEST BENGAL


1
OPERATING MANUAL CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITY SARVA
SHIKSHA ABHIYANSCHOOL EDUCATION
DEPARTMENTGOVERNMENT OF WEST BENGAL
2
SIMPLE GUIDELINE AND SUGGESTIONS FOR PEOPLE
CONSTRUCTING SCHOOL BUILDINGS
  • Dr. B.B. Niyogi
  • Chief Engineering Advisor
  • School Education Department
  • Government of West Bengal

3
  • 1. a. First Consideration
  • Budget
  • One should start construction with a budget for
    instance, you could a budget based on an area
    that you have available for construction say _at_
    Rs. 500/- per sqft poor planning needs to major
    over run tropically to major expenses cost of
    land and cost of construction.
  • Selection of a Plot
  • The critical decision before starting
    construction is to decide the location and size
    of plot.
  • Size of the Plot
  • Size of the plot should be depending on size
    of the building and the length-breadth ration of
    the plot should not exceed 12.

4
  •  
  • Legal Aspect
  • Utmost care should be taken with respect to all
    transactions involving land. After having
    ascertaining the bonafides of the land, it would
    be advisable to appoint a good lawyer to ensure
    clear title of the land.

5
  • b. Assistance that to be taken A Check List 
  • Check List
  • 1. Architect/Engineer
  • 2. Contractor
  • 3. Painter
  • 4. Electrician
  • 5. Carpenter
  • 6. Mason
  • 7. Plumber
  • 8. Supplier of Building Materials
  • 9. Neighbours
  • 10. Guardian and VEC Member

6
  • 1. Architecture/Engineer
  • Please make sure that choose a reputed
    Architect/Engineer from near by area where school
    is being constructed
  • 2. Contractor
  • The contractor is responsible for arranging and
    supervising the workmen for different activities
    of construction. Contractors are generally paid
    either on per square foot basis or in terms of
    labour employed. It goes without saying that the
    reliability of your contractor defines the
    quality and durability of the construction.

7
  • 3. Carpenter
  • The carpenter handles any woodwork the
    making of doors and windows, frames for grills
    and related fittings and furniture for the house.
  • 4. Painter
  • After completing the construction
    process, the painter can correct any minor
    detects and paint the house to achieve the
    desired look. Information on painters is
    available at paint stores or you could get a
    recommendation from an acquaintance who has
    recently painted their building.
  • 5. Electrician
  • All of the electrical layout and wiring
    is designed and completed by the electrician.
    Please ensure that only licensed electricians are
    employed for this activity. Electricians can
    normally be contacted at electrical equipment
    shops in the area.

8
  • 6. Mason
  • Laying concrete and bricks, maintaining
    proper even levels and surface layouts
    implementation issues like these are the
    responsibility of the mason.
  •  
  • 7. Plumber
  • Water supply, sanitation and waste
    disposal are important elements for any house.
    The plumber will help you design the best
    location and layouts for these. He will also help
    you install sanitary ware and pipes. For
    references, ask at sanitary ware and hardware
    stores.

9
  • 8. Building Material Suppliers
  • Purchasing all building materials from
    authorized dealers of reputed companies is one
    way of ensuring a durable, long-lasting home. It
    is advisable to check specifications prior to
    purchase. Looking for low-cost options may lead
    to substandard results in construction.
  •  
  • 9. Neighbours
  • Some useful tips can be picked up from people
    who have recently completed constructing their
    own homes. These tips could help in avoiding
    pitfalls, and lead to major savings in time and
    cost.

10
  • There are two types of rate contracts for
    construction
  • A turnkey rate contract, which includes cost of
    construction, labour and cost of building
    materials.
  • Labour contract rate, which excludes cost of
    materials.
  •  
  • In practice, people who are able to devote time
    to the construction process opt for option 2. If,
    however, option 1 is chosen, please ensure that
    both the quality and quantity of materials to be
    used is discussed beforehand.

11
  • Some Tips for saving Time and Money
  • Understand the present and future needs of your
    school.
  • Ensure that the construction plan, working
    drawing and the estimated costs are in place
    before starting construction.
  • Ensure maximum natural light in all the rooms by
    providing adequate number of windows and
    ventilators.
  • Avoid non-standard size doors and windows or
    eliminate them altogether, if not necessary.
  • Use materials available locally.

Contd.
12
  • Plan for regular supply of materials
    beforehand. This avoids delays in construction.
  • Maintain minimal stocks of construction
    materials at the site.
  • Stock all the raw materials properly so that
    they are safe.
  • Fixtures and fittings should be chosen for
    durability rather than just appearance.
  • Electrical points need to be minimized.
  • If air-conditioning is to be used, plan the
    location in advance.

13
  • Table showing Material required to Construct 1
    cum of Concrete Work

Concrete Mixture Ratio of Cement and Coarse Aggregates Water Cement Ratio (W/C) Water (Litres per 50 kg Bag of Cement) Cement (No. of 50 kg Bags) Sand (cum) Coarse Aggregates (cum)
112 0.30 15 11.2 0.40 0.80
11.53 0.42 21 8.0 042 0.83
124 0.55 27.5 6.2 0.43 0.87
136 0.75 37 4.4 0.45 0.90
148 0.95 47.5 3.3 0.46 0.93
14
  • Table showing Material required to Construct 1
    cum of Brick Mortar

Cement Sand Mix Ratio Cement (No. of 50 kg Bags) Sand (cum)
13 2.6 0.267
14 1.9 0.275
16 1.4 0.299
16 1.1 0.308
15
  • Table showing Material required to Construct 12
    mm Plaster for 100 sqm

Cement Sand Mix Ratio Cement (No. of 50 kg Bags) Sand (cum)
12 21 1.4
13 15 1.5
14 12 1.6
16 9 1.8
16
  • Sand
  • Procedures for Identifying Good Quality Sand
  • Good quality sand can be identified easily by
    taking a handful and closing your fist around it.
    Any form of contamination like mud will stick to
    your palm. The presence of clay, grit, pebbles or
    dirt could be harmful in construction. They need
    to be screened or sieved from the sand before
    use.
  • A slightly more scientific method could be to
    fill half a glass tumbler with sand, add water
    into the tumbler and stir. Any form of
    contamination could result in the water turning
    muddy. As a rule, if the content of mud or dust
    exceeds 4 of the total quantity of sand, the
    sand would be washed clean before use. In short,
    sand should not contain clay, dirt, mica or sea
    shells.

17
  • Wet Sand and Associated Problems
  • Sand should not contain water. Generally, if
    the sand contains about 5 of water, then use 25
    additional quantity of sand for construction.
    Sometimes construction labourers add too much
    water which is detrimental to durable
    construction.

18
  • Bricks and their Selection
  • Bricks can be tested just by observation.
    Visually they should be in the correct shape with
    sharp corners. A uniform colour also ensures good
    quality. One test is to break a brick, it should
    not scatter into small pieces. Another process of
    testing is to strike two bricks against each
    other. Good quality bricks produce a ringing
    sound when struck with each other. Also, a good
    brick when dropped from a height of about a meter
    should not break. Another practical test is to
    soak a brick in water for about 24 hours. The
    weight of the brick before and after soaking
    should be checked. If the brick shows an
    additional weight of more than 15 after soaking,
    it should be rejected. For example, a dry brick
    weighing 2 kg should not weigh more than 2.3 kg
    after being soaked in water for 24 hours.

19
  • Steel Rods (Reinforcement Bars)
  • Concrete has good compressive strength.
    However, it does not withstand tensile or bending
    stresses. To overcome this, reinforcement bars
    (steel rods) are placed inside the concrete to
    provide the necessary strength. Hence, the term
    Reinforced Concrete Cement.
  • We suggest that only BIS certified steel bars
    should be used for RCC construction. It is
    essential to ensure when purchasing them that no
    rust is visible on the bars. The steel bars are
    normally fixed in pre-designed formats. So, be
    careful that all design requirements are strictly
    adhered to.
  • Cover Block
  • Use of cover blocks are highly recommended to
    ensure that adequate concrete covers the steel
    bars. Cover blocks are normally made using mortar
    and should be of a thickness of 2 inch for
    footing, 1.5 inch for columns and ½ to ¾ inch for
    slab and beam structures.

20
  • Stone Gravel/Coarse Aggregates
  • Coarse aggregates are normally small pieces of
    stone which give concrete its strength. The two
    most commonly used sizes are ¾ inch or 20 mm and
    ½ inch or 12 mm. At times both are used together
    in the ratio of 6040 or even up to 7030.
  • While selecting the coarse aggregate, the
    following points should be kept in mind
  • Coarse aggregate should be solid, in the shape of
    a cube and free from dirt.
  • Any form of contamination should be immediately
    removed.
  • The right proportion of large and small size
    pieces should be selected. This is to ensure that
    the space between the large stonechips is filled
    in by the smaller pieces.

21
  • Water
  • Water should be free of all contamination when
    used in construction. Salty water or sea water
    should never be used for making RCC. It is
    advisable to use potable/drinkable water, as far
    as possible.
  • Addition of excess water is detrimental to
    concrete. A low water to cement ratio makes the
    construction strong and durable.
  • It is always useful to have containers of five
    or ten liters of water handy while carrying out
    construction. One bag of cement normally requires
    25 liters of water.

22
  • Test of Quantity of Water
  • As a general rule, after mixing the water with
    cement and other ingredients, a ball of concrete
    mix should be made. If this ball is thrown up in
    the air to a height of a meter, it should not
    break or crumble as this is an indication of
    excess water content. It would then be advisable
    to reduce water content in the mix immediately.

23
  • What to Look for when you buy Cement
  • It is advisable to purchase only well known
    brands of cement from reliable sources. A few
    rupees extra is money well spent as an inferior
    quality cement could lead to significantly higher
    cost later. Remember that cement once used cannot
    be replaced or improved in the same way as you
    can do with tiles and other such work. Besides,
    the cost of cement is only a small percentage
    compared to the total cost of construction. As a
    rule, cement should constitute only 10-14 of
    the total construction cost. For example, if the
    total expenditure is about Rs.5 lakh, the cost of
    cement is likely to be 10 to 14 percent, which is
    around 500 bags. At a premium of five rupees per
    bag for good quality cement, the cost of cement
    will increase by about Rs.2500/-, which is quite
    insignificant when compared to the total budget
    of Rs.5 lakh.

24
Type Features Use
Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) It is prepared by grinding clinker along with gypsum. This is available in several grades like 33, 43 and 53. Can be used for all normal works.
Blended/Composite Cement High quality clinker is inter-ground with gypsum and a performance enhancing bonding material like slag or poggolana. Comprises Portland Slag Cement (PSC) or fly ash based Portland Poggolana Cement (PPC) Can be used in all general constructions such as concreting, brick joining, plaster and special constructions. It gives concrete better long-term strength and durability.
25
  • Proper usage of Cement
  • An optimum quantity of cement must be used for
    any construction. It is a myth that high grade
    cements can be used in lower quantities. If lower
    quantities of cements are used, then an
    additional quantity of water is required. This
    would mean a distorted water to cement ratio, and
    the result would reduce the strength and
    durability of the concrete.
  • A common misunderstanding is that high grade
    cements result in better results. The grade of
    cement only indicates its compressive strength
    after a period of 28 days. However, blended
    cement continues to increase in strength beyond
    that period. Therefore, with the long term
    objective of a lasting home, blended or composite
    cements are usually preferred. Yet another
    misconception is that quick seeking cement should
    be used. It is advisable to allow all concrete
    structures the requisite time for setting.

26
  • Ask the mason or contractor to be patient if
    they complain about the time it takes to set.
    Slower setting cement does not necessarily mean
    that it will not provide long-term strength.
  • Some people believe that the colour of cement
    determines its quality. This is totally untrue.
    The colour of the cement is determined by the
    quantity of the raw materials used in its
    manufacture.

27
  • Some Additional Tips
  • If you have doubts about the quality of cement,
    the first step would be to consult the
    manufacturer. However, this simple test will also
    suffice. Make a paste of a cement with one-fourth
    the quantity of water and make cubes or blocks of
    50x50x20 mm size. Leave aside the cubes/blocks
    for a day. Test them to see how easily they
    break. If the cement is of good quality, the
    blocks will not crumble if you try to crush it
    with your fingers.
  • Cement is known to react with water and,
    therefore, protection from moisture is of
    paramount importance. It would be best to store
    the cement bags in an enclosed godown. Ideally,
    the bags should also be placed on a platform at
    least 6 inches above floor level, leaving a gap
    away from the walls. Normally, each stack should
    not have more than 15 bags. A first in first
    out process should be followed. Cement should
    always be used within 23 months of its
    manufacture.

28
  • Formwork (Shuttering)
  • This is the temporary formwork meant to
    support your construction while the concrete work
    is in progress. It comprises of wood props,
    plywood and steel plates. A good formwork should
    be strong, solid and without any gaps so that
    water leakage through through the joint or any
    gap is almost minimum. 24 gauge micron polythene
    sheet should be used to prevent any water
    leakage. Apply a layer of releasing agent (like
    diesel or grease mix) to the formwork where the
    concrete is to be poured. This enables it to be
    removed with ease and ensures a smooth finish.

29
  • Concrete Work
  • For RCC work, the ingredients of concrete
    should be in the ratio of 11.53 (cement one
    part, sand 1.5 parts and coarse aggregates 3
    parts). All of these items are measured by volume
    and are best measured using a container of wood
    or steel. Traditionally, the size of this
    container would be 350x250x400 mm, which holds 35
    litres. While preparing the mixture, 25 litres of
    water must be added per bag of cement. If the mix
    is prepared in a machine, it should be mixed for
    at least 2 minutes so that the mixture blends
    well with the water. If you are mixing by hand,
    then it is advisable to prepare a dry mix of
    cement and sand in a tray. After blending, when
    the colour appears uniform, the coarse aggregate
    may be added and then finally add the water.

30
  • The concrete mix should be cast before it
    begins to set. Normally, concreting should be
    completed within 30 minutes to an hour. In case
    of any delay, do not add any more water just to
    improve its flowing consistency. The casting of
    concrete should be done continuously, i.e., layer
    over layer. The mixture should be poured from a
    maximum height of 1.5 metres. This avoids the
    ingredients separating. The mixture must then be
    properly compacted. It is best to complete this
    task with a needle vibrator. If this is
    unavailable, an iron rod could be substituted.
    This is done to ensure that there are no air
    bubbles in the concrete, as this would weaken it.

31
  • Brickwork
  • The following mortars are suggested -
  • for a 4 inch wall (divider walls in the middle
    of the house)
  • cementsand 14
  • for a 9 inch wall (outer walls)
  • cementsand 16

32
  • Before beginning work, ensure that the bricks
    have been soaked in water for 8 hours. Do not use
    completely wet bricks as the cement mixture will
    not stick properly.
  • After joining the bricks, the correct cutting or
    raking of the mortar is essential. This helps the
    adhesion of the plaster. The thickness of the
    brick joints should not be more than 1 cm. The
    vertical joints should never be continuous.
  • It is best not to lay bricks higher than 5
    feet at a time, as the mortar should given
    adequate time to set. The task of joining should
    begin from 2 corners (3-4 layers). The parts in
    between should be filled within the leftover
    frames. The line level and plumb need to be
    continuously checked.
  • Curing must be done for at least 10 days.
  • In this context, please read the section on
    the quality of bricks carefully.

33
  • Plastering
  • Plaster is the skin of your house. Just as our
    skin gives shape and texture to our body, and
    protects your house from damage caused by salts,
    acid and rain. It also makes your house look
    beautiful. Therefore, it is important to pay
    close attention to it.
  • Ensure that the wall is slightly wet before
    starting the plastering. Dry walls adsorb water
    from the plaster and this will cause the plaster,
    in time, to fall off.
  • Check that the mason has not prepared the mix
    for the whole day. The mix must be prepared only
    in small quantities as much as will be used in
    an hour. Your mason can, however, keep a large
    quantity of dry mix ready.

34
  • The usual mix proportion is
  • 15 to 16 for internal plaster
  • 14 to 15 for external plaster
  • 13 to 14 for the ceiling
  • However, if the sand particles are very fine,
    14 ratio mix is suitable for all three areas.
  • Use wooden float for finishing as steel floats
    can sometimes cause small cracks.
  • Curing should be done for 1014 days.

35
  • Curing
  • The process of maintaining moisture in the
    concrete is called curing. Concrete begins to dry
    after casting. So, the parts exposed to the
    environment should be cured to ensure that the
    concrete surface is never dry. This needs to be
    done continuously, till the mandated period of
    curing. Usually, 10-14 days of curing is
    considered optimal. It is best to make small
    curing ponds or bunds on flat or horizontal
    surfaces. For vertical surfaces, you may wrap
    jute or hessian cloth on the surface and then
    pour water onto it. This helps keep the surface
    wet for longer periods.

36
  • Electrical Works
  • Select electrical goods for your house
    carefully (these must be ISI marked).
  •  Make provisions for switch boards at the
    beginning of construction, or it will clash with
    the décor of your house later on.
  •  Make proper arrangements for earthing in your
    house and have it checked regularly.
  • Do not make several temporary connections from
    one point.

37
Avoid using too many joints in the electrical
wiring. Use good quality wires and insulation
material. To protect your electric equipment,
use a fuse on every power board. Do not use
extension boards for permanent connections.
Keep the power supply cord safe from water, heat
and oil. Keep electrical materials away from
children. Note Use electricity with restraint.
Have your connections, wiring etc. checked
regularly. Get your electric work done only from
a registered or license-holding electrical
contractor.
38
  • Plumbing
  •   Use good quality ISI marked GI pipes and
    fittings for the water supply.
  •   PVC pipes for sewage discharge are both
    durable and convenient.
  • The joints of pipes and fittings must be
    leak-proof. They should be double checked before
    laying the tiles.

39
  • Painting
  • Painting provides protection to the walls of
    your house as well as so much more. It is said
    that the colours of your house reflect your
    personality. The painting work is broken up into
    three parts
  • 1.      Pre-painting Work
  • 2.      Surface Preparation
  • 3.      Painting
  • Painting your Interiors step by step
  • Clean the surface thoroughly with sand-paper.
  • Then apply a coat of good quality primer. If
    required, apply a second coat.
  • Once the primer has dried, apply one or two
    coats of acrylic-based putty.
  • Apply a further coat, or two or three coats.
    Thinner should be used as per requirement.

40
  • Here are some Suggestions to make the Painting
    Work Easy
  • If there is any dampness or cracks or other
    damages on your walls, have these repaired first.
  • Select in advance the shades and colour schemes
    you wish to have on your walls. You can get help
    choosing the colours from catalogues, displays
    and show-rooms of well-known companies.
  • Find out the entire product range of the
    company so you can select the colour that suits
    your needs.
  • Choose light colours for outer walls. This will
    keep interior temperatures low.
  • Also use light colours on internal walls where
    a lot of natural light is reflected.

41
  • An Account of Expenditure Material

Sand Sand Sand Sand Sand Sand Sand
Sl. No. Date Supplier Quantity Rate per cft Expenditure Remarks







Total Total Total Total
42
Steel Steel Steel Steel Steel Steel Steel Steel
Sl. No. Date Supplier Dia. of Steel Rods (in mm) Quantity Rate (Rs./Quintal) Expenditure Remarks






Total Total Total Total
43
Gravel Gravel Gravel Gravel Gravel Gravel Gravel Gravel Gravel
Sl. No. Date Supplier Quantity of Gravels Quantity of Gravels Quantity of Gravels Rate/cft Expenditure Remarks
Sl. No. Date Supplier ½ ¾ 5/4 Rate/cft Expenditure Remarks





Total Total Total Total Total Total
44
Bricks Bricks Bricks Bricks Bricks Bricks Bricks
Sl. No. Date Supplier Quantity Cost/1000 Expenditure Remarks






Total Total Total
45
Cement Cement Cement Cement Cement Cement Cement Cement
Sl. No. Date Supplier Cement Brand No. of Bags Rate/Bag Expenditure Remarks






Total Total Total Total
46
Other Expenses Other Expenses Other Expenses Other Expenses Other Expenses
Sl. No. Date Material Expenditure Remarks







Total Total
47
Expenditure Labour
Labour Payments Labour Payments Labour Payments Labour Payments Labour Payments Labour Payments Labour Payments
Sl. No. Date Contractor No. of Labourers No. of Labourers Expenditure Remarks
Sl. No. Date Contractor Chief Mason/Skilled Labour Labour Charges Expenditure Remarks




Total Total Total
48
ACR Cost of Construction as a Percentage
Sl. No. Item of Expenditure
1. Foundation Soil 1-3
2. Foundation (MarkingDigging) 2-4
3. Foundation Structure 6-8
4. Cement 10-14
5. Sand 3-5
6. Stone Aggregate 4-6
7. Water 0-2
8. Steel Rod 3-6
9. Shuttering 2-4
10. Brick 8-10
Contd.
49
Sl. No. Item of Expenditure
11. Flooring 3-7
12. Door Window 5-8
13. Concrete Contractor Labour 6-10
14. Design Fee 2-3
15. Electric Work 4-6
16. Plumbing/Sanitation 4-6
17. Painting 6-10
18. Boundary Wall 1-3
19. Labour except Concrete Work 8-12
Average Expenditure (78127)/2 103 (Approx.) Average Expenditure (78127)/2 103 (Approx.) Average Expenditure (78127)/2 103 (Approx.)
50
Unit Cost of Building(per square feet area)
Sl. No. Item Rate/sqft
1. Roof Rs.120.00
2. Brickwork Rs.100.00
3. Plastering Rs.75.00
4. Chaja Lintel Rs.20.00
5. Door Window Rs.70.00
6. Pipeline Bathroom Rs.40.00
7. Electric Rs.40.00
8. White Wash Colour Wash Rs.10.00 Rs.30.00
9. Boundary Wall Rs.60.00
10. Flooring (net cement) Rs.25.00
51
1. Calculation for Roof
  • Sample (100 sqft roof area)
  • Cement 7 bags Rs.1,750/-
  • Stonechips 33 cft Rs.1,320/-
  • Sand Rs.300/-
  • Reinforcement Rs.5,000/-
  • Labour Rs.3,500/-
  • Total Rs.11,870/-

52
2. Calculation for Brickwork
  • Sample (1000 sqft plinth area)
  • a) Brick 4000 upto plinth
  • 8000 plinth to roof
  • Total 12000 Nos. _at_ Rs.6.00/piece
  • Rs.72,000/-
  • b) Mortar 54 bag cement Rs.13,000/-
  • 400 cft sand Rs.6,000/-
  • c) Labour Rs.9,000/-
  • Total Rs.(72,000/- Rs.13,000/-
  • 6,000/- 9,000/-)
  • Rs.1,00,000/- (approx)

53
3. Calculation for PlasteringSample (1000 sqft
plinth area) a) Inside 100 bags b) Outside
60 bag Rs.40,000/-c) Sand
Rs.18,000/-d) Labour Rs.17,000/- Total
75,000/-4. Calculation for Chaja Lintel a)
Reinforcement 200 nos. Rs.10,000/-b) Cement
20 bag Rs.5,000/- c) Stonechips 100 cft
Rs.4,000/- d) Sand 70 cft Rs.1,000/-
Total Rs.20,000/-
54
5. Calculation for Door Windowa) Door
Rs.4,000/-b) Window Rs.3,000/-
Total 7,000/-6. Calculation for Pipeline
Bathroom a) Pipeline Rs.20,000/-b) Bathroom
Rs.20,000/- Total Rs.40,000/-7. Calculation
for White Wash Colour Wash a) White Wash
Rs.10,000/-b) Colour Wash Rs.30,000/- Hence,
Rs.10/- Rs.30/- per sqft respectively.
55
5. Calculation for Flooringa) Mozaic (Gray
colour) Rs.45/- per sqft b) Mozaic (with
white cement) Rs.60/- per sqft c) Marble
(2-0 x 2-0) Slab Rs.(70/- 20/-)
Rs.90/-
per sqftd) Marble Large Slab (Dugri) Rs.(120/-
30/-)
Rs.150/-
Rs.(150/- 30/-) Rs.180/-
Rs.(180/-
30/-) Rs.210/-
56

Sl. No. Total Cost per sqft
1. Rs.120/-
2. Rs.100/-
3. Rs.75/-
4. Rs.20/-
5. Rs.70/-
6. Rs.(2020)/-
7. Rs.(2020)/-
8. Rs.(10/45 30)/-
9. Rs.(60/520)/-
10. Rs.(25/460)/-
57
Break-up of Materials and Labour Items
Sl. No. Description of Item Quantity Labour Water Charges (in Rs.) Material Charges Material Charges
Sl. No. Description of Item Quantity Labour Water Charges (in Rs.) Quantity Charges (in Rs.)
1. Earthwork in Excavation 21.29 cum 891.49
2. Sand Filling 19.63 cum 3228.35
3. BFS 60.6 sqm LS Bricks 1940 nos. 3880.00
4. PCC 3.57 cum LS Stonechips 5.6 cft 1392.30
4. PCC 3.57 cum LS Sand 55 cft 440.00
4. PCC 3.57 cum LS Cement 5 Bags 1000.00
Contd.
58
Sl. No. Description of Item Quantity Labour Water Charges (in Rs.) Material Charges Material Charges
Sl. No. Description of Item Quantity Labour Water Charges (in Rs.) Quantity Charges (in Rs.)
5. DPC 0.18 cum LS Stonechips 5.6 cft 72.80
5. DPC 0.18 cum LS Sand 2.8 cft 22.40
5. DPC 0.18 cum LS Cement 1.17 Bags 234.00
6. Brickworks 17 cum LS Bricks 6250 nos. 24000.00
6. Brickworks 17 cum LS Sand 175 cft 2000.00
6. Brickworks 17 cum LS Cement 34 Bags 8500.00
Contd.
59
Sl. No. Description of Item Quantity Labour Water Charges (in Rs.) Material Charges Material Charges
Sl. No. Description of Item Quantity Labour Water Charges (in Rs.) Quantity Charges (in Rs.)
7. Cement Concrete (124) 10 cum LS Stonechips 300 cft 10000.00
7. Cement Concrete (124) 10 cum LS Sand 150 cft 1800.00
7. Cement Concrete (124) 10 cum LS Cement 65 Bags 16500.00
8. Reinforcement 1.64 MT LS 64400.00
9. Hire Labour for Shuttering 141 sqm LS 18800.00
Contd.
60
Sl. No. Description of Item Quantity Labour Water Charges (in Rs.) Material Charges Material Charges
Sl. No. Description of Item Quantity Labour Water Charges (in Rs.) Quantity Charges (in Rs.)
10. A. Plastering (16) 36.12 cum (20 mm th) LS Sand 614 cft 4912.00
10. A. Plastering (16) 36.12 cum (20 mm th) LS Cement 72 Bags 14400.00
10. B. Plastering (14) 3.47 cum LS Sand 573 cft 4584.00
10. B. Plastering (14) 3.47 cum LS Cement 7 Bags 1400.00
11. Cement Punning 0.03 cum 200.00
12. Wood Work 8.82 cft Local Wood 9456.00
Contd.
61
Sl. No. Description of Item Quantity Labour Water Charges (in Rs.) Material Charges Material Charges
Sl. No. Description of Item Quantity Labour Water Charges (in Rs.) Quantity Charges (in Rs.)
13. ASF 0.86 cum LS Stonechips 26 cft 338.00
13. ASF 0.86 cum LS Sand 13.5 cft 108.00
13. ASF 0.86 cum LS Cement 5.6 Bags 1120.00
14. White Washing 127.35 sqm LS 573.00
15. Colour Washing 87.9 sqm LS 879.00
16. Priming Coat 13.76 sqm LS 275.20
17. Painting 13.76 sqm LS 632.96
Contd.
62
Sl. No. Description of Item Quantity Labour Water Charges (in Rs.) Material Charges Material Charges
Sl. No. Description of Item Quantity Labour Water Charges (in Rs.) Quantity Charges (in Rs.)
18. MS Round 18.94 kg LS 646.42
19. Iron Butt Hinges 20 nos. LS 384.00
20. Anodized Aluminium 2 (each) LS 60.00
21. Iron Hasp Bolt 2 (each) LS 160.00
22. Iron Socked 4 (each) LS 130.00
23. Anodized Aluminium Barrel 2 (each) LS 102.00
24. MS Clamp 16 LS 240.00
Contd.
63
Sl. No. Description of Item Quantity Labour Water Charges (in Rs.) Material Charges Material Charges
Sl. No. Description of Item Quantity Labour Water Charges (in Rs.) Quantity Charges (in Rs.)
25. Supply Fitting 4 (each) LS 84.00
26. Ramp LS 1500.00
Total 4119.76 195226.08
N.B. The drawing and estimate should be treated
as reference. The area may vary as per site
condition (like land availability, local material
cost, labour charge, transportation cost etc.),
but the unit cost of construction should be kept
within Rs.2.00 lakh. The changed/modified plan
and estimate must be prepared and checked by
District Engineering Cell and vetted properly by
the concerned district authority before
implementation.
64
400 sqft Additional Class Room(Model Labour
Component)
Sl. No. Item No. of Days No. of Labour No. of Mistry
1. Earthwork in Excavation 2 4 1
2. Earth Ramming 2 2 -
3. BFS (75 mm) 1 2 1
4. 136 (Lean Concrete) 1 3 1
5. a) Reinforcement 1 2 2
5. b) Concrete (M20) 1 6 2
6. Foundation Brickwork (16) upto Plinth 2 4 2
7. Brickwork (16) upto Lintel 4 3 2
8. Lintel (M20) 3 2 2
9. Above Lintel Brickwork (16) 2 4 2
Contd.
65
Sl. No. Item No. of Days No. of Labour No. of Mistry
10. Roof Casting
10. a) Shuttering 2 2 2
10. b) Reinforcement 2 2 2
10. c) Concrete 1 8 3
11. Roof Casting
11. a) 1 1 1
11. b) 7 1 -
12. Plastering Inside 3 2 2
13. Plastering Outside 4 2 2
14. Flooring
14. a) Soling 1 2 1
14. b) Casting 1 2 2
14. c) Polishing 2 2 2
Contd.
66
Sl. No. Item No. of Days No. of Labour No. of Mistry
15. Door Window
15. a) Frame (Fitting) 1 1 2
15. b) Panel 7 2 2
16. Colour Washing Inside 2 1 1
17. Colour Washing Outside 2 1 1
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