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Independence For Latin America

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Title: Independence For Latin America Author: Adam Gerlach Last modified by: agerlach Created Date: 4/5/2010 2:59:53 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Independence For Latin America


1
Independence For Latin America
2
Revolutions in America
  • Plantation
  • Creoles
  • Mestizos
  • Joseph Bonaparte
  • Cabildos

3
Revolutions in America
  • The United States Revolution paved the way for
    many other revolutions
  • Why did the revolutions happen?
  • Life in the 1700s
  • Rigid social classes
  • Highest social class born in Europe
  • Enjoyed social privileges and controlled most of
    the wealth
  • Plantation owners
  • Plantation is a large farm
  • Creoles born in the America
  • Parents born in Spain
  • Rich and well educated, not trusted
  • Jealous of the Spaniards
  • Mestizos
  • Part Indian Part Spanish
  • Crafts People and shop owners
  • Few were rich

4
The Lower Classes
  • Indians
  • Made up the majority of the population
  • Had little to do with society
  • Personal servants and laborers
  • Poor and had few Rights
  • Africansslaves
  • Property of their owners
  • The three lower classes made up the majority of
    the people living in Spanish America
  • Poor
  • Few rights
  • Little chance at an education
  • Class systems varied from colony to colony but
    the general situation was the same.

5
(No Transcript)
6
What Events Inspired Spanish America?
  • Enlightenment
  • Locke and Voltaire
  • American Revolution
  • Colonies win
  • French Revolution
  • All of these events led the people in Spanish
    America to demand their own rights

7
French Help
  • 1799 a revolutionary leader came into power
  • Napoleon Bonaparte
  • 1808 Invades Spain
  • Joseph Bonaparte is placed on the throne of Spain
  • This event allowed the Spanish colonies to
    declare independence with out being disloyal to
    the king
  • Revolutions broke out in 1810 with local
    governments
  • Cabildossmall governments or city councils
  • The time was right to declare independence from
    Spain
  • Caracas- Venezuela
  • Buenos Aires-Capital of La Plata
  • Argentina, Uruguay, Bolivia, Paraguay
  • Bogata-New Grenada
  • Quito-Ecuador
  • Santiago-Chile
  • All of these revolutions began with Cabildos
  • Mexico is the only exception Started by a
    Creole Priest

8
Quiz 1
  • If your parents were born in Spain and you were
    born in Latin America what are you?
  • Indian Spaniard
  • City council in Latin America
  • Large farm
  • The brother of Napoleon
  • Creole
  • Mestizo
  • Cabildos
  • Plantation
  • Joseph Bonaparte

9
Baukman and Haiti
  • Hispaniola
  • Mulattos
  • Voodoo
  • Maroons
  • Baukman
  • Machetes
  • Night of Fire

10
Haiti Prior to 1791
  • French Colony called St. Domingue
  • Western third of Hispaniola
  • Richest colony in the Caribbean
  • Taken over in the late 1600s by the French
  • 18th Century African Slaves were brought to the
    colonies
  • Sugar, coffee, cotton and indigo.
  • Indigo is a deep blue dye used in cotton
  • The French landowners became very wealthy
  • Need for more land and slaves
  • 700,000 slaves
  • 35,000 French
  • 40,000 mulattos
  • French fathers, slave mothers

11
Hispaniola
12
The beginning of Revolution
  • French to Slave Ratio
  • 20-1
  • Why didnt the slaves rebel?
  • The French controlled all the guns
  • The slaves didnt stand a chance
  • August 1791
  • Maroons were hiding in the mountains practicing
    Voodoo
  • Maroons-escaped slaves
  • Drums beating celebrating a voodoo rite
  • A revolution was being planned
  • A priest named Boukman led the ceremony
  • Leaders of the slaves from across Plain du Nord

13
Baukman
  • A foreman who ran field crews, worked his way up
    to a coachman
  • Boukman was a huge man that commanded respect
  • He inspired his followers by telling them that if
    they die during the rebellion they would wake up
    in Africa
  • One week later
  • August 22
  • 50,000 Slaves rose up armed with scythes and
    machetes
  • Machetes-a large heavy knife used to cut
    sugarcane and brush
  • Killed and tortured plantation owners and their
    families
  • Set fires to everything
  • The night became as bright as day
  • All plantations in Plain du Nord were destroyed
  • Called the Night of Fire

14
The Struggle Continues
  • Boukmans uprising surprised the French
  • The French soldiers fought back even harder
  • Thousands of slaves were killed
  • The rest were chased into hiding
  • St Domingue is divided into two parts
  • Mountains-slaves
  • Coastal towns- French soldiers and planters and
    officials
  • The uprising spread to the western part of the
    island and was largely controlled
  • Boukman was killed in battle (beheaded)
  • Head publicly displayed
  • Boukman was replaced by Biassou and Jean Francois

15
Quiz 2
  1. Who was the leader of the rebellion in Hispaniola
  2. What is an escaped slave called
  3. French father slave mother
  4. The night where all of the plantations in Plain
    du Nord were burned
  5. A deadly weapon in the hands of a slave
  • Boukman
  • Maroon
  • Mulatto
  • Night of Fire
  • Machete

16
Toussaint LOuverture in Haiti
  • Toussaint LOuverture
  • Guerilla Army
  • Napoleon Bonaparte
  • General Leclerc
  • Dessalines
  • Yellow Fever

17
Toussaint louverture
  • Francois Dominique Toussaint
  • Added lOuverture to the end of his last name
  • Born 1743 on a plantation in Northern St.
    Domingue
  • His father was an African chief captured
  • Legend
  • Taught him that knowledge is power
  • Step-Father taught him how to get power
  • Taught him how to read and write in French and
    Latin
  • How to use herbs and plants for healing
  • Did not participate in the Night of Fire
  • When the rebellion reached his plantation
  • Family first
  • Family of the plantation manager
  • Joined the revolution

18
Early in the revolution
  • Toussaint was a doctor
  • Then began giving military advise and medical
    care
  • Toussaint urged leaders to teach the troops
    discipline
  • Stop destroying everything
  • Use the things to help themselves
  • Toussaint is made a commander
  • Taught the soldiers discipline
  • Trained them like professional soldiers

19
Toussaint Leads the revolution
  • Biassou and Jean Francois were poor leaders
  • They were disloyal to the cause of freedom
  • 1791 French looked to be putting down the revolt
  • Biassou and Jean Fran?is agreed to turn over the
    former slaves in exchange for their own freedom
  • Toussaint organized the slaves into a guerilla
    army
  • Guerilla army- a group of soldiers that are not
    well trained
  • They attacked the French when they least expected
    it
  • Attack- and retreat into the mountains
  • Very fast and in unexpected directions
  • The French could never relax

20
Toussaint
  • Memorable figure as he rode
  • Rode without a saddle
  • Dressed in a French uniform
  • Handkerchief on his head
  • Odd shape under his coat
  • Hunchback

21
Victories (triumphs)
  • Won several victories over the French
  • Promised the townspeople that he would treat them
    well if they surrendered
  • The French refused to free the slaves
  • Spain and Great Britain were at war with the
    French
  • Toussaint joined the Spanish forces in Santo
    Domingo
  • Named a general an won battles for the Spanish
  • Still felt some loyalty to France
  • 1794 France passed a law freeing all slaves
  • Toussaint joined the French and drove the Spanish
    from the island
  • 1795 most important man in St. Domingue

22
The most important man
  • Concerned about the economy of the island
  • Most of the plantations were destroyed
  • Asked the former slaves to come back to work and
    share in the profits
  • Toussaint began to create a separate government
  • Constitution was written
  • Declared slavery ended forever
  • Negotiated treaties with Great Britain and the
    United States
  • Traded sugar for arms
  • 1801 Ruler of Hispaniola

23
Napoleon
  • Napoleon needed the wealth of St. Domingue to
    fund his wars
  • Economy could only be brought back through
    slavery
  • The invasion of St. Domingue
  • Led by his brother-in-law General Victor Leclerc
  • 43000 soldierslargest invasion force in France
    history
  • Spies reported Napoleons plans to Toussaint
  • I have known they would come and that the reason
    behind it would be that one and only goal
    reinstatement of slavery. However, we will never
    again submit to that.
  • Preparations for war
  • Imported weapons from the US, reinforced forts
  • Dug pits and trenches in the forest
  • Drafted all men over 12

24
The invasion of St. Domingue
  • The people are besides themselves with fury.
    They never withdraw or give up. They sing as
    they are facing death and they still encourage
    each other while they are dying. They seem to
    not know pain
  • send reinforcements
  • Leclerc knew that he didnt stand a chance
  • Meeting with one of his officers
  • Toussaint and his family are captured and sent
    back to France
  • In overthrowing me you have cut down in St.
    Domingue only the trunk of the tree liberty. It
    will spring up again from the roots, for they are
    many and they are deep.
  • Toussaint and his family are separated
  • Sent to Switzerland

25
France Loses St. Domingue
  • The French were having a new problem
  • The guerilla war continued
  • Thousands of black people were killed
  • The more that were killed the greater the
    resistance
  • Jacques Dessalines
  • No loyalty to France
  • Wanted to end slavery
  • Make St. Domingue independent
  • Burning of plantations continued
  • French had superior weapons
  • Only a matter of time

26
Yellow Fever
  • Deadly disease spread by mosquitoes
  • Thousands of French Soldiers died
  • Unable to conquer the epidemic
  • 8000 soldiers lived to sail back home
  • Why didnt the Slaves get Yellow fever?
  • January 1, 1804 St. Domingue declared independent
  • New name Haiti
  • Indian name before Europeans settled there.
  • Haiti is Rebuilt
  • Dessalines becomes dictator
  • October 1806 he is murdered
  • Haiti has been ruled by dictators since and is
    now one of the poorest countries of the world

27
Quiz 3
  • What disease ended the revolution on Hispaniola
  • Who was the leader that had no loyalty to France
  • Who is Napoleons brother in law
  • Who was a doctor at the beginning of the
    Revolution
  • What is an army that fights and retreats and
    hides in the trees or mountains
  • Yellow Fever
  • Dessalines
  • General LeClerc
  • Toussaint L Ouverture
  • Guerilla Army

28
Mexicos Fight for independence
  • Hacienda
  • Padre Miguel Hidalgo y Castilla
  • Grito De Dolores
  • Jose Maria Morelos
  • Agustin de Iturbide

29
Mexicos Fight for independence
  • The Revolution for Independence began with a
    group of men called the Literary and Social Club
    of Queretaro
  • Not really a social club, they were plotting the
    revolution against Spain
  • The Indians were unhappy
  • Not enough land
  • Forced to work on haciendas or farms
  • Little or no pay
  • Owed money to the landowners
  • Couldnt leave until their debts were paid
  • The Mestizos were unhappy
  • Poor and didnt have good jobs
  • Looked down upon
  • Hoped that independence would bring more power
    power
  • The Creoles were unhappy
  • Shut off from the power
  • Professionals and landowners (owned the
    haciendas)
  • No Spaniards, the Creoles could control the
    government

30
Padre Miguel hidalgo y Castilla
  • The leading member of the Literary and Social
    Club of Queretaro
  • Priest in the village of Dolores
  • Creole who lived on a hacienda until he was 12
  • Sent to school at 12 and studied for 12 years
  • Became a priest and a teacher
  • Eventually became the head of the Catholic
    college at Valladolid
  • He was a success, Paid well, well respected, did
    important work
  • He had become a trouble maker
  • Spent his time teaching about how to improve the
    government
  • Put the college in debt
  • Forced to quit his job and became a priest in a
    very small village

31
A good Priest
  • Spent 10 years in a small village before moving
    on to a larger church in Delores
  • There he helped the Otomi Indians plant grape
    vines and mulberry trees
  • Wine and silk worms
  • Illegal
  • He went to Queretaro to meet with his friends
  • Juan Aldema,
  • Military officer opposed to Spanish rule
  • Ignacio Allende
  • Captain and commander in a local army post
  • Talked about the problems of the country

32
Revolutionary Times
  • 1810 Mexico had been under Spanish control for
    300 years
  • Spanish king is dethroned
  • Joseph Bonaparte
  • The revolutionaries were now fighting against
    France
  • The members of the LSCQ began to plot the
    revolution
  • Wanted to improve peoples lives
  • Wanted more power for themselves
  • They were Creoles
  • The LSCQ had been plotting for a year and decided
    that October 2 was the date for the uprising to
    begin

33
September 15th
  • The revolution begins
  • Their plot had been discovered
  • What should be done?
  • Hidalgo In action everything is accomplished, we
    must not lose time you will see the oppressors
    yoke broken and beaten to the ground
  • Hidalgo rang the church bell and the people
    gathered in front of the church
  • Hidalgo told them now was the time to throw out
    the Spaniards
  • No more haciendas
  • Independence and Death to the Spaniards! Long
    live the Virgin of Guadalupe
  • Called the Grito de Dolores
  • News spread quickly within a week 25000 people
    had joined the rebellion

34
Padre Miguel Hidalgo y Castilla
  • 57 years old when the revolution began
  • No military experience
  • Medium height, dark complexion, rounded shoulders
  • Green eyes
  • Slow movements
  • Head drooped over his chest
  • Nearly bald

35
The beginning of the Revolution
  • The army quickly captured several towns
  • Guanajauto
  • Hundreds versus thousands 500-2000
  • The town was defenseless and the army looted
  • Hidalgo ordered them to stop but they ignored
  • Lack of discipline was a problem
  • Hidalgo felt that soldiers should be allowed to
    loot as a reward for helping the rebellion
  • They continued to win battles
  • More people joined
  • Octoberon to Mexico City
  • Few people along the way joined
  • Hidalgo changes his mind
  • On to Guadalajara
  • Time to plant crops
  • The army dwindled
  • Down to 7000 soldiers

36
Guadalajara
  • Hidalgo was greeted like a hero
  • Time used to train the army, make cannons and
    weapons
  • Spain was also preparing
  • The battle lasted 6 hours
  • A lucky shot
  • The survivors fled to Saltillo
  • Led into an ambush and captured
  • Leaders were tried and sentenced to death
  • Hidalgo is shot by a firing squad on July 31,
    1811
  • Hidalgo failed to win the revolution
  • He is still the main hero of Mexicos struggle
    for independence

37
Jose Maria Morelos
  • After Hidalgo the army broke up but the
    revolution continued
  • Guerilla attacks
  • Lots of leaders
  • Jose Maria Morelos
  • Friend of Hidalgo
  • Didnt think they could win by fighting the
    Spaniards in open battle
  • Guerilla tactics
  • Continued the guerilla war for 5 years
  • Well disciplined and well equipped
  • He had a specific plan for the revolution
  • Governments should treat everyone as equals
  • Only people born in Mexico should be allowed to
    hold political office
  • Take land away for hacienda owners
  • Captured on Nov 15 1815
  • Shot

38
The Long Road to Victory
  • The country had been at war for 5 years
  • Crops failed
  • Landowners driven from land or run away
  • Indians were fighting
  • Bandits
  • Poor business
  • The Spanish could not defeat the rebels, ?The
    rebels could not beat the Spanish
  • 1821 Agustin de Iturbide joins the rebels
  • Spanish army officer accused of misusing funds
  • Brought his army unit into the war on the side of
    the rebels
  • The tide turned in favor of the rebels
  • September 27, 1821 Mexico becomes a free and
    independent nation

39
Simon Bolívar the Liberator
  • Francisco de Miranda
  • Simon Bolívar
  • Liberator
  • Conspirator
  • Royalist
  • Sucre

40
Simon Bolívar The Liberator
  • Born in Spain
  • Met Maria Teresa at the age of 17
  • Fell in love immediately, got married at 18
  • Moved to Venezuela
  • Maria dies one year later from yellow fever
  • If he had stayed in Spain she would not have died
  • If he stayed South America would be much
    different
  • Simon Bolívar was the most famous liberator of
    South America
  • Liberator- a person who frees a country from an
    enemy.

41
After the Death of Maria
  • Bolívar returns to Spain
  • Read books by Locke, Voltaire and Montesquieu
  • Venezuela must become independent
  • 1805 Visits Italy
  • Climbs to a Religious shrine above Rome
  • I swear by the God of my fathers and the honor
    of my country. I will not rest, not in body or
    soul, till I have broken the chains of Spain.
  • My wifes death led me early in my career onto
    the road of politics.

42
Failed Rebellion
  • 1806 Francisco de Miranda tries to liberate
    Venezuela
  • Miranda fought in the French Revolution
  • Been to the US. GW, BF, TJ
  • 150 Men 3 ships 1 from Saint Domingo one from
    Britain
  • Stopped before he could land on Venezuelan soil
  • Went to Barbados
  • more ships and men from the British
  • Could not get local support
  • The Creoles Enjoyed being 2nd and thought Miranda
    was a troublemaker

43
Return to Venezuela
  • 1807 Bolívar returns to Venezuela
  • Returned to his family hacienda and became a
    wealthy Creole farmer
  • 1808 Napoleon overthrows the Spanish King and
    places Joseph on the throne
  • 1810 the Creoles begin to think that Miranda was
    right
  • Simon Bolívar was one of the conspirators
  • Conspirator-someone who secretly plans an
    unlawful action

44
The Beginning
  • The Creoles removed the Highest ranking Spanish
    officer in Venezuela
  • Loyalty to the king
  • Bolívar went to get help from Great Britain
  • Failed but was able to get Miranda (60) to come
    back
  • July 5 1811 Venezuelan independence is declared
  • Spanish forces were organizing
  • Some Creoles still opposed independence
    (royalists)

45
The Earth Shakes
  • The revolution army gained important victories
  • No support for a new government
  • Bolívar and Miranda began to argue
  • Bolívar- Creoles
  • Miranda- Mestizos and Indians
  • Both were strong willed and proud.
  • The both wanted the glory and power of being a
    leader
  • Gave the royalists the upper hand
  • Earthquake
  • 20000 casualties
  • Royalist controlled towns spared (God)

46
Aftershocks
  • Miranda tried to negotiate letting the rebels
    leave
  • Bolívar turned him over to Spanish authorities
  • Miranda dies four years later in prison
  • Bolívar and his allies leave the country
  • Bolívar goes to Bogota, New Grenada
  • Joins rebels in Cucuta as a commander
  • Promoted to general
  • Back to Venezuela
  • Fight became very bloody
  • Rebels were executed
  • Executioners were exterminated
  • Both sides committed acts of terror and cruelty

47
On to Caracas
  • Bolívar reached Caracas within 3 months
  • The people began to call him The Liberator
  • Quick victory but the war was far from over
  • More bloody and brutal
  • Llaneros (cowboys) were supportive of the
    royalists and drove Bolívar back to New Grenada
  • Led by Boves--very blood thirsty
  • King Ferdinand Returned to power and sent 11000
    men to regain Venezuela and New Grenada
  • Spanish commanders were ruthless in attacking
  • Bolívar Escapes to Haiti

48
Bolívars Daring Plan
  • Bolívar never gave up and asks Pétion (leader of
    Haiti for help
  • Recognize the Haitian government
  • Free all slaves
  • Bolívar leaves with 200 soldiers on 7 small ships
  • Could not land
  • The llaneros had become unhappy with the spanish
  • Up the Orinoco River to Angostura
  • The llaneros joined along with 4000 British
    volunteers

49
On to Bogotá
  • Bolívar decided to go on to Bogotá
  • Crossing the Llanos was horrible
  • Clothing Mildewed
  • Saddles and boots fell apart
  • Horses hooves rotted
  • By the time they reached the mountains the horses
    were dead.
  • All the soldiers had left were their guns
  • The battle of Boyaca
  • Surprised the Spanish troops and won easily
  • Marched on to Bogatá without resistance

50
  • Bolívar returns to Angostura
  • Joins forces with Páez
  • The Battle of Carababo
  • Surprised the royalists and ended most Spanish
    resistance
  • June 28, 1821 Bolívar marches into Caracas again
  • Independence had finally been won

51
Bolívars Dream
  • Bolívar wanted South America to be united like
    the United States
  • Gran Colombias constitution written in 1821
  • Bolívar becomes the first president
  • Lima was next
  • Quito was along the way
  • 1821 Bolívar sent Sucre to Guayaquil to gather an
    army
  • 1822 the Spanish are defeated in Quito
  • Ecuador had been liberated and Peru was left
  • Someone was already there

52
San Martin
  • San Martin and Bolívar met up in July of 1822
  • Neither one of them were willing to give up power
  • San Martin went to Chile
  • Bolívar went to Lima, Peru
  • The Peruvians didnt trust him
  • They didnt want to be part of Gran Colombia
  • Asks Sucre to lead the army of liberation
  • Sucre met and defeated the Spanish Army
  • Peru was freed from Spanish rule
  • Sucre frees upper Peru who wanted to become
    independent
  • They became Bolivia in honor of Bolívar
  • Sucre Became the first president

53
The End of Bolívars Dream
  • Bolívar had liberated most of South America
  • Things turned against him
  • Returned to Lima
  • The Peruvians were plotting against him
  • They wanted to become independent
  • Conflicts arose in Gran Columbia
  • Bolívar had tuberculosis
  • Bolívar was a better general than president
  • His dream had failed
  • Sucre had been killed by political rivals
  • He died in December 1830

54
Quiz 5
  • Who was the 1st person that tried to gain
    independence for South America
  • Who was the most successful liberator in South
    America
  • A person who works to free others is called a
    ______
  • A person who meets in secret to organize a
    rebellion is called a _____
  • Who was Bolivars 1 General and Friend
  1. Miranda
  2. Simon Bolívar
  3. Liberator
  4. Conspirator
  5. Sucre

55
Revolution in the South
  • Viceroy
  • Santiago de Liniers
  • La Plata
  • Jose de San Martin

56
Trouble in Buenos Aires
  • One morning in 1806
  • 10 large British warships anchored in the bay
  • The people waited to see what the viceroy would
    do
  • Viceroy- a rule of a colony or territory
  • Packed up his bags and fled
  • British defeated the Spanish army easily
  • Stole all of the money from the treasury and sent
    it back to Great Britain
  • The people organized a militia to resist the
    invasion
  • Led by Santiago de Liniers
  • Commander of the Spanish fleet that was away
    during the invasion

57
The Militia
  • Made up mostly of Creoles
  • 8000 1000 Spanish from Montevideo
  • Drove off the British and their fleet
  • The Cabildo refused to let the old viceroy back
  • Santiago de Liniers was elected as the new
    Viceroy
  • Revolutionary Act
  • Great Britain sends a larger fleet
  • 12000 men were defeated
  • Everyone helped in the defeat
  • Why do we need the Spanish Government?
  • Santiago de Liniers is appointed as the temporary
    viceroy
  • Allowed British ships to come in and trade
  • Replacement came and began to enforce the old
    trade rules
  • People began to make less money

58
Independence in La Plata
  • Joseph Bonaparte
  • The people of Buenos Aires were unhappy
  • Mariano Moreno becomes the leader of the cabildo
  • Convinces the city council to exile the viceroy
  • Wanted La Plata to be independent
  • Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, and Bolivia
  • The people knew they could run their own affairs
  • Died in 1811
  • People in La Plata refused to accept the rule of
    Buenos Aires
  • Upper Peru was still under Spanish rule

59
Jose de San Martin Returns
  • Born in La Platareturned to Spain at 6
  • Officer in the Spanish Navy that fought in many
    wars
  • 1811 Retired and met with Miranda in London
  • 1812 returned to La Plata
  • The leaders in Buenos Aires wanted to go through
    Upper Peru to get to Lima
  • Martin said that it would be easier to liberate
    Chile First and then attack Lima by sea.

60
Independence come to Chile
  • San Martin was a tricky man
  • Pretended to be sick as an excuse to be governor
    in the province of Cuyo
  • On the border of Chile
  • Spent two getting troops ready
  • Sent spies to Chile to find out where the Spanish
    camps were, how many soldiers, to spread rumors,
    and try to gain support
  • Invited the Pehuenche Indians to a meeting
  • Gave them gifts and asked for permission to cross
    their territory into Chile
  • He would cross the Andes over the highest pass
    and attack from the east

61
Attack
  • January 18 1817
  • 4000 soldiers, 1000 men, 10600 Mules, 1600
    horses, 700 cattle
  • One of the greatest military accomplishments in
    history
  • Crossed the Andes in the shadow of Mt. Aconcagua
  • 4300 mules, 511 horses
  • Had enough supplies to press the attack
  • The Spanish leaders knew that the attack was
    coming
  • The didnt know where though
  • Divided their armies to cover different routes
  • Surprise!
  • Chacabuco
  • 600 men and supplies captured
  • Easy road to Santiago
  • Chile Declares independence on February 12, 1818

62
Failure in Peru
  • Peru was where Spain had its strongest forces
  • 4000 vs 23000
  • San Martin Hoped the Peruvians would rise up and
    revolt
  • Peru declares independence July 28, 1821
  • Bolívar and San Martin Get together
  • San Martin returns to Lima disappointed
  • Resigns and returns to Chile
  • Bolívar completes Perus independence
  • Returned home to find his wife dead
  • Took his young daughter back to Europe
  • Dies in 1850
  • He and Bolívar both hoped to unite all of Spains
    South American provinces neither realized
    achieved dream

63
Quiz 6
  1. Who was the Viceroy that was elected by the
    people?
  2. Who liberated La Plata and Chile?
  3. What 4 countries are in La Plata?
  4. What mountain range did 2 Cross?
  1. Santiago de Leniers
  2. San Martin
  3. Uruguay, Paraguay, Argentina, Bolivia
  4. The Andes or Aconcagua

64
Brazil Finds Another Way
  • João
  • Exports
  • Imports
  • Pedro

65
Brazil Finds Another Way
  • Napoleon had begun to conquer Europe.
  • Marching through Spain tells Portugal to break
    ties with Great Britain
  • Told to close their ports to British ships
  • Take all property from British citizens
  • Arrest all British citizens
  • João didnt like taking orders from Napoleon
  • João was the king of Portugal
  • Closed the ports but did nothing more
  • Napoleon invades Portugal
  • When he reaches Lisbon, João boards a British
    ship and goes to South America

66
The Journey
  • 36 ships
  • All of the royal treasures
  • Jewels, papers, books, paintings and statues
  • 10,000 people
  • Members of the court
  • Terrible voyage
  • Ships filled with fleas, rats, and lice
  • Quarters were cramped and smelly
  • Some of the ships carried 3 times their capacity
  • Sailing took 2 months
  • Storm
  • Some of the ships are separated
  • Kings first stop was Salvador da Bahai
  • The people were surprised

67
In Bahai
  • No paved streets
  • No hotels or places fit for a king
  • The king had to stay in the homes of citizens
  • Carlota Lost her hair
  • Visit by the governor of Bahai
  • Asked him to open Brazils ports to international
    trade
  • João could see that restricting trade was bad for
    the economy
  • He immediately opened the ports
  • Exports increased by 15
  • Exportsgoods that leave a country
  • Imports increased by 50
  • Importsgoods that come into a country

68
Rio becomes an imperial City
  • João travels on to Rio de Janeiro.
  • Made the capital of the Portuguese Empire
  • All Portuguese colonies were ruled from Rio
  • All taxes came to Rio
  • People came to Rio to be near the court and to do
    business
  • Population of Rio doubles in 10 years
  • João ordered that buildings be built to hold the
    treasures that he had brought with him
  • Naval and military academy
  • Medical school
  • Fine arts
  • Primary and Secondary schools
  • Printing presses
  • João encouraged the people to develop industry
    and agriculture

69
Other Changes for Brazil
  • Government offices were located in Rio
  • They became familiar with government structure
  • They found that it was easier to get the
    government to listen to them and hear what they
    needed
  • They were also under close observation
  • Many people in Joãos court thought that this was
    a temporary situation
  • Thought they would return as soon as Europe as
    soon as Napoleon was gone
  • Napoleon withdraws in 1808
  • João loved Rio and had no intentions of leaving
  • 1815 Napoleon suffers defeat at _______
  • João continued to rule from Rio

70
Brazil becomes an empire
  • João could have stayed in Rio forever
  • Portugal was undergoing a revolution
  • Wanted to write a new constitution and limit the
    power of the monarch
  • Demanded the return of João
  • João takes his court and returns leaving Pedro to
    rule in his place
  • Meanwhile the Brazilians were well aware of the
    other revolutions taking place in Spanish America
  • Some of the leaders wanted to make Brazil free
  • João knew this and told his son If Brazil
    demands independence, proclaim it yourself, and
    put the crown on your own head.
  • Portugals Revolutionary leaders worried that
    Pedro might make Brazil independent and wanted
    him to return as well
  • Pedro tore the Portuguese flag off of his uniform
    and declared Independence or Death!
  • Some Portuguese tried to defend Brazil for
    Portugal and they were quickly defeated
  • Brazil was independent in a nearly bloodless
    revolution.

71
Quiz 7
  1. Who was the king of Portugal that traveled to
    Brazil
  2. Who declared Brazils independence
  3. Goods made in a country and sent to other
    countries are called _____
  4. Goods made in other countries and are brought
    into a country are called _______
  5. How many people died in Brazils revolution?
    (tell me what you think)
  1. João
  2. Pedro
  3. Exports
  4. Imports
  5. Very few it was a nearly bloodless revolution

72
Mexico after independence
  • Caudillo
  • Antonio Lòpez de Santa Anna
  • Benito Juárez
  • Cinco de Mayo
  • Pancho Villa
  • Emiliano Zapata

73
Mexico after independence
  • Independence didnt solve all of the problems
    facing the people in Latin America
  • It was also easier to achieve than stability
  • The countries had trouble establishing stable,
    trustworthy governments to replace the Spanish
    governments
  • Many of the countries had strongmen in power
    called caudillos
  • Caudillo-a military dictator in Latin American
    countries
  • They would fight among themselves until a clear
    victor emerged
  • Each Caudillo would rule until another caudillo
    replaced him.
  • Class issues also persisted
  • The Creoles refused to treat the Mestizos and
    Indians as equals

74
Mexicos Violent History
  • Iturbide
  • Became the emperor of Mexico and spent all of
    Mexicos money
  • Overthrown
  • Told if he ever returned he would be shot
  • 1824 he returns
  • The Creoles take over the government
  • The Spanish were gone but the class system still
    existed
  • The Indians and Mestizos felt like the revolution
    was only half complete
  • They wanted equality

75
General Santa Anna
  • The Creoles were vulnerable to attacks by
    Caudillos
  • One of the most famous was General Santa Anna
  • President and ruler of Mexico 11 different times
    in 30 years.
  • Santa Anna was a proud man
  • Statues of himself
  • your most serene highness.
  • Dishonest and unprincipled
  • American settlers in Texas demanded independence
    in 1836
  • Remember the Alamo
  • At war with the United States
  • Mexican-Indian War 1846-2848
  • Lost California, New Mexico and Arizona
  • Weakens Santa Anna and he is overthrown for the
    last time

76
Benito Juárez
  • Indian Lawyer from southeast Mexico
  • Very honest, and had sympathy for the poor
  • Strong belief in democracy and freedom of speech
  • Helped to create Mexicos constitution of 1857
  • Became President
  • Began to work toward reform
  • Forced to leave, returns later
  • Mexico is in serious financial difficulties
  • Mexico stopped paying their debts in 1862 to
    France, Great Britain, and Spain
  • France and Britain left
  • Napoleon III ordered his troops to conquer Mexico

77
Cinco de mayo
  • French Troops marched onto Mexico City.
  • May 5 1862 a small Mexican force won a glorious
    victory over the much larger French Army near the
    city of Puebla
  • One of Mexicos festive holidays
  • France still occupied Mexico City
  • Juarez fled to the north
  • Napoleon III left Maximilian as the emperor of
    Mexico for three years
  • Pulled the troops out
  • Maximilian is captured, convicted of treason and
    executed
  • Constitutional government is restored
  • Juárez is restored as president

78
  • Juárez worked hard to rebuild the country
  • Built schools and roads
  • Did what he could for the poor
  • Juárez is remembered as a great lawmaker and
    patriot and as the man who saved Mexicos
    independence
  • Porfirio Diaz 1876-1911
  • Modernized Mexico
  • Foreigners and wealthy Mexicans benefited from
    it.
  • Indians sank back into poverty
  • In the 1910s more revolutions swept through
    Mexico
  • Revolutionaries wanted to complete the revolution
  • Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata

79
Pancho Villa
  • Violent and Brave
  • Helped to topple Diaz from power
  • Lost faith in the new government
  • Believed that it betrayed the cause of the poor
  • Became an outlaw and waged war on the new
    government
  • Villas success is attributed to his amazing
    knowledge of the land and his use of guerilla
    tactics
  • He and his men would stage lightning raids and
    disappear into the hills
  • Staged a raid across the border and killed 16
    Americans
  • Woodrow Wilson sent out a search expedition
  • Villa was able to disappear into the night

80
Emiliano Zapata
  • Guerilla leader from the South of Mexico
  • Mestizo that joined the revolution against Diaz
  • Gave land from the rich and gave it to the poor
    indians
  • Zapata was an amazing guerilla leader
  • Fought for the revolution and then fought against
    it when it didnt do what it was suppose to do
  • Supported by Pancho Villa
  • Both of them agreed to fight together until their
    plan was established
  • They were successful because the fought for the
    causes of the poor
  • Land freedom and justice
  • Zapata was tricked into a meeting with enemies
  • Ambushed and killed

81
Toward Equality
  • 1920 a new government established law and order
  • 2 million Mexicans died in fighting
  • Deadliest revolution in the Americas
  • Convinced Pancho Villa to retire
  • His enemies shot him to death
  • Mexico settled down in the middle of the 20th
    century
  • Most Latin American Countries continue to
    experience the cycle of caudillos, revolution,
    civil war, and violence

82
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