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What Am I doing here?

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What Am I doing here? Chapter 1 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: What Am I doing here?


1
What Am I doing here?
  • Chapter 1

2
1.1 Lifes Levels of Organization
3
Invitation to Biology
  • 1.1 Lifes Levels of Organization
  • 1.2 Overview of Lifes Unity
  • 1.3 Why So Many Species
  • 1.4 Evolutionary View of Diversity
  • 1.5 Biological Inquiry
  • 1.6 Experimental Tests
  • 1.7 Limits of Science

4
Levels Of Organization
  • Atom
  • Molecule
  • Cells
  • Tissues
  • Organs
  • Organ Systems
  • Population (organism)
  • Community
  • Ecosystem
  • Bioshpere

Are all Biotic (alive) Are Abiotic (nonliving)
5
Levels Of Organization
Organism
Individual living thing
Bison
Tissues, organs, and organ systems
Tissue Groups of Cells
Nervous system
Brain
Nervous tissue
Smallest functional unit of life
Cells
Nerve cell
Groups of atoms smallest unit of most
chemical compounds
Molecules
DNA
Water
6
Levels of Organization
Biosphere
The part of Earth that contains all ecosystems
Biosphere
Ecosystem
Community and its nonliving surroundings
Hawk, snake, bison, prairie dog, grass, stream,
rocks, air
Community
Populations that live together in a defined area
Hawk, snake, bison, prairie dog, grass
Population
Group of organisms of one type that live in the
same area
Bison herd
7
1.2 Overview of Lifes Unity
  • A. Characteristics of Living Things
  • 1. Made Up of Cells
  • 2. Reproduction
  • 3. Based on a Genetic Code
  • 4. Growth and Development
  • Need for Materials and Energy
  • metabolism
  • 6. Response to the Environment
  • 7. Maintaining Internal Balance
  • 8. Evolution

8
1.2 Overview of Lifes Unity
Section 1-3
Characteristic
Examples
Living things are made up of units called cells.
Many microorganisms consist of only a single
cell. Animals and trees are multicellular.
Living things reproduce.
Maple trees reproduce sexually. A hydra can
reproduce asexually by budding.
Living things are based on a universal genetic
code.
Flies produce flies. Dogs produce dogs. Seeds
from maple trees produce maple trees.
Living things grow and develop.
Flies begin life as eggs, then become maggots,
and then become adult flies.
Living things obtain and use materials and energy.
Plants obtain their energy from sunlight.
Animals obtain their energy from the food they
eat.
Leaves and stems of plants grow toward light.
Living things respond to their environment.
Despite changes in the temperature of the
environment, a robin maintains a constant body
temperature.
Living things maintain a stable internal
environment.
Taken as a group, living things change over time.
Plants that live in the desert survive because
they have become adapted to the conditions of the
desert.
9
Upcoming
  • Today 1/24
  • Review from Monday
  • Viruses What's the problem?
  • Chapter 1 Tie-in
  • Chapter 16 Tie-in
  • Next Monday 1/29
  • Chapters 1 and 16
  • Notice the relationship between 1.5 and 16.3

10
1.2 Overview of Lifes Unity
  • A. Characteristics of Living Things
  • 1. Made Up of Cells
  • 2. Reproduction
  • 3. Based on a Genetic Code
  • 4. Growth and Development
  • Need for Materials and Energy
  • metabolism
  • 6. Response to the Environment
  • 7. Maintaining Internal Balance
  • 8. Evolution

11
5. The Need for Materials and Energy
  • Each normal living cell has ways to obtain and
    convert energy from its surroundings
  • Re your metabolism is more then eating!!!! but
  • Producers can synthesize their own food from
    simple raw materials.
  • (autotrophs)
  • Green Plants, Algae
  • Consumers Cannot synthesize their own food
  • (Heterotrophs)
  • Herbivores, Carnivores, Omnivores, DECOMPOSERS

12
Materials and Energy 10 Rule
Energy Input
  • Producers
  • Making their own food

Nutrient Cycles
Consumers Decomposers
Energy output
13
6. Response to the Environment
  • Receptors and the stimuli they receive allow
    controlled responses to be made
  • heat and cold,
  • harmful substances,
  • Varying food supplies.
  • Homeostasis the conditions of the internal
    environment are maintained within tolerable
    limits.
  • Increased sugar causes insulin release, which
    stimulates cells to take up sugar.
  • Decreased blood sugar causes another hormone to
    call on stored sugar reserves.

14
Virus discussion ????
15
1.3 Why So Many Species
  • What do you call this?

16
Buzzards???
  • Texas Buzzard

Northern NY Buzzard
17
1.3 Why So Many Species
  • Need to Develop Classification Schemes
  • Based on ????
  • All organisms are made FROM similar materials and
    function similarly
  • Preview of Chapters 19-24

18
Taxonomy
  • The branch of Biology that deals with the
    classification and naming of living things.

19
Early Systems of Classification
  • Two Kingdom System- Plants and Animals
  • Discovery of the microscope!!!!
  • Three Kingdom System- Plant, Animal, Protist
  • Four Kingdom System- Plant,Animal,Protist,Monera
  • Now have a FIVE kingdom System
  • Wait and a three Domain System

20
Three Major Domains What is the common theme?
  1. Archaea (bacteria)most ancient bacteria

21
Three Domains
  • Three major Domains
  • Archaea (bacteria)most ancient bacteria
  • Extremophyles Halophiles, Methanogens
  • Bacteria (Eubacteria) True bacteria
  • Autotrophic, bacteria of Decay
  • Eukaryotes Having a nucleus
  • Protists, Plants, Fungi, Animals

22
5 Major Kingdoms
  • 1. Monera
  • 2. Protista
  • 3. Fungi
  • 4. Plant
  • 5. Animal

23
Prokaryote vs. Eukaryote
  • Eukaryote
  • Prokaryote
  1. Ex. Bacteria
  2. Single celled
  3. No membrane Organelles
  4. DNA in cytoplasm
  1. Ex. Amoeba, hydra, worm, human
  2. Single and multicelled organisms
  3. Has membrane organelles
  4. DNA in Nucleus

24
The Best way to remember the 5 kingdoms?
  • ?

25
Broadest to most specific
Coral snake
Abert squirrel
Sea star
Grizzly bear
Black bear
Giant panda
Red fox
KINGDOM Animalia
PHYLUM Chordata
CLASS Mammalia
ORDER Carnivora
FAMILY Ursidae
GENUS Ursus
SPECIES Ursus arctos
Alaskan brown bear (Ursus arctos), Polar bear
(Ursus maritimus), American black bear (Ursus
americanus)
26
Adaptations (16.4)
  • An inherited trait or modification that improves
    the chance of Survival and reproduction of an
    organism in a given environment

27
What makes them similar?
Who am I related to?
28
What makes them similar?

Adaptations
  • What is the same or similar????
  • Comparative Anatomy (Homologous structures)
  • Comparative Biochemistry
  • DNA, RNA
  • Similar genes
  • ENZYMES,
  • hormones
  • Comparative Embryology
  • Comparative Cytology

29
Adaptations (16.4)
  • Defined
  • Short term adaptations plant stunted growth on a
    windy day.
  • Not passed on
  • Long term Adaptation inheritable and improves
  • odds of surviving
  • Due to Genetic Mutations

30
Long term Adaptations (16.4)
  • Examples
  • Salt tolerant Tomatoes in South America
  • Local species are Not Tolerant
  • Polar Bear adaptations
  • NOT in the Desert
  • The environment in which a trait evolved may be
    different from the prevailing environment.
  • Peppered Moth
  • Llamas, high altitudes due to hemoglobin
    structure
  • Camels have same capability yet live-in low
    altitudes.

31
1.4 Evolutionary View of Diversity
  • What causes variations within a population?
  • A Mutationsinherited changes in the DNA
    sequence
  • Many mutations are harmful
  • If the result is positive it has Adaptive
    value/trait
  • Traits are variations in of a form
  • Evolution heritable change in a line of descent

32
1.4 Evolutionary View of Diversity (links to
Chapter 16.3)
  • Evolution heritable change in a line of descent
  • Charles Darwin
  • Natural Selection When individuals differ in
    their ability to survive and reproduce, the
    traits that help them do so and become more
    common in that population
  • Peppered moth
  • How is this beneficial?

33
How is this beneficial?
  • The greater the variation within a population the
    greater the stability
  • More likely of its survival
  • Antibiotic Resistance??
  • Insecticide Resistance???
  • Rodenticide Resistance????

34
To Be Discussed throughout the class
  • 1.5 Biological Inquiry
  • (Chapter 16.4)
  • 1.6 Experimental Tests
  • 1.7 Limits of Science

35
End, for this chapter
36
(No Transcript)
37
Kingdom ? Species (General)
(specific)
  • Kingdom
  • Phylum
  • Class
  • Order
  • Family
  • Genus
  • Species

Alaskan brown bear (Ursus arctos), Polar bear
(Ursus maritimus), American black bear (Ursus
americanus)
King Phillip Came Over For Great spaghetti
38
Nomenclature - is a system used for naming
organisms.
39
  • Carolus Linnaeus,
  • 1758, published published Systema Naturae.
  • developed a two word system for identifying each
    kind of organism
  • Binomial Nomenclature
  • This marks the beginning of the modern
    classification of plants and animals

40
Binomial Nomenclature
  • Always use Genus Species
  • Genus- first letter is capitalized.
  • Species- all lowercased.
  • 3. Both names are underlined or italicized.
  • Ex Homo sapiens (human)
  • or
  • Homo sapiens (human)

41
Provide the complete taxonomic order for the two
species below?
Modern Man Upright man
Kingdom Animalia Animalia
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species sapiens erectus
Sci. Name Homo sapiens Homo erectus
42
Provide the complete taxonomic order for the two
species below?
Modern Man Upright man
Kingdom Animalia Animalia
Phylum Chordata Chordata
Class Mammalia Mammalia
Order Primates Primates
Family Hominidae Hominidae
Genus Homo Homo
Species sapiens erectus
Sci. Name Homo sapiens Homo erectus
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