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Cycles of Nature: The Carbon Cycle

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Carbon is the building blocks of life (Organic!) CO2 = Carbon Dioxide Living things take in Oxygen and give off CO2 through Aerobic or Cell Respiration. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Cycles of Nature: The Carbon Cycle


1
Cycles of Nature The Carbon Cycle
  • Carbon is the building blocks of life (Organic!)
  • CO2 Carbon Dioxide
  • Living things take in Oxygen and give off CO2
    through Aerobic or Cell Respiration.
  • Plants take in CO2 through photosynthesis and
    produce Oxygen.
  • Organisms contain the most carbon in the Carbon
    cycle.
  • As organisms die and enter the soil, they
    eventually become fuel over millions of years
    (fossil fuels.)
  • Natural Processes of Volcanoes give off CO2

2
How Humans affect the Carbon Cycle
  • Greenhouse Gases
  • Excess CO2 in the atmosphere acts as a trap for
    heat and water vapor.
  • Global Warming
  • Warming of the Earth causes ice caps to melt,
    causing the ocean to change temperature and
    salinity, raising sea levels, changing climate
    weather.
  • Deforestation and Habitat Destruction
  • Without Trees to undergo photosynthesis to
  • convert CO2 to Oxygen, Carbon levels will
  • continue to rise.
  • Removal of trees also harms biodiversity
  • (the amount of different organisms) and
  • habitats for organisms.

3
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4
Cycles of Nature The Water Cycle
  • Evaporation Water taken into the atmosphere
  • Transpiration Plants losing water through
    leaves
  • Precipitation Water that falls from the
    atmosphere (rain, snow, hail, etc)
  • Runoff Water that enters the ocean
  • Groundwater Water that is absorbed into the
    ground
  • Water vapor is also given off by volcanic
    eruptions.
  • The Water Cycle helps cool the Earth preventing
    large changes in Global Temperatures.

5
How Humans affect the Water Cycle
  • Human Use of Water
  • Agriculture
  • Dams and Deforestation
  • Urbanization (Living in Cities)
  • Overuse of Aquifers
  • Saltwater Intrusion
  • Subsidence
  • Clean Water supply
  • 1 billion people (16) do
  • not have any access to clean water.
  • Can cause outbreaks of disease (cholera,
    hepatitis)
  • Acid Rain
  • Hurts plants, animals and buildings

6
Cycles of Nature The Nitrogen Cycle
  • 78 of the air is Nitrogen
  • Plants use nitrogen in their cellular processes
  • Nitrogen is present in our DNA and RNA and in
  • amino acids (proteins).
  • The food chain largely moves Nitrogen around.
  • Bacteria and Lightning takes Nitrogen gas and
    puts into a useable form (called Nitrogen
    Fixation)
  • Bacteria have a mutualisitic relationship with
    plants and live on their roots.

7
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8
How Humans affect the Nitrogen Cycle
  • Humans contribute extra Nitrogen in the cycle due
    to fertilizers and animal waste (hog lagoons)
    that runoff into in the lakes and rivers.
  • Extra Nitrogen in the groundwater can interfere
    with blood/oxygen levels and cause blue-baby
    syndrome.
  • Excess Nitrogen can cause Eutrophication which
    causes aquatic life to die due to the low levels
    of oxygen. (fish kills)
  • High levels of ammonia is also toxic to animals.

9
Concluding Questions about Cycles
  • Name and describe two ways humans affect the
    Carbon Cycle?
  • How do decomposers affect the Nitrogen Cycle?
  • How does excessive use of fertilizers affect the
    Nitrogen Cycle?
  • How do humans affect the Water Cycle?

10
Ecological Succession
  • How do ecosystems change over time?

11
Define Ecological Succession
12
How does Succession occur
13
Types of Ecological Succession
14
How does Primary Successon Occur
15
Results of Primary Succession
16
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17
Can a natural disaster cause succession? YES
18
Can a natural disaster cause succession?
  • Yes? called SECONDARY SUCCESSION
  • Re growth of a community after a natural disaster
    (flood, fire, hurricane, or the clearing away of
    land, etc.) has happened
  • Main difference between secondary and primary
    succession is that the SOIL is already present
    and does not have to be created again

19
Secondary Succession
20
Secondary Succession
  • Soil is enriched by dead plant and animal life
    that is there
  • Annual plants, grasses, some animal life? PIONEER
    SPECIES
  • Taller grasses, shrubs, soft and hardwood trees
    more complex animal life? INTERMEDIATE SPECIES
  • Mature hardwood trees,plant life with diverse
    animal life? CLIMAX COMMUNITY
  • Re-growth happens faster due to the soil being
    present.

21
Comparing Primary and Secondary Succession
  • Primary
  • Secondary
  • Breakdown of rock must occur in order to form
    soil
  • Occurs on barren or newly formed land
  • Takes a longer to reach a climax community
  • Soil is already present
  • Occurs after a natural disaster or clearing away
    of already present land
  • Takes a shorter time to establish a climax
    community

22
Succession in Water
23
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24
Water Succession
  • Occurs when lakes or ponds begin to change over
    time to land areas
  • Over many years erosion of the land pulls
    sediment and soil to the bottom of the pond or
    lakes floor or death of organisms in the water
    system may occur.
  • Animals begin to lose resources as the water
    system gets filled up with sediment, soil, and
    decaying animals. They may begin to die. New
    types of plant life begin to emerge while others
    die. Animals that can survive and live in the new
    area now inhabit that area.
  • Over time plant and animal life in the community
    changes in the land area and a new climax
    community is established.
  • Takes many years to happen as well

25
Answer the following Summary Questions
  • How long does succession take?
  • Two types of ecological succession are
  • First species to develop in succession are
  • Primary succession occurs on
  • Secondary succession occurs on
  • Water succession occurs when

26
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